WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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VVolume 7, 2008
Print ISSN: 1109-2750
E-ISSN: 2224-2872








Issue 1, Volume 7, January 2008

Title of the Paper:  Constraint Satisfaction Problem Using Modified Branch and Bound Algorithm


Authors: Azlinah Mohamed, Marina Yusoff, Itaza Afiani Mohtar, Sofianita Mutalib, Shuzlina Abdul Rahman

Abstract: A constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) involves assigning possible values to a set of variables without defying any constraints. There are various techniques available to solve or give partial solution to CSP. This paper presents a modification of branch and bound algorithm, which is used to solve a constraint satisfaction problem in map colouring problem. There are two constraints involved which are only three colours are allowed to be used and adjacent regions in the map must not be of the same colour. The modified branch and bound algorithm uses back jumping when it encounters a dead-end in the search. Static variable ordering was also applied to aid the searching process. The modified branch and bound algorithm shows a better result in terms of the number of nodes instantiated and the reduced number of backtracking at dead ends. The result illustrated that the modified branch and bound algorithm with the use of variable ordering technique is better if compared to backjumping. Thus, it is concluded that the modified branch and bound algorithm would improve constraint satisfaction problem. 

Keywords: Backjumping, Branch and Bound Algorithm, Constraint Satisfaction Problem, and Static Variable Ordering

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Title of the Paper: An Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Notions in Website Structures Selection: Utilizing Extended TOPSIS Method


Authors: Hamed Qahri Saremi, Gholam Ali Montazer

Abstract: Giving more effectiveness to e-commerce sites increases customer satisfaction as visitors can navigate the website easier and find their targets in less time and cost. With the development of web content, the structure of a website becomes more complex and critical to both web designers and users in a way that has made the prioritizing of various options of website structure a pivotal decision making problem incorporating large uncertainty in judgment. Finding a response to such a need, TOPSIS, a conventional MADM technique, had been a mere remedy for years, solving the problems with a more or less adequate accuracy. In an aspiring step toward an improvement in this method, Fuzzy TOPSIS method, a combination of ordinary TOPSIS method and Fuzzy theory, could heal some of shortcomings of uncertainties and ordinary TOPSIS in decision making. However there are still lots of occasions in which decision making is faced with lots of shadowiness making the Fuzzy TOPSIS method not sufficiently receptive. As a sensible response to this drawback, in this paper, we utilize a brand-new extension to TOPSIS and Fuzzy TOPSIS methods, based on type-2 fuzzy notions with ability to cope with type-2 fuzzy environment and data incorporating much more fuzziness in decision making. We apply this method to a vague case of the real world and discuss its results against the other previously-developed TOPSIS methods. 

Keywords: Decision Making; Website Structure; TOPSIS; Type-2 Fuzzy Sets; Interval Valued Fuzzy Sets; MADM; Fuzzy TOPSIS; IVF-TOPSIS

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Title of the Paper: A Novel Robust Watermarking Technique Using IntDCT Based AC Prediction


Authors: Kuo-Ming Hung

Abstract: Because of the blocking artifacts resulted from 8x8 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) , most watermarking technologies have been proposed using DCT whose image quality was not very good. In 1990, Gonzales et al. described a technique which predicts a few low frequency AC coefficients. The AC predictor uses the dequantized DC values of a 3x3 neighborhood of 8x8 blocks to predict the AC values in the center block. Wang proposed a data hiding scheme using the AC prediction technology in 2005. But it is unable to be suitable for the image of all types to predict AC coefficients accurately. We propose a new watermarking system by using the technologies of 4x4 integer DCT transform and adaptive AC estimation. We use 4x4 INTDCT transform to reduce blocking artifacts caused from 8x8 DCT transform and improve Imperceptibility and watermark capacity greatly. Moreover, we utilize AC prediction value as error-checking code to enhance robustness of watermark.  

Keywords: Watermark; DCT; IntDCT; AC prediction; H.264

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Title of the Paper: Implementation Feasibility of Convex Recursive Deletion Regions Using Multi-Layer Perceptrons


Authors: Che-Chern Lin

Abstract: A constructive algorithm to implement convex recursive deletion regions via two-layer perceptrons has been presented in a recent study. In the algorithm, the absolute values of the weights become larger and larger when the number of nested layers of a convex recursive deletion region increases. In addition, the absolute values of the weights are determined according to the complexity of the structure of the convex recursive deletion region. More complicated convex recursive deletion regions result in larger values of weights. Besides, the constructive procedure is needed to get the parameters (weights and thresholds) for the neural networks. In this paper, we propose a simple three-layer network structure to implement the convex recursive deletion regions in which all weights of the second and third layers are all 1’s and the thresholds for the nodes in the second layer are pre-determined according to the structures of the convex recursive deletion regions. This paper also provides the activation function for the output node. In brief, all of parameters (weights and activation functions) in the proposed structure are pre-determined and no constructive algorithm is needed for solving the convex recursive deletion region problems. We prove the feasibility of the proposed structure and give an illustrative example to demonstrate how the proposed structure implements the convex recursive deletion regions. Finally, we provide the conceptual diagram of the hardware implementation of the proposed network structure.  

Keywords: Multi-layer perceptrons, nested decision region, convex recursive deletion region, hardware implementation.   

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Title of the Paper: Construction of Virtual Backbone on Growth-Bounded Graph with Variable Transmission Range


Authors: Yanjing Sun, Xiangping Gu, Jiansheng Qian

Abstract: Virtual backbone has been used extensively in various aspects for wireless ad hoc or sensor networks recently. We propose an approximation solution to construct a virtual backbone based on a more generalized and realistic model of polynomial bounded growth. A localized distributed algorithm of MCDS_GBG for computing a Minimum Connected Dominating Sets as backbone in the growth-bounded graph is presented. This approach consists of three stages: firstly construct an MIS by network decomposition scheme; secondly compute a minimum dominating set in 2-separated collection with r transmission range and finally use Marking process and ruling k to reduce the virtual backbone with 3r transmission range. The computed Connected Dominating Set guarantees a constant stretch factor on the length of a shortest path and induces a subgraph of constant degree while the nodes only require direct neighborhood information. The efficiency of our approach is confirmed through both theoretical analysis and comparison study

Keywords: Virtual backbone; Growth-bounded graph; Connected dominating sets; Maximal independent sets; Wireless ad hoc sensor network; Network decomposition 

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Issue 2, Volume 7, February 2008

Title of the Paper:  An Algorithm Based on Core Characteristic Extraction of Watermelon Seeds by Automated Separating System


Authors: Yong Sun, Yun Bai, Lihong Gang, Qiangguo Pu, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic values, taking the flat objects, seeds, as the experiment is applied into the auto-distinguishing seeds system software successfully. It fulfills the blank in this area. It shows it is practical for the machine to distinguish the flat objects with the equipment visual. It designs and realizes the new algorithm of the length of orthogonal long and minor axis, the degree of connecting superficial pattern and the area; brings forward the concept of the coverage degree of black region and the way to distinguish different colorful objects with the distribution difference of histogram gradation. The system software has a very bright future. It is meaningful to the distinguishing objects areas. 

Keywords: long and short axis, the degree of connecting surface patterns, the coverage degree of black region, core characteristic extraction, watermelon seeds

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Title of the Paper: Fast Pre-authentication with Minimized Overhead and High Security for WLAN Handoff


Authors: Hung-Yu Chien, Tzu-Hang Hsu, Yuan-Liang Tang

Abstract: User mobility in WLANs becomes more and more popular because of wide deployment of WLANs and numerous applications on it. Some of these applications, for example multimedia applications, require fast handoffs among access points to maintain the quality of service. In order to support multimedia applications for roaming users, IEEE 802.11i defines pre-authentication to reduce the re-authentication delay. The primary drawback of IEEE 802.11i pre-authentication is that the full 802.1x/EAP authentication consumes too much overhead. In this paper, we propose a new fast pre-authentication scheme that greatly improves the efficiency and achieves high security level.

Keywords: Pre-authentication, fast handoff, wireless security, IEEE 802.11i.

