WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 7,  2010
Print ISSN: 1109-9518
E-ISSN: 2224-2902








Issue 1, Volume 7, January 2010

Title of the Paper: Sensory Substitution for Visually Disabled People: Computer Solutions


Authors: Antonio Francisco Rodriguez-Hernandez, Carlos Merino, Oscar Casanova, Cristian Modrono, Miguel Angel Torres, Raquel Montserrat, Gorka Navarrete, Enrique Burunat, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Mora

Abstract: Sensory substitution can be defined as a technical-scientific discipline which aims to provide sensory disabled people with information they cannot acquire from the disabled sense through their intact senses. We present here our team’s work in this R+D line for providing blind and severe visually impaired people with real time spatial and text environmental information through sounds. The objective is to model the real environment as a virtual space where the object's surface appears as if covered by small sound sources, which emit very locatable sounds in a continuous and near simultaneous way. It is based on the hypothesis that the brain, when provided with this highly rich spatial information, will generate a kind of visual-like perception of the surrounding world. In this paper we describe our approach to this field and the main results obtained, which have practical consequences in the field of sensory rehabilitation as well as on the theory of perception.

Keywords: Sensory substitution, Blindness, Sonification, HRTF, Computer vision, Brain plasticity

Title of the Paper: An Experimental Comparing Analysis Research on the Nano-Vectors for Drug Delivery and for Gene Therapy


Authors: Tang Shao-Pu

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore the application of nanotechnology to prepare optimal vectors for drug delivery and for gene therapy. By reviewing relative literature, we found out that nano vectors can be divided into four types: (1) organic high molecular, (2) inorganic mineral clay moutmorillonite, (3) ultrasound, and (4) nanoparticulates. First we review various types of drug delivery systems as vectors and then to compare the differences between the nanovecotrs with other vectors. Finally an experimental comparing analysis is conducted. The findings show that applying nanotechnology will provide preparing nano vectors for both drug delivery and gene therapy another promising implication.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanovectors, Biomolecular, Drug delivery, Gene therapy

Title of the Paper: Response of a Fractional Oscillator to Multiplicative Trichotomous Noise


Authors: Erkki Soika, Romi Mankin

Abstract: We explore the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurring in a fractional oscillator subjected to an external periodic force. The influence of fluctuations of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the oscillator is modeled as a multiplicative three-level Markovian noise. Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the response to an external periodic field are found. It is shown that there exists a critical memory exponent (a fractional exponent) which marks a dynamical transition in the behavior of the system. Particularly, it is demonstrated that the spectral amplification of the output signal exhibits a resonance-like nonmonotonic dependence on noise parameters. Influence of the memory exponent on friction-induced reentrant transitions between different resonance regimes of the oscillator is also discussed.

Keywords: Stochastic oscillator, fractional oscillator, stochastic resonance, trichotomous noise, hypersensitive response, viscoelastic friction

Issue 2, Volume 7, April 2010

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Analysis of Some Models of Tumour Growth and Simulations


Authors: Akisato Kubo

Abstract: Our main interest is to characterize mathematical models of tumour growth by clarifying the equivalence and difference between them mathematically . We first discuss the solvability and the asymptotic profile of the solution to some parabolic ODE systems described tumour angiogenesis([12]-[15], [23], [24] ) . These models are proposed independently, one arises from reinforced random walk, proposed by Othmer and Stevens and another from a number of researches in biology and biomedicine, proposed by Anderson and Chaplain. We show a rigorous relationship between them and give a mathematical framework of the solvability and asymptotic profiles of the solutions of them. Finally we study a mathematical model on generic solid tumour growth at the avascular stage, proposed by Anderson and Chaplain. The focus of their model is on an aspect of tissue invasion. Although it is the different phenomenon from angiogenensis, we can find a consistency in their mathematical structures. Then we will apply the approach used in mathematical models of tumour angiogenesis to it and show the solvability and the asymptotic profile of the solution of it. On the other hand, we show some results of computer simulations of these models with the help of our mathematical analysis.