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Title of the Paper: Fractional Fourier Transform Based Key Exchange for Optical Asymmetric Key Cryptography


Authors: Aloka Sinha

Abstract: Recently several optical encryption techniques have been proposed for two-dimensional data. These techniques use random phase masks, jigsaw transforms, digital signatures, and linear transforms like the Fourier transforms, the fractional Fourier transform and the Fresnel transform. The strength of these encryption techniques is dependent on the size of the key but is strongly limited by the security linked with the exchange of the secret key. We propose a new technique, based on the Diffie-Hellman protocol, in which the key can be exchanged with high security. The Diffie-Hellman protocol allows two users to exchange a secret key over an insecure channel without any prior secrets. Fractional Fourier transforms have been used for the secure key transfer. Results of computer simulation are presented to verify the proposed idea and analyse the robustness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Optical encryption, Public key encryption, Diffie-Hellman protocol, Fourier Transform, cryptography

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Title of the Paper: Increase The Efficiency of English-Chinese Sentence Alignment: Target Range Restriction and Empirical Selection of Stop Words 


Authors: Wing-Kwong Wong, Hsi-Hsun Yang, Wei-Lung Shen, Sheng-Kai Yin, Sheng-Cheng Hsu

Abstract: In this paper, we use a lexical method to do sentence alignment for an English-Chinese corpus. Past research shows that alignment using a dictionary involves a lot of word matching and dictionary look ups. To address these two issues, we first restrict the range of candidate target sentences, based on the location of the source sentence relative to the beginning of the text. Moreover, careful empirical selection of stop words, based on word frequencies in the source text, helps to reduce the number of dictionary look ups. Experimental results show that the amount of word matching can be cut down by 75% and that of dictionary look ups by as much as 43% without sacrificing precision and recall. Another experiment was also done with twenty New York Times articles with 598 sentences and 18395 words. The resulted precision is 95.6% and the recall is 93.8%. Among all predicted alignment, 86% of the alignment is 1:1 (one source sentence to one target sentence), 8% is 1:2, and 6% is 2:1. Further analysis shows that most errors occur in alignments of types 1:2 and 2:1. Future work should focus on problems with these two alignment types.

Keywords: Sentence alignment, lexical method, statistical method, English-Chinese corpus, stop words, target range. 

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Title of the Paper: TEMPLUM: A Process Adapted Numerical Simulation Code for The 3D Predictive Assessment of Laser Surface Heat Treatments in Planar Geometry


Authors: A. Garcia-Beltran, J. L. Ocana, C. L. Molpeceres

Abstract: A process adapted numerical simulation code for the 3D predictive assessment of laser heat treatment of materials has been developed. Primarily intended for the analysis of the laser transformation hardening of steels, the code has been successfully applied for the predictive characterization of other metallic and non metallic materials posing specific difficulties from the numerical point of view according to their extreme thermal and absorption properties. Initially based on a conventional FEM calculational structure, the developed code (TEMPLUM) reveals itself as an extremely useful prediction tool with specific process adapted features (not usually available in FEM heat transfer codes) in the field of laser heat treatment applications.

Keywords: Numerical analysis; Finite element; Modeling; Simulation; Heat conduction; Laser surface treatments; Transformation hardening; Optical glass polishing. 

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Issue 3, Volume 7, March 2008

Title of the Paper:  An Improved Nested Partitions Algorithm Based on Simulated Annealing in Complex Decision Problem Optimization


Authors: Chang-Rui Yu, Yan Luo

Abstract: This paper introduces the main ideas of the nested partitions (NP) method, analyses its efficiency theoretically and proposes the way to improve the optimization efficiency of the algorithm. Then the paper introduces the simulated annealing(SA) algorithm and incorporates the ideas of SA into two of the arithmetic operators of NP algorithm to form the combined NP/SA algorithm. Moreover, the paper presents the explicit optimization procedure of the combined algorithm NP/SA and explains the feasibility and superiority of it. The NP/SA algorithm adopts the global optimization ability of NP algorithm and the local search ability of SA algorithm so that it improves the optimization efficiency and the convergence rate. This paper also illustrates the NP/SA algorithm through an optimization example.

Keywords: Nested partitions algorithm, Simulated annealing, Complex decision problem.

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Title of the Paper: Faulty-Tolerant Algorithm for Mapping a Complete Binary Tree in an IEH


Authors: Shih-Jung Wu, Jen-Chih Lin, Huan-Chao Keh

Abstract: Different parallel architectures may require different algorithms to make the existent algorithms on one architecture be easily transformed to or implemented on another architecture. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for embedding complete binary trees in a faulty Incrementally Extensible Hypercube (IEH). Furthermore, to obtain the replaceable node of the faulty node, 2-expansion is permitted such that up to (n+1) faults can be tolerated with dilation 3, congestion 1 and load 1. The presented embedding methods are optimized mainly for balancing the processor loads, while minimizing dilation and congestion as far as possible. According to the result, we can map the parallel algorithms developed by the structure of complete binary tree in an IEH. These methods of reconfiguring enable extremely high-speed parallel computation.

Keywords: Hypercube, Incrementally Extensible Hypercube, Complete binary tree, Fault-Tolerance, Embedding 

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Title of the Paper: Height, Size Performance of Complete and Nearly Complete Binary Search Trees in Dictionary Applications


Authors: Ahmed Tarek

Abstract: Trees are frequently used data structures for fast access to the stored data. Data structures like arrays, vectors and linked lists are limited by the trade-off between the ability to perform a fast search and the ability to resize easily. Binary Search Trees are an alternative data structure that is both dynamic in size and easily searchable. Now-a-days, more and more people are getting interested in using electronic organizers and telephone dictionaries avoiding the hard copy counter parts. In this paper, performance of complete and nearly complete binary search trees are analyzed in terms of the number of tree nodes and the tree heights. Analytical results are used together with an electronic telephone dictionary for a medium sized organization. It’s performance is evaluated in lieu of the real-world applications. The concept of multiple keys in data structure literature is relatively new, and was first introduced by the author. To determine the dictionary performance, another algorithm for determining the internal and the external path lengths is also discussed. New results on performance analysis are presented. Using tree-sort, individual records inside the dictionary may be displayed in ascending order.

Keywords: Complete Binary Search Tree, Nearly Complete Binary Search Tree, Electronic Telephone Dictionary, Performance Analysis, Performance Measurement, Logarithmic Time Complexity.

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Title of the Paper: Case-Oriented Alert Correlation


Authors: Jidong Long, Daniel G. Schwartz

Abstract: Correlating alerts is of importance for identifying complex attacks and discarding false alerts. Most popular alert correlation approaches employ some well-de
ned knowledge to uncover the connections among alerts. However, acquiring, representing and justifying such knowledge has turned out to be a nontrivial task. In this paper, we propose a novel method to work around these difficulties by using case-based reasoning (CBR). In our application, a case, constructed from training data, serves as an example of correlated alerts. It consists of a pattern of alerts caused by an attack and the identity of the attack. The runtime alert stream is then compared with each case, to see if any subset of the runtime alerts are similar to the pattern in the case. The process is reduced to a matching problem. Two kinds of matching methods were explored. The latter is much more e
cient than the former. Our experiments with the DARPA Grand Challenge Problem attack simulator have shown that both produce almost the same results and that case-oriented alert correlation is e ective in detecting intrusions

Keywords: Alert Correlation, Case-Based Reasoning, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection

Title of the Paper: CORAL - Online Monitoring in Distributed Applications: Issues and Solutions


Authors: Ivan Zoraja, Ivan Zulim, Maja Stula

Abstract: In this paper we describe and evaluate issues that come up in the development of online monitoring systems which connect software tools to a running distributed application. Our primary intension was to elaborate how to deal with complex middleware mechanisms that cater for the middleware functionality in a way transparent to the users and tools. Our current implementation, called Coral, manages DSM mechanisms that provide an abstraction of shared memory on loosely coupled hardware, and allows multiple tools to perform consistent yet efficient operations on the entities being monitored. Since our primary design choice with Coral was portability we will port Coral to distributed environments based on the SOA technology.

Keywords: Online Monitoring, DSM, Tools, Process migration, Performance analysis, Checkpointing

Title of the Paper: Mining Strong Positive and Negative Sequential Patterns


Authors: Nancy P. Lin, Hung-Jen Chen, Wei-Hua Hao, Hao-En Chueh, Chung-I Chang

Abstract: In data mining field, sequential pattern mining can be applied in divers applications such as basket analysis, web access patterns analysis, and quality control in manufactory engineering, etc. Many methods have been proposed for mining sequential patterns. However, conventional methods only consider the occurrences of itemsets in customer sequences. The sequential patterns discovered by these methods are called as positive sequential patterns, i.e., such sequential patterns only represent the occurrences of itemsets. In practice, the absence of a frequent itemset in a sequence may imply significant information. We call a sequential pattern as negative sequential pattern, which also represents the absence of itemsets in a sequence. The two major difficulties in mining sequential patterns, especially negative ones, are that there may be huge number of candidates generated, and most of them are meaningless. In this paper, we proposed a method for mining strong positive and negative sequential patterns, called PNSPM. In our method, the absences of itemsets are also considered. Besides, only sequences with high degree of interestingness will be selected as strong sequential patterns. An example was taken to illustrate the process of PNSPM. The result showed that PNSPM could prune a lot of redundant candidates, and could extract meaningful sequential patterns from a large number of frequent sequences.

Keywords: Data mining, Itemset, Frequent sequence, Positive sequential pattern, Negative sequential pattern, Strong sequential pattern

Title of the Paper: A Deflected Grid-based Algorithm for Clustering Analysis


Authors: Nancy P. Lin, Chung-I Chang, Hao-En Chueh, Hung-Jen Chen, Wei-Hua Hao

Abstract: The grid-based clustering algorithm, which partitions the data space into a finite number of cells to form a grid structure and then performs all clustering operations on this obtained grid structure, is an efficient clustering algorithm, but its effect is seriously influenced by the size of the cells. To cluster efficiently and simultaneously, to reduce the influences of the size of the cells, a new grid-based clustering algorithm, called DGD, is proposed in this paper. The main idea of DGD algorithm is to deflect the original grid structure in each dimension of the data space after the clusters generated from this original structure have been obtained. The deflected grid structure can be considered a dynamic adjustment of the size of the original cells, and thus, the clusters generated from this deflected grid structure can be used to revise the originally obtained clusters. The experimental results verify that, indeed, the effect of DGD algorithm is less influenced by the size of the cells than other grid-based ones.

Keywords: Data Mining, Clustering Algorithm, Grid-based Clustering, Significant Cell, Grid Structure

Title of the Paper: Fast Mining of Closed Sequential Patterns


Authors: Nancy P. Lin, Wei-Hua Hao, Hung-Jen Chen, Hao-En Chueh, Chung-I Chang

Abstract: This paper propose a novel algorithm for mining closed frequent sequences, a scalable, condensed and lossless structure of complete frequent sequences that can be mined from a sequence database. This algorithm, FMCSP, has applied several optimization methods, such as equivalence class, to alleviate the needs of searching space and run time. In particular, since one of the main issues in this type of algorithms is the redundant generation of the closed sequences, hence, we propose an effective and memory saving methods, different from previous works, does not require the complete set of closed sequences to be residing in the memory.

Keywords: data mining, sequential patterns mining, closed sequential patterns

Title of the Paper: A Data Centered Approach for Cache Partitioning in Embedded Real-Time Database System


Authors: Hu Wei, Chen Tianzhou, Shi Qingsong, Jiang Ning

Abstract: Embedded real-time databases become a basic part of the embedded systems in many using environments. Caches are used for reducing the gap between processor and off-chip memory. But caches introduce unpredictability in general real-time systems. Although several cache partitioning approaches have been purposed to tackle this problem, there is no scheme designed for real-time database system up to now. In this paper, we present a data centered cache partitioning approach that allows different tasks to have a shared locking partition in cache. The hard real-time tasks will have their own partitions and thus they can perform high predictability. At the same time, a shared non-locking partition is reserved for the soft real-time tasks. In this way we can target performance improvements based on the data that are frequently used by many tasks in the system. Our experiment results show that the miss rate can be reduced by about 10%~18% compared with that of a statically partitioned cache and by about 24%~40% compared with a dynamic cache using LRU replacement policy.

Keywords: Data sharing, Cache partitioning, Embedded database, Real-time

Title of the Paper: The Curling Vector Field Transform of Gray-Scale Images: A Magneto-Static Inspired Approach


Authors: X. D. Zhuang, N. E. Mastorakis

Abstract: For image structure representation and feature extraction, the curling vector field transform is proposed based on the magneto-static analogy. The digital image is taken as the source of the vector field, and the vector field transform of the image is presented imitating the form of the physical magnetic field, which has a distinctive feature of rotating whorl pattern. The simulation results indicate that the curling vector field can represent the image’s structure feature, which can be applied in image segmentation. The experimental results show that image segmentation can be effectively implemented based on the image structure feature extracted by the curling vector field transform.

Keywords: vector field transform, curling vector field, image structure, image segmentation

Issue 4, Volume 7, April 2008

Title of the Paper: Electrocardiogram Compression and Optimal ECG Filtering Algorithms


Authors: Mihaela Lascu, Dan Lascu

Abstract: In this paper novel compression techniques are developed for portable heart-monitoring equipment that could also form the basis for more intelligent diagnostic systems thanks to the way the compression algorithms depend on signal classification. There are two main categories of compression which are employed for electrocardiogram signals: lossless and lossy. Design of an optimal Wiener filter is implemented to remove noise from a signal, considering that the signal is statistically stationary and the noise is a stationary random process that is statistically independent of the signal. Two programs for compression and Wiener optimal filtering are realized in MATLAB. The main idea of optimal filtering is to give bigger weight coefficients to signal spectra parts where signal noise has less power and true signal spectral components have bigger power. A Savitzky-Golay filtering is applied to a noisy electrocardiogram and a comparison is done between the four methods Wiener, Butterworth, Savitzky-Golay and synchronized averaging.

Keywords: Electrocardiogram, Compression, Filtering, Matlab, Noise, Diagnostic.

Title of the Paper: An Iterative Method for Finite-Element Solutions of the Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation


Authors: Ren-Chuen Chen

Abstract: A finite-element (FE) approach combined with an efficient iterative method have been used to provide a numerical solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The iterative method solves the nonlinear equations arising from the FE discretization procedure by a node-by-node calculation. Moreover, some extensions called by Picard, Gauss-Seidel, and successive overrelaxation (SOR) methods are also presented and analyzed for the FE solution. The performances of the proposed methods are illustrated by applying them to the problem of two identical colloidal particles in a symmetric electrolyte. My numerical results are found in good agreement with the previous published results. A comprehensive survey is also given for the accuracy and efficiency of these methods.

Keywords: finite-element method, Poisson-Boltzmann equation, colloidal particles interaction

Title of the Paper: NURBS Curve Shape Modification and Fairness Evaluation


Authors: Tetsuzo Kuragano, Akira Yamaguchi

Abstract: For the purpose of evaluation, a NURBS curve is used, because it is commonly used in the areas of CAD/CAM and Computer Graphics. A curve with a monotone radius of curvature distribution is considered as a fair curve in the area of Computer Aided Aesthetic Design (CAAD). But no official standards have been established. Therefore, a criterion for a fair curve is proposed. A quintic NURBS curve, the first derivative of a quintic NURBS curve, curvature vector, curvature, and radius of curvature are expressed. The concept of radius of curvature specification to modify the shape of a NURBS curve is illustrated. The difference between the NURBS curve radius of curvature and the specified radius of curvature is minimized by introducing the least-squares method to modify the shape of the NURBS curve. As curve fairness evaluation, radius of curvature distribution is used as an alternative characteristic of a curve. Algebraic functions such as linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, quintic, and six degrees are applied to the radius of curvature distribution of the designed curve to specify the radius of curvature. Then, the shape of the curve is modified according to the specified radius of curvature distribution. In this manner, six NURBS curves whose radius of curvature are these algebraic functions are generated, and are predefined. Using the correlation matching, the similarity is evaluated by comparing the radius of curvature distribution of the designed curve with those of six NURBS curves predefined. The highest similarity curve to the designed curve among these predefined curves is selected. The similarity evaluated of the selected curve is determined as fairness of the designed curve.

Keywords: curve shape modification, fair curve, radius of curvature specification, correlation matching, fairness evaluation

Title of the Paper: Automated Color Image Edge Detection Using Improved PCNN Model


Authors: Liang Zhou, Yu Sun, Jianguo Zheng

Abstract: Recent researches indicate that pulse coupled neural network can be used for image processing, such as image segmentation and edge detection effectively. However, up to now it has mainly been used for the processing of gray images or binary images, and the parameters of the network are always adjusted and confirmed manually for different images, which impede PCNN’s application in image processing. To solve these problems, based on the model of Pulse Coupled Neural Network and the model of HIS, this paper bring forward an improved PCNN model in the color image segmentation with the parameters determined by images’ spatial and gray characteristics automatically at the first, then use the above model to obtain the edge information. The experiment results show the good effect of the new PCNN model.

Keywords: pulse coupled neural network (PCNN), image processing, HIS, color image segmentation, parameter determination, image edge detection, spatial characteristics, gray characteristics

Title of the Paper: Development of Specific Disease Data Warehouse for Developing Content from General Guide for Hypertension Screening, Referral and Follow Up


Authors: Teh Ying Wah, Ng Hooi Peng, Ching Sue Hok

Abstract: This paper proposes a method of developing specific disease data warehouse such as hypertension data warehouse. Significant steps in developing the data warehouse will be described especially data extraction, transformation and loading. The purpose of developing this data warehouse is to help/assist the specialist, health care team, pharmacists to figure out the best and suitable strategies to be implemented during the screening, referral and follow up process. As the data may come from various data sources mostly different websites, the amount of time spent of this tasks is often underestimated. Issues on how we crawl the data from various data sources and store it into database will be discussed further.

Keywords: Data warehouse, Hypertension, Screening, Referral, Follow up

Title of the Paper: Dynamic Threshold Determination for Stable Behavior Detection


Authors: Hiroyuki Yamahara, Fumiko Harada, Hideyuki Takada, Hiromitsu Shimakawa

Abstract: To provide services according to user behavior, parameters should be adapted appropriately for the precise recognition of user behavior. In particular, the threshold value which is used to create behavioral patterns matched for behavior recognition impacts accuracy of behavior recognition.
 Because the threshold value is common to all users in the conventional model, the threshold setting unsuitable for some users may cause low recognition rates. In this paper, we propose a behavior detection method which detects high-level user behaviors, such as “leaving home”. The proposed method achieves stable behavior recognition regardless of users, by introducing a model which dynamically determines the threshold value for individual user.