Keywords: Tumour angiogenesis, Tumour invasion, Time global solution, Collapse, Simulations

Title of the Paper: Chronodisruption Alter Expression of Tumorigenesis Associated Transcripts in Mouse Brain


Authors: Rachel Ben-Shlomo, C. P. Kyriacou

Abstract: Disturbances in "natural" daily light regulation, as frequently happen in modern life, may lead to the disruption of the circadian clock organization. Such chronodisruption had been associated with disturbances in cell cycle homeostasis and with malignancy. The International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) classified "shift work that involves circadian disruption" as possibly carcinogenic. Recently, I showed by microarray analysis that light pulse during the dark phase promptly affects transcription level of genes that directly control cell cycle progression in mouse brain. Here I specifically assess the microarray results with respect to transcripts that are associated with tumorigenesis. The analysis indicated that light promptly affects transcription level of a substantial number of genes that are associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, as well as transcripts that control cell cycle progression. A considerable assembly of affected transcripts promotes cell proliferation. It includes tumor suppressors, oncogenes and genes that are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. The results suggest an association between light signal during the dark phase, obstruction of the cell cycle homeostasis and tumorigenesis.

Keywords: Chronodisruption, Circadian rhythm, Light entrainment, Cell cycle homeostasis, Tumorigenesis, microarray

Title of the Paper: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Enhance Anti Tubercular Activity of Chalcones


Authors: P. M. Sivakumar, Vanaja Kumar, S. Prabu Seenivasan, J. Mohanapriya, Mukesh Doble

Abstract: Twenty three chalcones are synthesized and evaluated for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv . Ortho chloro substitutions at A and B-ring favor activity. Compound 12 with chloro and hydroxyl substitution exhibits 98% reduction in relative light units at a concentration of 100μg/ml. Methylsulfonyl chalcones also exhibit very good activity. The requirements for the anti-infective activity are explored with 2D, 3D and group based QSAR studies. The 2D technique indicates the importance of volume, refractivity and molecular weight of the compounds on the activity. The 3DQSAR indicates less bulky (at R5) and more hydrophilic substituent groups (at R3) can improve the Antitubercular activity. The GQSAR technique indicates that hydrophilic groups in R3 or R5 positions can enhance activity. The oral bioavailability of all the molecules are between 30-70%.Compound 12 is mildly acidic, soluble in water,stable at pH<2 and does not violate the Lipinski’s rule of 5. Hence it appears to be a strong drug candidate.

Keywords: QSAR, chalcones, antimycobacterial activity, anti-infective, hydrophilic groups, refractivity

Title of the Paper: ECG Signal Enhancement Using Wavelet Transform


Authors: Abdel-Rahman Al-Qawasmi, Khaled Daqrouq

Abstract: ECG is an important tool for the primary diagnosis of heart disease; it shows the electrophysiology of the heart and the ischemic changes that may occur like the myocardial infarction, conduction defects, and arrhythmia. The ECG signal must be clearly represented and filtered to remove all noise and artifacts from the signal. In this paper a new approach to filter the ECG signal from noise is proposed using Wavelet Transform WT. Different ECG signals are used and the method evaluated using MATLAB’ software. The aim of this paper is to adapt the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to enhance the (ECG) signal. The presented method showed good results comparing to conventional methods particularly in ECG signal case. This method has better performance than Donoho’s discrete wavelet thresholding coefficients and FIR filter.

Keywords: ECG signal, Filtration, Wavelet Transform, noise and artifacts

Issue 3, Volume 7, July 2010

Title of the Paper: Vertebrate MicroRNA Genes and CpG-Islands


Authors: Ka-Lok Ng, Chien-Hung Huang, Ming-Cheng Tsai

Abstract: A portion of five vertebrate species microRNA (miRNA) genes are found to associate with CpGislands. It is calculated that 74 of 462 (16.0%), 37 of 373 (9.9%), 25 of 234 (10.7%), 25 of 149 (16.8%) and 11 of 177 (6.2%) of the miRNA genes are located within 1000 bp of a CpG-island for human, mouse, rat, chicken and frog respectively. A statistical test is proposed to quantify the probability distribution of the relative distance between a miRNA gene and a CpG-island, the results suggested that there could be some spatial association between them. In the human and mouse samples the Fisher’s exact test indicated that some of the promoter-related miRNA genes are CpG-island-associated. These findings suggest that a potential role of these miRNAs related to CpG-island methylation, which deserve further investigation. A web-based interface has been implemented to facilitate data display, in which the vertebrate CpG-associated miRNA genes results are publicly available.