Keywords: Threshold, Context, Behavior, Ambient, Proactive

Title of the Paper: Automated Three Stage Red Lesions Detection in Digital Color Fundus Images


Authors: C. Marino, E. Ares , M. G. Penedo, M. Ortega, N. Barreira, F. Gomez-Ulla

Abstract: The screening process is a very valuable method for prevention of many pathologies including Diabetic retinopathy. Typically, a large amount of images have to be analyzed as diabetic patients have both their eyes examined at least once a year. To effectively manage all this information and the workload it produces, automatic techniques for analyzing the images are required. These techniques must be robust, sensitive and specific to be implemented in real-life screening applications. In this work an algorithm for the detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographs is proposed. The method performs in three stages: in the first stage points candidates to be red lesions are obtained by using a set of correlation filters working in different resolutions, allowing that way the detection of a wider set of points. Then, in the second stage, a region growing segmentation process rejects the points from the prior stage whose size does not fit in the red lesion pattern. Finally, in the third stage three test are applied to the output of the second stage: a shape test to remove non-circular areas, an intensity test to remove that areas belonging to the fundus of the retina and finally a test to remove the points which fall inside the vessels (only lesions outside the vessels are considered). Evaluation was performed on a test composed on images representative of those normally found in a screening set. Moreover, comparison with manually-obtained results from clinical experts are performed, to set the accuracy and reliability of the method.

Keywords: Fundus, microaneurysm, red lesions, retina, screening, correlation.

Title of the Paper: Network Reliability Importance Measures : Combinatorics and Monte Carlo based Computations


Authors: Ilya Gertsbakh, Yoseph Shpungin

Abstract: In this paper we focus on computational aspects of network reliability importance measure evaluation. It is a well known fact that most network reliability problems are NP-hard and therefore there is a significant gap between theoretical analysis and the ability to compute different reliability parameters for large or even moderate networks. In this paper we present two very efficient combinatorial Monte Carlo models for evaluating network reliability importance measures.

Keywords: Network, Reliability, Importance Measure, Monte Carlo, Combinatorial Approach

Title of the Paper: A Cognitive Tool to Support Mathematical Communication in Fraction Word Problem Solving


Authors: Azlina Ahmad, Siti Salwah Salim, Roziati Zainuddin

Abstract: Word problem solving is one of the most challenging tasks in mathematics for most students. It requires the solver to translate the problem into the language of mathematics, where we use symbols for mathematical operations and for numbers whether known or unknown. From a study conducted on Malaysian school students, it was found that majority of them did not write their solution to the word problem using correct mathematical language. Intrapersonal and interpersonal communications are important in mathematics learning especially in word problem solving. It is therefore the main aim of this paper is to present a model that promotes the use of mathematical language. The model is used as a basis in designing a computer-based learning environment for word problem solving. The cognitive tool named MINDA which incorporates several important necessary steps and activities was developed to facilitate learning. From the experimental analysis conducted on using MINDA, it was found that the mathematical communication and their word problem solving achievement of students have improved.

Keywords: word problem solving, cognitive tool, mathematical communication, intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication.

Title of the Paper: Extending the Equivalent Transformation Framework to Model Dynamic Interactive Systems


Authors: Courtney Powell, Kiyoshi Akama

Abstract: Conceptualizing, visualizing, analyzing, reasoning about and implementing Dynamic Interactive Systems (DISs) are difficult and error-prone activities. To conceptualize and reason about the sorts of properties expected of any DIS, a formal framework that most naturally facilitates conceptualization and modelling of DISs is essential. In this paper we propose and explain why extending the Equivalent Transformation Framework to conceptually model DISs satisfies this ideal. The benefits to be derived from using this framework include a simplified and intuitive conceptualization process, mathematically sound models, guaranteed system correctness, high level abstraction, clarity, granular modularity, and an integrated framework for reasoning about, manipulating, and optimizing the various aspects of DISs.

Keywords: Conceptual Modelling, Dynamic Interactive Systems, Equivalent Transformation, Correctness, Formal Methods.

Title of the Paper: An Application of Data Mining Technique in Developing Sizing System for Army Soldiers in Taiwan


Authors: Hai-Fen Lin, Chih-Hung Hsu, Mao-Jiun J. Wang, Yu-Cheng Lin

Abstract: In the field of garment manufacturing, the planning and control of production and inventory are rather complicated procedures. This is the reason that establishing standard sizing systems is necessary and important for garment manufacturers in Taiwan. As the standard sizing systems need anthropometric data for reference, an anthropometric database for Taiwan army servicemen was first constructed for the purpose of simplifying the entire process. Anthropometric data collected from scratch are used to establish the sizing systems. The data mining method, which has been extensively used in many fields, is applied in this project. Few researches have been conducted in addressing the establishment of sizing systems. This study aims to establish systems for determining the sizes of garments for army personnel using the data mining technique. The newly developed sizing systems can be adopted to better accurately predict the requirements of different sizes of uniforms, and then to generate a practical production planning procedure. This study found that, by applying data mining technique, unnecessary inventory costs resulting from sizing mismatches that portend large differences between the numbers of soldiers and of produced garments can be significantly minimized.

Keywords: Anthropometric data, Data mining, Decision tree, Sizing systems, Production planning, Garment manufacturing

Title of the Paper: QoS Integration of the Internet and Wireless Sensor Networks


Authors: Weilian Su, Bassam Almaharmeh

Abstract: Recent developments in sensor networking for both military and civilian applications emphasized the need for a reliable integration of sensor networks with the Internet. For sensor networks deployed in various military applications, it is important that collected information be delivered as fast as possible with minimum delays. In this paper, an integration module is proposed. The objective of the module is to provide preferential services for high-priority traffic. The integration module is implemented and tested using hardware equipments, such as Cisco routers and 10/100 Mbps switches. According to the testbed measurements, the proposed integration module is able to adapt to different traffic needs, thus, ensuring the QoS for different sensor network applications.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, QoS, Integration Module.

Title of the Paper: Channel Propagation Measurement and Simulation of MICAz mote


Authors: Weilian Su, Mohamad Alzaghal

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is an important field of study as more and more applications are enhancing daily life. The technology trend is to achieve small-sized, cheap, and power efficient sensor nodes, which will make the system reliable and efficient. The Crossbow Technologies MICAz mote is an example used in this paper. Measurements of its propagation characteristics in a realistic environment will help the deployment and installation of these motes to form a WSN. The CST Microwave Studio is used to build a simulation of the MICAz. The results and comparisons between empirical and simulated data are intended to assist in the design, future studies and deployment of WSNs in the real world.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Propagation Characteristics, MICAz Motes

Title of the Paper: Preventing Conflict Situations During Authorization


Authors: Slvia Encheva, Sharil Tumin

Abstract: Computer-based access control systems working with financial and privacy issues are concerned with access control policies. Structuring authorizations turns out to be of a key importance in a case of collaborating organizations.

Keywords: Computer-based access control systems

Title of the Paper: E-Research Centre and E-Creative Design new Trends for E-Activities Platform


Authors: Sorin Borza, Dan Pual Brindasu, Livia Beju, Marinela Inta

Abstract: In this paper the author introduces the concept of E-creative design, which refers to the use of methods and techniques (modify for internet application) for stimulating the individual and group creativity in a design session using an e-research center for the researchers in the field of mechanical engineering sciences as well as its development and integration in the existing national and international infrastructure. The goal of this center is to include as many researchers from our faculty initially, then from our university, our geographic area, our country, from all over the world. To this purpose, the center sets itself to promote and support new e-research projects, to encourage the building of multidisciplinary groups that should cooperate among themselves and share resources and infrastructure. One of this is E-Creative Design. The E-Creative design methodology is presented first, step by strep in the pseudo code language. In order to use creative methods on internet, the morphological analysis and “San Francisco” creativity methods were presented from this new perspective.Finally the main functions of a research-design platform were elaborated. An example of E-creative session on Internet in cutting tool area completes the presentation.

Keywords: e-research, e-science, cyberstructure, midleware, virtual centre, e-design, grid

Title of the Paper: A Comprehensive Taxonomy of DDoS Attacks and Defense Mechanism Applying in a Smart Classification


Authors: Abbass Asosheh, Naghmeh Ramezani

Abstract: A Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack uses multiple machines operating in concern to attack a network or site. It is the most important security problem for IT managers. These attacks are very simple organized for intruders and hence so disruptive. The detection and defense of this attack has specific importance among network specialists. In this paper a new and smart taxonomy of DDoS attack and defense mechanism will be introduced. The attacks taxonomy is introduced using both known and potential attack mechanisms. It comprises all types of attacks and provides a comprehensive point of view for DDoS attacks. We introduce a useful tool that can be employed to a sophisticated selection defense method for DDoS attacks. Furthermore a smart taxonomy method of DDOS attacks will be proposed to help selection an appropriate defense mechanism. This method uses some features of DDOS attacks and classifies it to several clusters by Kmean algorithm and labels each cluster with a defense mechanism. If an IDS detects a DDOS attack, proposed system extract attack features and classify it by KNN (K-Nearest-Neighbor) to determine the cluster in which it belongs to. The defense mechanisms taxonomy is using the currently known approaches. Also the comprehensive defense classification will help to find the appropriate strategy to overcome the DDoS attack.

Keywords: DDoS attack, Defense mechanism, Taxonomy, Detection, Smart Classification

Title of the Paper: Parallelization of Prime Number Generation using Message Passing Interface


Authors: Izzatdin Aziz, Nazleeni Haron, Low Tan Jung, Wan Rahaya Wan Dagang

Abstract: In this research, we propose a parallel processing algorithm that runs on cluster architecture suitable for prime number generation. The proposed approach was written using Message Passing Interface (MPI) and is meant to decrease computational cost and accelerate the prime number generation process. Several experimental results conducted using High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark are presented to demonstrate the viability of our work. The results suggest that the performance of our work is at par with other parallel algorithms.

Keywords: Prime number generation, parallel processing, cluster architecture, MPI, primality test.

Title of the Paper: Experiment Replication and Meta-Analysis in Evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring System’s Effectiveness


Authors: Ani Grubisic, Slavomir Stankov, Branko Zitko

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology for conducting controlled experiment replication, as well as, the results of a controlled experiment and an internal replication that investigated the effectiveness of an intelligent tutoring system. Since, there doesn’t seem to be a common ground on guidelines for the replication of experiments in intelligent tutoring system’s educational influence evaluation, this scientific method has just started to be applied to this propulsive research field. We believe that every effectiveness evaluation should be replicated at least in order to verify the original results and to indicate an evaluated e-learning system’s advantages or disadvantages. On the grounds of experiment replication, a meta-analysis can be conducted in order to calculate overall intelligent tutoring system effectiveness.

Keywords: e-learning, intelligent tutoring systems, evaluation, effect size, effectiveness, experiment, replication, meta-analysis

Title of the Paper: Context-Aware Learning Path Planner


Authors: Maiga Chang, Alex Chang, Jia-Sheng Heh, Tzu-Chien Liu

Abstract: This paper develops a context-awareness learning path planner. The learning path planner constructs suitable learning path for individual student according to his/her misconceptions of the learning objects and the distances in the real world. Beside the remedy learning path, the planner also provides two guidance messages to students, the moving guidance message and the learning guidance messages. The moving guidance messages are used to lead students traveling from one learning spot to another. The learning guidance messages are used to guide students observing the specific part of the learning objects in order to clear their misconceptions. At the end of this paper, an example is showing how the planner works for learning in a museum.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Learning Path, Knowledge Structure, Misconception, Situated Learning

Title of the Paper: Assembly Time Minimization for an Electronic Component Placement Machine


Authors: Ali Fuat Alkaya, Ekrem Duman, Akif Eyler

Abstract: In this study, a new algorithm for a particular component placement machine is proposed. Also, a pairwise exchange procedure is designed and applied after the proposed algorithm. In the analyzed machine, previously proposed algorithms were mounting the components from lightest to heaviest where we propose to mount the components from heaviest to lightest. This method brings new opportunities in terms of performance gain on typical Printed Circuit Boards produced in the industry. The new algorithm is compared with former approaches on synthetically generated instances. It outperforms the former approaches by 1.54 percent on printed circuit boards with 100 components to be placed. It gives better results in 96 out of 100 instances. Applying the designed pairwise exchange procedure after the proposed algorithm further improves the total assembly time. Moreover, by taking advantage of inherent design of the analyzed PCBs, other promising improvement procedures are also suggested for minimizing total assembly time. By applying all the suggested techniques to the problem instances, performance improvement rate reaches up to 4.5 percent when compared with previous studies. Since the architecture and working principles of widely used new technology placement machines are very similar to the one analyzed here, the improvement techniques developed here can easily be generalized to them.

Keywords: Printed Circuit Board Assembly, Traveling Salesman Problem, Placement Machine

Issue 5, Volume 7, May 2008

Title of the Paper: Using Policy-based MPLS Management Architecture to Improve QoS on IP Network


Authors: Ruey-Shun Chen, Yung-Shun Tsai, K. C. Yeh, H. Y. Chen

Abstract: Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is in the process of standardization by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It is regarded as a technology for traffic engineering and QoS in IP-networks. We proposed an IETF Policy-based Network Management Framework and policies with MPLS specific classes. It uses a three-level policy architecture, which includes managing on device, network, and service level using policies for supporting Inter-serve and Diff-serve based end-to-end QoS in the Internet. A prototyping of policy-based management system for MPLS Traffic Engineering is operating on MPLS network elements. Several experiments illustrate the efficiency and feasibility in this architecture. The results show it can reduce the time of the setup of MPLS traffic engineering tunnel over hops and MPLS traffic engineering tunnel deletion. The proposed integrated policy based management architecture will allow network service providers to offer both quantitative and qualitative services while optimizing the use of underlying network resources.

Keywords: Multiple Protocol Label Switching, Traffic Engineering, Quality of Service, Policy-based Management

Title of the Paper: Fuzzy Stroke Analysis of Devnagari Handwritten Characters


Authors: Prachi Mukherji, Priti P. Rege

Abstract: Devnagari script is a major script of India widely used for various languages. In this work, we propose a fuzzy stroke-based technique for analyzing handwritten Devnagari characters. After preprocessing, the character is segmented in strokes using our thinning and segmentation algorithm. We propose Average Compressed Direction Codes (ACDC) for shape description of segmented strokes. The strokes are classified as left curve, right curve, horizontal stroke, vertical stroke and slanted lines etc. We assign fuzzy weight to the strokes according to their circularity to find similarity between over segmented strokes and model strokes. The character is divided into nine zones and the occurrences of strokes in each zone and combinations of zones are found to contribute to Zonal Stroke Frequency (ZSF) and Regional Stroke Frequency (RSF) respectively. The classification space is partitioned on the basis of number of strokes, Zonal Stroke Frequency and Regional Stroke Frequency. The knowledge of script grammar is applied to classify characters using features like ACDC based stroke shape, relative strength, circularity and relative area. Euclidean distance classifier is applied for unordered stroke matching. The system tolerates slant of about 10º left and right and a skew of 5º up and down. The system proves to be fast and efficient with regard to space and time and gives high discrimination between similar characters and gives a recognition accuracy of 92.8%.

Keywords: Devnagari Script, Segmentation, Strokes, Average Compressed Direction Code, Zonal and Regional Stroke Frequency, Euclidean Classifier.

Title of the Paper: Mamdani’s Fuzzy Inference eMathTeacher: a Tutorial for Active Learning


Authors: M. Gloria Sanchez-Torrubia, Carmen Torres-Blanc, Sanjay Krishnankutty

Abstract: An eMathTeacher [16] is an eLearning on–line self–assessment tool that helps users to active learning math concepts and algorithms by themselves, correcting their mistakes and providing them with clues to find the right solution. This paper introduces an example of a new concept on Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) resources, i.e. a tutorial designed under eMathTeacher philosophy for active eLearning Mamdani’s Direct Method, and presents a brief survey on available CAI resources discussing what their influence over students’ behaviour is. It also describes the minimum and complementary requirements an eLearning tool must fulfil to be considered an eMathTeacher as well as the main contributions of this kind of tutorials to the learning processes. Needless to say that, such features as interactivity, visualization and simplicity turn these tools into great value pedagogical instruments.

Keywords: eMathTeacher, eLearning, Active learning, Interactive Java applets, Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS), Fuzzy Logic, Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).

Title of the Paper: An Hybrid Simulated Annealing Threshold Accepting Algorithm for Satisfiability Problems using Dynamically Cooling Schemes


Authors: Felix Martinez-Rios, Juan Frausto-Solis

Abstract: For Satisfiability (SAT) Problem there is not a deterministic algorithm able to solve it in a polynomial time. Simulated Annealing (SA) and similar algorithms like Threshold Accepting (TA) are able to find very good solutions of SAT instances only if their control parameters are correctly tuned. Classical TA’s algorithms usually use the same Markov chain length for each temperature cycle but they spend a lot of time. In this paper a new hybrid algorithm is presented. This algorithm is in fact a TA algorithm which is hybridized with SA in a certain way. For this TA algorithm, the Markov chain length (L) is obtained in a dynamical way for each temperature. Besides, it is known that TA and SA obtain very good results whether their parameters are correctly tuned. Experimental tuning methods expend a lot of time before a TA algorithm can correctly be executed; in other hand, analytical tuning methods for TA were only completely developed for the geometrical cooling function. This paper also shows how TA can be tuned for three common cooling functions with an analytical model. Experimentation presented in the paper shows that the new TA algorithm is more efficient than the classical one.

Keywords: Simulated Annealing, Threshold Accepting, Cooling function, Dynamic Markov Chains, SAT problem

Title of the Paper: Strategic Planning for the Computer Science Security


Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlan Diaz-Parra, Ismael Rafael Ponce-Medellin, Juan Carlos Olivares-Rojas

Abstract: The necessity of the companies and organizations to adapt the technological changes of the computer science takes to formulated key questions: How to measure the security of my organization?, What type of Computer Science Security needs my company, financial organization, or government? Did my financial organization counts with aspects of computer science security in the correct areas? What new tools of computer science security exist? What security strategies we must follow? What is the data stream of information that needs to be transmitted through the different departments of my organization, in terms of computer security? What kind of users’ roles exists in terms of organizational security? Is there a way to classify the information in terms of computer security? In this paper we show a methodology for strategic planning for the computer science security of diverse companies like Banks and Government, cradle in the concepts of strategic administration of enterprise politics, which tries to give answers to the questions before mentioned.