Keywords: MicroRNA, promoter regions, CpG-islands, methylation, gene regulation

Title of the Paper: Survival Patients with Pulmonary Metastases in Testicular Cancer


Authors: Man Milena, Antigona Trofor, Dana Alexandrescu, Ovidiu Balanescu, Ioana Neagoe, Monica Pop, Ruxandra Rajnoveanu

Abstract: Testicular cancer is a rare disease reaching only 1% of all cancer types characteristic to men with ages between 15 and 34 years and has shown an increasing worldwide incidence over the past 30 years. In contrast, the mortality rate has decreased. Hematogen metastases are responsible for the apparition of pulmonary nodules. Determining the pulmonary relapse model, studying prognosis factors for defining risk groups and applying different therapeutic strategies with the evaluation of survival represent the study’s main objectives. We conducted a survey from January 2000 to December 2005 on 17 patients admitted in Cluj-Napoca Oncology Institute. We introduced in the study patients diagnosed with testicular carcinoma and pulmonary metastases, we analyzed risk factor and evolution of the diseases with survival function calculated since cancer diagnosis, and the other calculated since pulmonary metastases. We evaluated the risk factors correlated with survival: the average age ,place of origin, histology tumor markers for our batch: Beta HCG, AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), LDH ,types of pulmonary metastases, the presence of other metastases, the number of metastatic locations, the time span between the apparition of symptoms and diagnosis, the free interval the diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastasis, and value of tumor markers at the time of diagnosis. Based on these prognosis factors, the patients were divided into a good prognosis category (good) and unfavorable (poor) . Because the risk factors usually available are not sufficient to identify the subgroups of patients with an unfavorable prognosis, we tried to evaluate new genetic markers which could prove their prognosis value. We also sought to evaluate the involvement of the hTERT gene in testicular pathology. Patients with metastases will have a different prognosis depending on the relapse model and will require individual strategies selected based on the risk factors by combining available therapeutic modalities. Early diagnosis and treatment of metastasis may lead to an improvement in the survival rate of cancer patients.

Keywords: Prognostic factor, survival, pulmonary metastases hTERT Gene, testicular carcinomas, risk factor

Title of the Paper: IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease


Authors: Terumi Kamisawa, Kensuke Takuma, Naoto Egawa

Abstract: Based on histological and immunohistochemical examination of various organs of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) patients, we have found dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and T lymphocytes, as well as fibrosis in the peripancreatic retroperitoneal tissue, bile duct wall, gallbladder wall, periportal area of the liver, salivary glands, as well as the pancreas. Furthermore, all of the extrapancreatic lesions associated with AIP, such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialadenitis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis, show infiltration of abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. Both the pancreatic and the extrapancreatic lesions of AIP respond well to steroid therapy. Therefore, we proposed the existence of a novel clinicopathological entity, an “IgG4-related sclerosing disease”, and suggested that AIP is a pancreatic lesion of this systemic disease. Some inflammatory pseudotumors may be involved in this disease. In some cases, only 1 or 2 organs are clinically involved, while in others, 3 or 4 organs are affected. The disease occurs predominantly in elderly males, is frequently associated with lymphadenopathy, and responds well to steroid therapy. Serum IgG4 levels and immunostaining with anti-IgG4 antibody are useful in making the diagnosis. The precise pathogenesis and pathophysiology of IgG4-related sclerosing disease remain unclear. Since malignant tumors are frequently suspected on initial presentation, IgG4-related sclerosing disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery.

Keywords: IgG4-related sclerosing disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, IgG4, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis

Title of the Paper: Multiple Functions of the Cholinesterase Inhibiting Polyalkylpyridinium Salts Extracted from the Marine Sponge, Haliclona Sarai


Authors: F. Garaventa, V. Piazza, A. Zovko, T. Turk, E. Chelossi, C. Falugi, M. G. Aluigi, C. Angelini, S. Trombino, L. Gallus, S. Ferrando, A. Albini, L. Paleari, K. Sepcic, M. Faimali