Keywords: Methodologies of Security, Strategic Planning, Computer Science Security.

Title of the Paper: Seamless Multicast Handover in an NC-HMIPv6 Environment


Authors: Lambert Kadjo Tanon, Souleymane Oumtanaga, Kone Tiemoman

Abstract: The multicast facilitates group communications in IP networks and largely improves the usage efficiency of the bandwidth. However if this transmission technology has reached a sufficient maturity in fixed networks, it results in many problems in an IP environment where the receiver is mobile. The problem is partially attributable to the protocols managing the host mobility. Indeed, in the mobile Internet, the host mobility affects unicast addresses which are considered in the multicast routing protocols as stable. So the change of these unicast addresses lead to long handover latency and packets losses due to interruptions provoked by the mobility. So, the best adaptation of the multicast in the mobile Internet depends strongly on the type of mobility protocol in use. The current propositions for applications of multicast services are made in the mobility environments offering mobility management insufficiently optimized according to the following essential performance criteria: improvement of the handover latency, the scalability and the packet loss rate. Our proposal, based on the NC-HMIPv6 protocol, offers a better mobile multicast management through leaning the possibilities offered by this protocol. By widening the features of various entities in the NC-HMIPv6 environment, an effective management of the multicast handover is proposed.

Keywords: Mobile IPv6, HMIPv6, NC-HMIPv6, NC-HMIPv6-M, Multicast, ASM, MLD, PIM-DM, PIMSM, PIM-SSM.

Title of the Paper: The Pi-ADL.NET project: An Inclusive Approach to ADL Compiler Design


Authors: Zawar Qayyum, Flavio Oquendo

Abstract: This paper describes results and observations pertaining to the development of a compiler utility for an Architecture Description Language đ-ADL, for the .NET platform. Architecture Description Languages or ADLs, are special purpose high level languages especially construed to define software architectures. đ-ADL, a recent addition to this class of languages, is formally based on the đ-Calculus, a process oriented formal method. The compiler for đ-ADL, named đ-ADL.NET, is designed with the view of bringing the architecture driven software design approach to the .NET platform. The process oriented nature and a robust set of parallelism constructs of đ-ADL make the đ-ADL.NET project a novel application of compiler techniques in the context of the .NET platform, with many valuable lessons learnt. This paper presents the đ-ADL.NET effort from a compiler design perspective, and describes the inclusive approach driving the design that facilitates the representation of strong behavioral semantics in architecture descriptions. The subjects of parallel process modeling, communication and constructed data types are covered. The paper also documents the motivation, vision and future possibilities for this line of work. A detailed comparison with related work is also presented.

Keywords: đ-ADL, Compiler design, Aspect oriented programming, CIL, Software architecture, Architecture description danguage

Title of the Paper: A Novel Construction of Connectivity Graphs for Clustering and Visualization


Authors: Wesam Barbakh, Colin Fyfe

Abstract: We [5, 6] have recently investigated several families of clustering algorithms. In this paper, we show how a novel similarity function can be integrated into one of our algorithms as a method of performing clustering and show that the resulting method is superior to existing methods in that it can be shown to reliably find a globally optimal clustering rather than local optima which other methods often find. We discuss some of the current difficulties with using connectivity graphs for solving clustering problems, and then we introduce a new algorithm to build the connectivity graphs. We compare this new algorithm with some famous algorithms used to build connectivity graphs. The new algorithm is shown to be superior to those in the current literature. We also extend the method to perform topology preserving mappings and show the results of such mappings on artificial and real data.

Keywords: Clustering, Similarity function, Connectivity graph, Visualisation, K-means, Topographic mapping.

Title of the Paper: Incorporating the Biometric Voice Technology into the E-Government Systems to Enhance the User Verification


Authors: Khalid T. Al-Sarayrh, Rafa E. Al-Qutaish, Mohammed D. Al-Majali

Abstract: Many courtiers around the world have started their e-government programs. E-government portals will be increasingly used by the citizens of many countries to access a set of services. Currently, the use of the e-government portals arises many challenges; one of these challenges is the security issues. E-government portals security is a very important characteristic in which it should be taken into account. In this paper, we have incorporated the biometric voice technology into the e-government portals in order to increase the security and enhance the user verification. In this way, the security should be increased since the user needs to use his voice along with his password. Therefore, no any unauthorized person can access the e-government portal even if he/she knows the required password.

Keywords: Security Systems, E-Government Portals, Biometric Voice, Speaker Verification, Authentication.

Title of the Paper: Smart Card based Solution for Non-Repudiation in GSM WAP Applications


Authors: Cristian Toma, Marius Popa, Catalin Boja

Abstract: The paper presents security issues and architectures for mobile applications and GSM infrastructure. The article also introduces the solution for avoiding denial of service from WAP applications using WIM features. The first section contains the structure of GSM network from voice and data point of view. The security in GSM network is presented in second section. The third section presents a solution for realizing mobile subscriber non-repudiation. The solution is based on the HTTP protocol over WAP.

Keywords: mobile security, m-application security, SAWNR - Secure Application for Wireless Non Repudiation.

Title of the Paper: Adapting a Legacy Code for Ordinary Differential Equations to Novel Software and Hardware Architectures


Authors: Dana Petcu, Andrei Eckstein, Claudiu Giurgiu

Abstract: Modern software engineering concepts, like software as a service, allow the extension of the legacy code lifetime and the reduction of software maintenance costs. The transformation of a legacy code into a service is not straightforward task, especially when the initial code was designed with a rich user interface. A special case is presented in this paper, that of a software code for solving ordinary differential equations. Initially designed to use parallel computing techniques in the solving process, the code is now modified to take advantages of the current multi-core architectures. The transformation paths are general and can be followed by other similar legacy codes.

Keywords: Wrapper, Web service, Parallel methods, Multicore architectures, Ordinary differential equations

Title of the Paper: Integrated Information Systems in Higher Education


Authors: Ana-Ramona Lupu, Razvan Bologa, Gheorghe Sabau, Mihaela Muntean

Abstract: The paper shortly presents the situation of the Romanian universities regarding information systems implementation and deployment. The information presented is the result of a study regarding the current state of the Romanian universities in the process of data and information system integration, performed at the end of 2007 in 35 accredited universities. This study was used as a base for identifying and analyzing the main factors of influence for developing an integrated university environment and for identifying concrete action directions for accomplishing that integration.

Keywords: Romanian universities, Management information systems, Enterprise Resource Planning systems, Integrated information solutions

Title of the Paper: Basis Path Test Suite and Testing Process for WS-BPEL


Authors: Theerapong Lertphumpanya, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract: Web services technology offers a WS-BPEL language for business process execution. The building block of WS-BPEL is those Web services components that collaborate to realize a certain function of the business process. Applications can now be built more easily by composing existing Web services into workflows; each workflow itself is also considered a composite Web service. As with other programs, basis path testing can be conducted on WS-BPEL processes in order to verify the execution of every node of the workflow. This paper discusses the generation of the test suite for basis path testing of WS-BPEL and an accompanying tool that can be used by service testers. The test suite consists of test cases, stubs of the constituent services in the workflow, and auxiliary state services that assist in the test; these are deployed when running a test on a particular WS-BPEL. The paper presents also a testing process for service testers. A business process of a market place is discussed as a case study.

Keywords: Basis path testing, WS-BPEL, test cases, control flow graph, cyclomatic complexity

Title of the Paper: Advanced Computer Recognition of Aesthetics in the Game of Chess


Authors: Azlan Iqbal, Mashkuri Yaacob

Abstract: This research intended to see if aesthetics within the game of chess could be formalized for computer recognition since it is often appreciated and sought after by human players and problem composers. For this purpose, Western or International chess was chosen because there is a strong body of literature on the subject, including its aesthetic aspect. Eight principles of aesthetics and ten themes were identified. Flexible and dynamic formalizations were derived for each one and cumulatively represent the aesthetic score for a move combination. A computer program that incorporated the formalizations was developed for testing purposes. Experiments were then performed comparing sets of thousands of chess compositions (where aesthetics is generally more prominent) and regular games (where it is not). The results suggest that computers can recognize beauty in the game. Possible applications of this research include more versatile chess database search engines, more accurate automatic chess problem composers, enhanced automatic chess game commentators and computational aid to judges of composition and brilliancy tournaments. In addition, the methodology applied here can be used to gauge aesthetics in similarly complex games such as go and generally to develop better game heuristics.