Abstract: The interest on the Mediterranean sponge Haliclona sarai was raised some years ago by the fact that this sponge appears free from parasites and fouling organisms present in its environment. The study of such a feature was at the beginning due to the interest in finding new and efficient anti-fouling substances for applicative purposes. The characteristic was related to the expression of poly-alkylpyridinium salts (poly- APs), a mixture of two of 3-octylpyridinium polymers, including 29 and 99 monomeric units. The main effect of this compound was represented by the strong specific and non-toxic acetylcholinesterase inhibition in vitro. The substance was first tested for its effect on larval development and settling of incrusting organisms, such as Amphibalanus amphitrite. The experiments confirmed the ability of Poly-APs to prevent settlement of sessile organism, by impinging on the AChE activity. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme associated to the cholinergic signal system, but is also involved in cell-to-cell communication driving embryonic development and in the regulation of several cellular features, such as apoptosis and cell movements, and is present in some tumour cells and biopsies. Cytotoxicity tests on immortalized and primary cell lines derived from lung tumour (NSCLC) showed a poly-APS dose-dependent selective reduction of cell viability, statistically significant. The same cells, exposed to the poly-APS salts exhibited a loss in the mitochondrial potential, and positive response to apoptosis assays. What makes the poly-APS salts interesting as anticancer therapy adjuvant is that they, at the concentrations inducing apoptosis in tumour cells, seem to scarcely affect the viability of lymphocytes isolated from healthy patients. In this promising frame, the need emerges for the isolation of synthetic homologs of poly-APS molecules, in order to start a study for the therapeutical application of the drug.

Keywords: Lung Cancer, Acetylcholinesterase, Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, Poly-APS

Title of the Paper: Embracing Laws for Developmental Successions


Authors: Lev V. Beloussov

Abstract: A model permitting to derive each next embryonic shape from a preceded one is suggested. It implies that each embryonic shape is associated with a definite pattern of mechanical stresses having a tendency to be hyperrestored (restored with an overshoot) after any deviation from the initial value. We describe several morphomechanical feedbacks deduced from the model and apply them to gastrulation of amphibian embryos and to other morphogenetic processes, including the main types of Metazoa development. We relate this model to Van der Pol non-linear equations and discuss the role of genetic and epigenetic parameters in modifying hyper-restoration responses.

Keywords: Self-organization, Morphogenesis, Mechanical stresses, Gastrulation, Shape models

Title of the Paper: Antiapoptotic Activities of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Hypoxic Human Trophoblast Depend on Gestational Age


Authors: Dariusz Szukiewicz, Michal Pyzlak, Aleksandra Stangret, Dariusz Bialoszewski, Slawomir Maslinski

Abstract: Susceptibility of the human trophoblast to apoptosis is changing throughout pregnancy. Invasiveness and differentiation of the trophoblastic cells may be severely modulated by hypoxia, well-known apoptosis inducer. From the other hand, local antiapoptotic activities of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) may affect the course of hypoxia-induced programmed cell death. In this study, we examined comparatively (first trimester vs. term pregnancy), whether gestational age as well as LIF- and/or VEGF-dependent changes in functional status of the cultured trophoblast cells influence apoptotic activity in hypoxic conditions. Placental specimens were obtained after abortions in the first trimester (Group I) and after deliveries at term (Group II). The cytotrophoblast cells were isolated using Kliman’s method, based on enzymatic digestion and a Percoll gradient centrifugation. Established cultures within both groups were divided into 3 subgroups: LIF- (10ng/mL), VEGF- (100ng/mL) and LIF+VEGF-treated, cultured under hypoxia (2% O2) for 48 hours. After this period, quantitative determination of apoptosis was performed using ELISA, with cytokeratin-18 as an apoptosis marker. LIF, VEGF and LIF+VEGF reduced intensity hypoxia-related apoptosis. This effect was stronger in the first-trimester trophoblasts. The differences in mean decrease of apoptosis intensity between Group I and II were significant (p<0.05) and amounted to 76.09, 43.72 and 68.45 % (LIF-, VEGF- and LIF+VEGF-treated cultures, respectively). Protective mechanisms induced by LIF- and VEGF within trophoblast cells may be responsible for the relative resistance to hypoxia and consequently apoptosis, especially in the first-trimester of pregnancy.

Keywords: Apoptosis, hypoxia, human trophoblast, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor

Title of the Paper: Immunological Characterization of Late Miscarriage


Authors: Carmen Aurora Bulucea, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Mariana Floricel Paun, Alina Delia Neatu

Abstract: The immunophenotypation of circulating lymphocyte by flow cytometry is a fast and efficient modern quantitative method and has been also used to assess immune status in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by infection or with placental abnormalities or with preeclampsia. Since the literature indicates controversy in the immune etiology of abortion and in the levels of circulating lymphocyte subsets in normal pregnancy, this study aims to extend current knowledge by quantification with flow cytometry sets and subsets of circulating lymphocytes in the second trimester of normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by miscarriage.

Keywords: Circulating lymphocyte, Immunophenotypation, Flow cytometry, Second trimester pregnancy, Pregnancy complicated by miscarriage, Recurrent abortion

Title of the Paper: Pleading for the Routine Introduction in the Investigation of the Late Spontaneous Abortion Etiology of the Exploration of Resistance to Activated C Protein Along With Histopathological Placentary Screening


Authors: Carmen Aurora Bulucea, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Mariana Floricel Paun, Alina Delia Neatu, Adrian Gabriel Neatu

Abstract: This study is an evaluation based on placental screening, of the importance of ascending intrauterine infection and placental vascular pathology. The paper is as well a plea for the routine use of the modern histopathological exam of the products of conception along with the noninvasive screening of chorioamnionitis (by means of serum C-reactive protein measurement) in the evaluation of late abortion (the recurrent one in particular) since the ascending intrauterine infection and placental vasculopathy seem to play an important part in the pathogenesis of this type of miscarriage. The therapeutic measures against this particular type of preterm labor should therefore focus on either bacterial vaginosis (the world most frequent cause of recurrent abortion of infectious origin) or/and thrombophilia even before the standard lab results are available.

Keywords: Placental screening, Ascending intrauterine infection, Recurrent abortion, Vascular pathology of placenta, Late miscarriage

Title of the Paper: ESPVR and the Mechanics of Ventricular Contraction


Authors: Rachad M. Shoucri

Abstract: This study is written in a way to stress the importance of introducing the active force generated by the myocardium in the formalism describing the pressure-volume relation (PVR) in the left ventricle. Various clinical applications of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) are also discussed. Attention is given to the calculation of the ejection fraction (EF) and the myocardial longitudinal axis shortening, a subject that is gaining importance in the study of heart disease and heart failure.

Keywords: Pressure-volume relation in the left ventricle, end-systolic pressure-volume relation, active force of the myocardium, isovolumic pressure, ejection fraction, myocardial longitudinal axis shortening, cardiac mechanics

Title of the Paper: Nipple Aspirate Fluid in Japanese Women


Authors: Tomoyuki Aruga, Katsumasa Kuroi, Makiko Hirose, Tsunehiro Ohtsuka, Chieko Matsuura, Tamiko Yajima, Joji Utsunomiya

Abstract: Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) is collected in the duct-lobular complex and can be extracted by warmth, massage of the breast, and nipple suction. NAF is available from non-lactating women without an invasive procedure and is expected to be used for early detection and risk evaluation for breast cancer. European and American reports on NAF sampling have been published, but there are no data on Japanese women. In addition, there are few studies on the protein peptide composition of NAF, and many unsolved problems regarding the stability and characteristics of protein peptide composition remain. We tried sampling NAF in 128 Japanese women and analyzed the sampling rate along with characteristics of the protein composition using surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

Keywords: Nipple aspirate fluid, Breast cancer, Japanese, Proteomic analysis, SELDI-TOF-MS

Title of the Paper: Critical Engagement: Reflections on the Ad Hominem Fallacy and on Critical Thinking Education


Authors: Michael Michael

Abstract: A number of critics have recently challenged the traditional view that ad hominem arguments are always fallacious. They argue that we often find ourselves in circumstances of limited time, expertise, and informational resources, and in such it is rational to invoke a proposer’s personal characteristics in deciding what to make of their argument. I argue that, as a formal challenge to the traditional view, this misses the point. Arguments against the person are necessarily fallacious not in the context of one deciding what to believe in limited circumstances, but in the context of a debate whose terms are set by the intentions of the participants. Nevertheless, the critics still have a point from a practical point of view. Since there are many contexts in which advancing an ad hominem argument may be legitimate, excessive focus on those where it is not can be misleading and confusing. This is a problem for critical thinking education and calls for a clarification of its aims.

Keywords: Ad Hominem, Argument, Critical Thinking, Debate, Fallacy, Rationality

Title of the Paper: Prevalence and Clinical Observations of Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases in Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City