Keywords: aesthetics, chess, game, evaluation, intelligence, computation

Title of the Paper: Virtual Reality Approach in Treating Acrophobia: Simulating Height in Virtual Environment


Authors: Nazrita Ibrahim, Mustafa Agil Muhamad Balbed, Azmi Mohd Yusof, Faridah Hani Mohammed Salleh, Jaspaljeet Singh, Mohamad Shahrul Shahidan

Abstract: Acrophobia is a scientific term used to describe the fear of height. To some people, this fear is manageable, but to others, the fear could pose danger to their life if it starts to interfere with their day to day activities. The conventional treatment for acrophobia is usually done through exposure therapy, where individuals suffering acrophobia will be gradually exposed (physically) to height. The disadvantage of conventional treatment is that it could put the sufferers in life threatening situation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to create the presence of height using a simple 3D virtual environment, which later could be used in exposure therapy for acrophobia. The system consists of a multimedia workstation, a Head Mounted Display (HMD) and a virtual scene of a busy city surrounded by tall buildings. The experiment consists of the users being gradually lifted up and down on an open elevator hanging outside one of the buildings. Set of questions being asked to each participant after the experiment, and the results shown that even with simple 3D virtual environment, the simulation of height could be achieved.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Acrophobia, 3D Environment, Virtual Environment, Virtools, VR system treatment

Title of the Paper: Spatial Decision Support System for Reclamation in Opencast Coal Mine Dump


Authors: Yingyi Chen, Daoliang Li

Abstract: This paper describes the development and applications of a decision support system that uses spatial information techniques and field survey data. The SDSS can enable the various levels of the target groups to easily identify the best available solutions of reclamation problems. To make reasonable decisions, the overall purpose of the SDSS is to provide a support tool for site evaluation and selection of the most appropriate reclamation schemes. The system consists of three models: (1) an evaluation model for reclamation potentiality based on the physical, chemical, and biological growth-limiting factors in the target area. (2) Fuzzy similarity models to determine the native plant species and metal-tolerant plants. (3) A case-based and rule-based model to select the most appropriate reclamation schemes based on the similarity in the physical, chemical, and biological growth conditions. The models are developed in the C# language and integrated with GIS. All these models are integrated in the SDSS which is able to provide information concerning the recommended reclamation technologies for each case. Finally, the uses of the SDSS in two cases which are Haizhou (China) and Mao Moh Mine (Thailand) are described.

Keywords: Coal mine waste land, Reclamation, Spatial decision support system, Remote sensing, Geographical information system

Title of the Paper: On Application of SOA to Continuous Auditing


Authors: Huanzhuo Ye, Shuai Chen, Fang Gao

Abstract: In today’s fast paced business world, there is growing interest in the concept of continuous auditing. Although, current technology makes continuous auditing possible, it still faces some problems. The main problems consist of the accuracy of the data, the real-time and comprehensiveness of the audit, and the flexibility of the audit. In order to solve these problems, a SOA-based conceptual model for continuous auditing is proposed in this paper. The two main models of SOA (service registry model and enterprise service bus model) are all applied to this conceptual model. The model also requires the user interface to be separated from the client’s management information system so that the auditing systems can monitor the process of the transactions between the client and the third parities. The model shows how the new technology using ESB, XBRL, The shadow subsystem
-Just-In-Time database- and the Intelligent Agent can help effectively audit the transactions between the client and the third parities. Finally, a SOA-based conceptual model for continuous auditing is presented to provide the real-time, comprehensive, and flexible of the audit.

Keywords: Continuous auditing; SOA; ESB; Real-time audit; Model

Title of the Paper: Nonlinear System Identification with a Feedforward Neural Network and an Optimal Bounded Ellipsoid Algorithm


Authors: Jose De Jesus Rubio Avila, Andres Ferreyra Ramirez, Carlos Aviles-Cruz

Abstract: Compared to normal learning algorithms, for example backpropagation, the optimal bounded ellipsoid (OBE) algorithm has some better properties, such as faster convergence, since it has a similar structure as the Kalman filter algorithm. Optimal bounded ellipsoid algorithm has some better properties than the Kalman filter training, one is that the noise is not required to be Guassian. In this paper optimal bounded ellipsoid algorithm is applied train the weights of a feedforward neural network for nonlinear system identification. Both hidden layers and output layers can be updated. In order to improve robustness of the optimal of the optimal bounded ellipsoid algorithm, dead-zone is applied to this algorithm. From a dynamic systems point of view, such training can be useful for all neural network applications requiring real-time updating of the weights. Two examples where provided which illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested algorithm based on simulations.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Optimal Bounded Ellipsoid (OBE), Modeling, Identification.

Title of the Paper: Comparison Studies on Classification for Remote Sensing Image Based on Data Mining Method


Authors: Hang Xaio, Xiubin Zhang

Abstract: Data mining methods have been widely applied on the area of remote sensing classification in recent years. In these methods, neural network, rough sets and support vector machine (SVM) have received more and more attentions. Although all of them have great advantages on dealing with imprecise and incomplete data, there exists essential difference among them. Until now, researches of these three methods have been introduced in lots of literatures but how to combine these theories with the application of remote sensing is an important tendency in the later research. However, all of them have their own advantage and disadvantage. To reveal their different characters on application of remote sensing classification, neural network, rough sets and support vector machine are applied to the area of remote sensing image classification respectively. Comparison result among these three methods will be helpful for the studies on emote sensing image classification. And also the paper provides us a new viewpoint on remote sensing image classification in the future work.

Keywords: remote sensing image classification, data mining, neural network, variable precision rough sets model, support vector machine, comparison studies

Title of the Paper: Monitoring Event-Based Suspended Sediment Concentration by Artificial Neural Network Models


Authors: Yu-Min Wang, Seydou Traore, Tienfuan Kerh

Abstract: This paper is concerned with monitoring the hourly event-based river suspended sediment concentration (SSC) due to storms in Jiasian diversion weir in southern Taiwan. The weir is built for supplying 0.3 million tons of water per day averagely for civil and industrial use. Information of suspended sediments fluxes of rivers is crucial for monitoring the quality of water. The issue of water quality is of particular importance to Jiasian area where there are high population densities and intensive agricultural activities. Therefore, this study explores the potential of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for modeling the eventbased SSC for continuous monitoring of the river water quality. The data collected include the hourly water discharge, turbidity and SSC during the storm events. The feed forward backpropagation network (BP), generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and classical regression were employed to test their performances. From the statistical evaluation, it has been found that the performance of BP was slightly better than GRNN model. In addition, the classical regression performance was inferior to ANNs. Statistically, it appeared that both BP (r2=0.930) and GRNN (r2=0.927) models fit well for estimating the event-based SSC in the Jiasian diversion weir. The weir SSC estimation using a single input data with the neural networks showed the dominance of the turbidity variable over water discharge. Furthermore, using the the ANN models are more reliable than classical regression method for estimating the SSC in the area studied herein.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, river monitoring, suspended sediment concentration, turbidity, water discharge, modeling.

Title of the Paper: New Color Correction Method of Multi-view Images for View Rendering in Free-viewpoint Television


Authors: Feng Shao, Gangyi Jiang, Mei Yu

Abstract: Color inconsistency between views is an important problem to be solved in multi-view video imaging application, such as free viewpoint television. Up to now, some color correction methods have been proposed mainly for consistent color appearance or high coding efficiency, in which the mean, variance, or covariance information are used to transfer color information. In this paper, by using color restoration and linear regression technique, a new color correction method of multi-view images is proposed for view rendering. We first separate foreground and background from scene by mean-removed disparity estimation. Then color restoration is used to reconstruct the original color information for foreground and background. And then linear regression technique is used to estimate correction parameters for color restored image. Finally, color correction and view rendering between reference image and color corrected image are implemented. Experimental results show that he proposed method can achieve better performances of color correction and view rendering.

Keywords: Multi-view image, free viewpoint television, color correction, view rendering, expectationmaximization, linear regression, CIEDE2000.

Issue 6, Volume 7, June 2008

Title of the Paper: The Strategy based on Game Theory for Cross-Organizational Business Process Reengineering in Supply Chain


Authors: Jian-Feng Li, Yan Chen, Xu-Sheng Cui

Abstract: Many enterprises with their own benefits are involved in cross-organizational business process reengineering in supply chain, which is different from BPR within one enterprise. The enterprises have rights to take part in the cross-organizational BPR project or not, in this way, their activities under the benefits will affect the progress of the project and the different results will be gotten. It has been an important matter which hasn’t been worked over deeply in the current research, so this paper probes into that problem and analyzes the reengineering strategy in supply chain, i.e. how to adopt the proper method based on game theory in the analysis of enterprises’ interrelating actions under their benefits for BPR in order to achieve good results. Concretely, the amalgamation of reengineering benefits for different enterprises, the relationship of reengineering activities and the effects of different reengineering modes are investigated deeply. This paper studies the benefits and activities of reengineering entities and emphasizes the various and inducing ability of the reengineering method, which enriches the current research of BPR and has intrinsic value on the actual project of cross-organizational BPR in supply chain.

Keywords: Game theory; Business process reengineering; Cross-organization; Supply chain; Reengineering strategy; Project management.