Authors: Shahla Karim Al Alaf, Deman Ibrahim Omer

Abstract: Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases (GTDs) are uncommon chorionic tumor of the placenta. It includes a spectrum of diseases from the usually benign hydatidiform mole to the highly malignant choriocarcinoma. A descriptive observational study carried out on 40 cases with GTDs to determine the rate, epidemiological correlates, clinical behavior, and common complications of the disease. The study done on pregnant women admitted to Maternity teaching hospital, Erbil city, North of Iraq, Kurdistan region during the period from 1st October 2008 to the 1st of April 2009. Demographic data were collected from each patient, history of prior molar pregnancy, socioeconomic state, presenting signs and symptoms, complete examination and investigation done for all of them, elevated level of Human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone was used to diagnose the condition also ultrasonography with a special findings to GTDs done for every patient. The incidence of GTD was 1 in every 318 pregnant women. The highest incidence was in 40 years old women and more. The mean age of the study sample was 27.97±8.66 years, sixty two percent of cases were in the age group of 20-39 years, the mean gestational age was 11± 3.7 weeks, 65% of cases were presented in the first trimester, while 35% of cases were in second trimester. 82.5% of cases were complete mole, 10% were partial mole, and 7.5% were gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. Majority of cases (87.5%) presented with vaginal bleeding, pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia was the presentation in 15%of cases, 67.5% had abdominal cramps, 50% presented with signs od dehydration due to hyperemesis gravidarum, 25% had hyperthyroidism, there was a statistically significant association between hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Theca lutein cysts presented in 25% of the cases. The uterine fundal level was larger than the gestational age in 45% of the cases. There was a statistically significant association between the Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia and the presence of theca lutein cysts and history of molar pregnancy in the antecedent pregnancy but there was no significant association between the gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and the age groups. Ultrasound was diagnostic in 38 cases (95%), while histopathological examination was diagnostic in 100% of the cases. Complications of the GTD; such as infections, trophoblasic embolism, and uterine perforation were not found in the current study. The incidence of GTDs in Maternity teaching hospital (1 in 318) is comparable to the incidence in some Middle East and Far Eastern countries.

Keywords: Gestational trophoblastic diseases, Hydatidiform mole, Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, Invasive mole, Choriocarcinoma

Title of the Paper: Web3D – A Tool for Modern Education in Biology


Authors: Tomaz Amon

Abstract: Web3D or virtual reality on the web used interactive, immersive three-dimensional worlds, not to be mistaken with video clips. We write here about our experiences and suggestions on this attractive technique, which we use and develop for more than ten years. Our field of work is natural science e.g. biology.

Keywords: Web3D, web virtual reality, biology, medicine, physics

Title of the Paper: Medical Images Classification for Skin Cancer Diagnosis based on Combined Texture and Fractal Analysis


Authors: Radu Dobrescu, Matei Dobrescu, Stefan Mocanu, Dan Popescu

Abstract: Fractal and texture analysis are computer techniques which can discriminate between the shapes of benign and malignant tumors. The goal of present paper is to describe a method and an algorithm for automatic detection of malignancy of skin lesions which is based on both local fractal features (local fractal dimension) and texture features which derives from the medium co-occurrence matrices (contrast, energy, entropy, homogeneity). The global application was tested on a set of medical images obtained with a dermoscope and a digital camera, all from cases with known diagnostic. The experimental results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Image processing, texture analysis, fractal analysis, box-counting algorithm, co-occurrence matrix, computer aided diagnosis, image classification

Title of the Paper: Vascular Risk Factors in Women with Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2


Authors: Adriana Albu, Daniela Fodor, Cosmina Bondor, Milena Man

Abstract: Background. Diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension are two very frequent diseases. Both of them have important effects on vascular system and their major complications are caused by alterations of vasculature. Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes are frequently associated. Beyond classical risk factors implicated in both diseases, in recent years some novel markers of vascular involvement have been studied, such as intima – media thickness (IMT) and parameters of arterial stiffness. Women seem to have an increased vascular risk associated with diabetes than do men but this is not clean from the current literature. The aim of our study was to determine the consequences of hypertension and of hypertension associated with diabetes on intima media thickness and arterial stiffness in women. Patients and methods. We studied 30 women with hypertension (group 1), 33 with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group 2) and 21 healthy controls (HC), matched for age. We evaluated some classical risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as age, body mass index, smoking, lipid and glucose profile in all patients and controls. We determined IMT of the common carotid artery using an ultrasound device (ALOKA prosound ?10) and parameters of aortic stiffness – pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Aix) in all patients and controls using an oscillometric device, Arteriograph (Tensio Med Ltd., Budapest, Hungary). We also determined with the same device central aortic systolic blood pressure (SBPao) and aortic pulse pressure (PPao). We compared data obtained between the three different groups examined. Results. We found that PWV was increased in group 1 patients compared HC (p<0.05) but those from group 2 had even higher values of PWV compared to HC (p=0.001). IMT was increased in patients from group 1 compared with HC and diabetic patients had a supplementary increase of this parameter compared with hypertensive patients but the values were significantly higher only when compared to controls. From the classical risk factors, BMI and also fasting plasma glucose were significantly higher in diabetic patients. Parameters of arterial stiffness were correlated with age. IMT was correlated with age, fasting plasma glucose, values of brachial systolic, diastolic and mean pressure and with aortic systolic blood pressure. IMT was also correlated with parameters of arterial stiffness, PWV and AIx. Conclusion. Women with hypertension had increased arterial stiffness compared to controls. Those with hypertension and diabetes had more increased arterial stiffness and also increased IMT compared to hypertensive women and to HC. In our patients age was an important determinant of parameters of arterial stiffness. IMT was correlated with age, values of peripheral and central arterial pressure and with parameters of arterial stiffness. Coexistent diabetes and hypertension in women is associated with increased markers of vascular disease that may be a link to the important cardiovascular risk seen in these patients.

Keywords: Vascular risk, arterial stiffness, intima-media thickness, hypertension, diabetes mellitus

Title of the Paper: Microbial Population Age Studing


Authors: J. B. Savkovic-Stevanovic

Abstract: This paper presented population modelling method in treating microbial cells growth in time and cells age.A rigorous description of the features of the of microorganism in biochemical process was derived. It is assumed that two properties need to observed to desribe the state of a cell the mass and cell age. Cells in vivo have various ages, masses and so on, which need to be taken into account. This paper illustrates a complex situation for various birth and death processes. The Hanseula polymorpha DL-1 growing up was investigated. The obtained results illustrates the microbial population dynamic changes. This work is the first report in literature which giving population time age function.

Keywords: Microbial culture, dynamic model, cell mass, cell age, Hanseula Polymorpha, distribution function

Title of the Paper: Nucleotides Recombination States


Authors: J. B. Savkovic-Stevanovic

Abstract: DNA sequencing strands information were defined. The synthesis rates of purine and pyrimidine oxyribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides characterized DNA features. The most important regulator of de novo purine biosynthesis is the intracellular concentration of the phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate-phosphoribosylamine. Mammalian liver is a major site of purine nucleotide synthesis and provides purines in the form of bases or nucleosides to be salvaged and utilized by those tissues incapable of synthesizing purines de novo. In this paper DNA recombination was studied. The information value of the fragment in genome was derived.

Keywords: Recombination, enzyme, nucleotide, DNA features, genomic library, bioinformation

Title of the Paper: BaxΔC Induces Increased Membrane Lipid Order in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria


Authors: Natalia Tsesin, Elai Davicioni, Rivka Cohen-Luria, Ilana Nathan, Abraham H. Parola

Abstract: The interaction of the pro-apoptotic Bax?C with the excimer-forming lipid, 12-(pyrene-1-yl)-dodecanoic acid (PDA) labeled isolated rat liver mitochondria, caused a decrease in PDA excimer-to-monomer fluorescence emission ratio (E/M). This suggested that BaxΔC caused mitochondrial membrane lipid reorganization. These changes were dependent on the Bax?C protein-to-mitochondrial lipid ratio. The changes in the fluorescence emission spectra were not attributed to overall changes in the bulk properties of the mitochondrial suspensions or to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the heme group of cytochrome c and pyrene. These data suggested that BaxΔC increases mitochondrial membrane "microviscosity". Fluorescence anisotropy studies with DPH and TMA-DPH labeled mitochondria independently show reduced rotational dynamics, further supporting this presumed increased membrane "microviscosity". The lifetimes of all probes did not change upon BaxΔC interaction with the mitochondrial membrane, verifying the changes in the dynamics of the probe mobility in the membrane. Another pro-apoptotic protein tBid, a more potent inducer of cytochrome c release, also caused an increase in DPH anisotropy, yet to a lesser extent as compare with equal concentration of Bax?C. The observed increase in DPH anisotropy caused by BaxΔC-membrane interaction was inhibited by the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2?TM. The effects of Bax?C on the mitochondrial membranes were correlated to cytochrome c release. These findings reflect BaxΔC interaction with the mitochondrial membrane, where the binding of Bax?C lowers probe mobility and induces major reorganization of mitochondria membrane lipids, possibly a phase transition associated with non-lamellar bilayer structures.

Keywords: Apoptosis, tBid, Bcl-2?TM, cytochrome c, pyrene excimers, fluorescence anisotropy & lifetime, lipid probes, "microviscosity", lipid pores

Title of the Paper: Mechanical Behavior of Orthodontic TMA Wires


Authors: Camelia Szuhanek, T. Fleser, Florica Glavan

Abstract: Titanium based alloys are recently gaining increased popularity in orthodontic treatment. Unlike the classic materials, these intelligent materials have physical and mechanical characteristics which can be modified via metallurgical factors. Designing and practical achievement of certain cosmetic dentistry works with special advantages regarding the enhanced biocompatibility, superelasticity, the effect of the shape memory, resistance against corrosion and wear, etc., which leads to very favourable functional and aesthetic effects. TMA materials fall into this category. The research program is focused on four different TMA wire to highlight the characteristics of strength, elasticity and hardness.

Keywords: TMA orthodontic wires, mechanical caracteristics, orthodontics, biomechanics

Issue 4, Volume 7, October 2010

Title of the Paper: Design and Pragmatic Studies of Bathroom for Elderly People in India


Authors: M. S. Nagananda, Amit Sengupta, Jayashree Santhosh, Sneh Anand, S. M. K. Rehman, A. M. Khan, Priyarata Rautray, Devidutt Gharai, L. K. Das

Abstract: A very high morbidity and mortality due to fractures as a result of fall is reported world over. Most of the falls are during toileting or bathing, which are quite often cardiovascular syndrome (CVS) and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to an emergency medical condition, are common in vulnerable groups such as elderly or handicapped or pregnant mothers. Most people who find bathroom as a quite retreat, never for a second consider this room as a dangerous place. A recent study shows that one of the single biggest gaps in most of the home safety plans is the bathroom; it is surrounded by water, slippery tiles and hard ceramic surfaces. The conditions of toilet and bathroom need to assess with a systematic design for the comfortable utility as well as to minimize the accidental falls and other mishaps. This paper is based on a pragmatic study on the toilet - bathroom design based on the responses from elderly people with or without disability. Results of the study will help to raise the awareness level among general population, health care professionals and engineers who design the bathroom for the elderly people. The study demonstrates the efficacy of new architectural design approaches with pragmatic studies in reducing the accidents and enhancing the comforts to the elderly people in India while bathing.

Keywords: Growth of elderly population, health issues, bathroom design, bathing accidents

Title of the Paper: The Analysis of PPG Contour in the Assessment of Atherosclerosis for Erectile Dysfunction Subjects


Authors: Y. K. Qawqzeh, M. B. I. Reaz, M. A. M. Ali

Abstract: The risk of cardiovascular diseases may damage the endothelium cells which may cause atherosclerosis. Arterial stiffness can be measured noninvasively by the use of photoplethysmogram (PPG) technique. This research presents the variations of PPG morphology with age. Based on a sample of 65 subjects whom having established erectile dysfunction (ED), the study proposed to assess the variations of PPG contour at two sites of measurements (right and left index finger). The study concluded that PPG timing indices are equal in both right and left hand. Parameters derived from the analysis of PPG contour showed an association with age. The age is found to be an important factor that affecting the contour of PPG signals, which accelerates the disappearance of PPG dicrotic notch and PPG inflection point as well. Arterial compliance found to be decreased with age due to the fall of arterial elasticity. This study approaches the establishment of the usefulness of PPG contour analysis in investigating the changes in the elastic properties of the vascular system with age and the detection of early atherosclerosis. The study approaches the establishment of the differences between PPG’s time indices and PPG’s amplitude indices.

Keywords: PPG, RI, SI, CIMT, Age, Arterial Stiffness, Endothelial Dysfunction, Contour analysis

Title of the Paper: Recent Applications of Analytical Techniques for Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis: A Review


Authors: Rudy Bonfilio, Magali Benjamim De Araujo, Herida Regina Nunes Salgado

Abstract: The intension of this paper was to review and discuss some of the current quantitative analytical procedures which are used for quality control of pharmaceutical products. The selected papers were organized according to the analytical technique employed. Several techniques like ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, titrimetry, electroanalytical techniques, chromatographic methods (thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography), capillary electrophoresis and vibrational spectroscopies are the main techniques that have been used for the quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical compounds. In conclusion, although simple techniques such as UV/VIS spectrophotometry and TLC are still extensively employed, HPLC is the most popular instrumental technique used for the analysis of pharmaceuticals. Besides, a review of recent works in the area of pharmaceutical analysis showed a trend in the application of techniques increasingly rapid such as ultra performance liquid chromatography and the use of sensitive and specific detectors as mass spectrometers.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical analysis; pharmaceutical quality control; analytical techniques

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