Title of the Paper: New View Generation Method for Free-Viewpoint Video System


Authors: Gangyi Jiang, Liangzhong Fan, Mei Yu, Feng Shao

Abstract: View navigation is an attracted function of free viewpoint video (FVV) system. Disparity map which describes correspondence between adjacent views plays an important role in view generation. However, disparity estimation is complicated and time consuming for user side with constrained resource environment. In view of disparity compensation prediction algorithm is usually utilized at the encoder to lift up the coding efficiency, block based disparity map can be easily obtained without more extra efforts. Therefore, a framework of view generation oriented FVV system is presented in this paper, in which block based disparity map is generated and encoded with CABAC losslessly at the server side, while at the user side, the received block based disparity map is refined for view generation, and spatial correlation in block based disparity map is utilized to accelerate the generation of pixel-wise disparity map. Experimental results show that the proposed framework makes a tradeoff between the transmission cost and effort of view generation.

Keywords: Free viewpoint video, view generation, block based disparity map, disparity refinement, rayspace.

Title of the Paper: Cost Effective Software Test Metrics


Authors: Ljubomir Lazic, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: This paper discusses software test metrics and their ability to show objective evidence necessary to make process improvements in a development organization. When used properly, test metrics assist in the improvement of the software development process by providing pragmatic, objective evidence of process change initiatives. This paper also describes several test metrics that can be implemented, a method for creating a practical approach to tracking & interpreting the metrics, and illustrates one organization’s use of test metrics to prove the effectiveness of process changes. Also, this paper provides the Balanced Productivity Metrics (BPM) strategy and approach in order to design and produce useful project metrics from basic test planning and defect data. Software test metrics is a useful for test managers, which aids in precise estimation of project effort, addresses the interests of metric group, software managers of the software organization who are interested in estimating software test effort and improve both development and testing processes.

Keywords: Software testing, Test metrics, Size estimation, Effort estimation, Test effectiveness evaluation

Title of the Paper: Implementation of Data-Exchanging System based on Message Oriented Middleware in Agricultural Website


Authors: Zhang Xiaoshuan, Wu Qinghua, Tian Dong, Zhao Ming

Abstract: With the startup of the Golden Agriculture Project, the step of being-information of agriculture is becoming rapid. And the transformation and share of data is indispensable to the being-information of agriculture. How to implement data combination, data transformation and data receiving applications are the important means to complete the information share safely and enhance the efficiency. The paper starts with searching of methods to implement data interchange, and introduce some of the methods, points of the techniques, etc. Basing on this, the paper also introduces the detail requirement analyses, system design and detail implementation of the system. According to the requirement and trait of the project, a data interchange system is researched and completed. And a data interchange model based on message-oriented middleware (MOM) is presented in this paper, which builds a middleware between the province and the ministry taking part in data interchange. The system has traits as follows: 1. keeping the data safe and credible while it is transformed. 2. having excellent transplantable and applied capability. 3. doesn’t need intervention of workman in the process of data interchange. 4. applying the data interchange between databases of different structure. 5. being simple to be developed and applied. MOM TongLink/Q offers interfaces for application development, and it completes the data transformation through the internet. The integration adapters developed do the data management, which are developed based on the Frame for Applications Integration TongIntegrator. This method offers a new approach to resolve the question of data interchange. Now the system has been successfully applied in the data interchange project of Ministry of Agriculture.

Keywords: Message Oriented Middleware, Data Exchange, long-range Database, Website, Data Exchange

Title of the Paper: Making A CASE for PACE: Components of the Combined Authentication Scheme Encapsulation for a Privacy Augmented Collaborative Environment


Authors: Geoff Skinner

Abstract: Digital Collaborations are proving themselves as ideal environments for increasing the productivity and knowledge exploration capabilities of their members. Many organizations are realizing the diverse range of benefits they provide to not only their organization as a whole but also to individual employees. The challenge in environments that encourage the sharing of resources, in particular data, is finding a sustainable balance between the need to provide access to data while also insuring its security in addition to the privacy of the entities it may pertain to. In this paper we propose an authentication framework that uniquely combines both traditional and biometric methods of authentication with an additional novel audiovisual method of authentication. The CASE (Combined Authentication Scheme Encapsulation) methodology, the name of our solution, provides an effective visual representation of both the authentication and information privacy hierarchies associated with data requests within digital collaborative environments.

Keywords: Information Privacy, Data Security, Authentication, Personal Identity, Digital Collaborations

Title of the Paper: The Relationship between Educational Serious Games, Gender, and Students’ Social Interaction


Authors: Samah Mansour, Mostafa El-Said

Abstract: Internet age students are increasingly interested in learning by playing. The majority of the current educational computer games suffer from the inapplicability of supporting the course materials’ learning objectives. In consequence, the integration of educational video games into the curriculum usually met with resistance from some teachers, administrators, and parents. Multi-player educational serious games (MPESGs) are introduced as a new type of educational computer games. Educators and researchers increasingly believe in MPESGs as a tool for interactive learning. MPESGs might not only motivate students to learn, but also provide them with innovative ways to develop understandings of abstract concepts. In addition, the integration of MPESGs in learning environment might promote social interaction among students. This study focused on exploring MPESGs as a new educational tool. A MPESG called The Village of Belknap was developed in Second Life to be used as a prototype in this study. Experimental results were carried out and the results indicated that the gender did not influence students’ perceptions of social interaction during playing the game. In addition, the results revealed that the integration of the MPESG in the learning process did not lead to a significant difference in the perception of social interaction between the students who participated in the online session and the students who participated in the face-to-face session.

Keywords: Avatar, CVE, Educational Games, Role-Playing Game, Second Life, Serious Game.

Title of the Paper: Human Emotion Recognition System Using Optimally Designed SVM With Different Facial Feature Extraction Techniques


Authors: G. U. Kharat, S. V. Dudul

Abstract: This research aims at developing “Humanoid Robots” that can carry out intellectual conversation with human beings. The first step in this direction is to recognize human emotions by a computer using neural network. In this paper all six universally recognized basic emotions namely angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise along with neutral one are recognized. Various feature extraction techniques such as Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are used to extract the useful features for emotion recognition from facial expressions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for emotion recognition using the extracted facial features and the performance of various feature extraction technique is compared. Authors achieved 100% recognition accuracy on training dataset and 94.29% on cross validation dataset.

Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Support Vector Machine (SVM), Machine Intelligence.

Title of the Paper: Determination of Insurance Policy Using a hybrid model of AHP, Fuzzy Logic, and Delphi Technique: A Case Study


Authors: Chin-Sheng Huang, Yu-Ju Lin, Che-Chern Lin

Abstract: Based on a previous study, this paper presents evaluation models for selecting insurance policies. Five models have been built for five insurances, respectively, including life, annuity, health, accident, and investment-oriented insurances. The proposed models consist of analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy logic and the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is employed to select inputs, define fuzzy expressions, and generate evaluation rules for the models. Four variables are selected as the inputs including age, annual income, educational level and risk preference. These inputs are transferred to fuzzy variables using trapezoidal membership functions and then fed to AHP. To build the models, we interviewed twenty domain experts with at least three years of working experience in insurance companies. To validate the performance, we designed a computer program and used 300 insurance purchase records to examine the evaluation results. Validation results and conclusive remarks are also provided at the end of this paper.

Keywords: Insurance policy; Decision making; Fuzzy logic; AHP; Delphi technique; Evaluation model

Title of the Paper: Implementation of a Modified PCX Image Compression Using Java


Authors: Che-Chern Lin, Shen-Chien Chen

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new image compression algorithm based on the PCX algorithm, an image compression method used in the computer package of PC Paintbrush Bitmap Graphic. We first introduce the principles of image compressions and the structure of image file formats. We demonstrate the procedures of compression and decompression of the PCX algorithm. The original PCX algorithm only compresses one fourth of data using run-length encoding. The compression efficiency depends on the repeatability of data in the compressed area. If the repeatability is low, the compression performance will be bad. To avoid this, we propose a modified PCX algorithm which selects the best area for compression. We designed a computer package to implement the modified PCX algorithm using java programming language. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was used to describe the structure and behaviors of the computer package. The pseudo codes for the compression and decompression of the modified PCX algorithm are also provided in this paper. We did an experiment to compare the performance between the original and modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the modified PCX algorithm is better than the original one in compression performance.

Keywords: PCX, Data compression, Image compression, Run-length encoding

Title of the Paper: QoS Multilayered Multicast Routing Protocol for Video Transmission in Heterogeneous Wireless Ad Hoc Networks


Authors: Osamah Badarneh, Michel Kadoch, Ahamed Elhakeem

Abstract: In wireless ad hoc networks, nodes are expected to be heterogeneous with a set of multicast destinations greatly differing in their end devices and QoS requirements. This paper proposes two algorithms for multilayered video multicast over heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks. The two algorithms are, Multiple Shortest Path Tree (MSPT) and Multiple Steiner Minimum Tree (MSMT). In this paper, we assume that each destination has a preference number of video layers; which is equal to its capacity. Moreover, we do not consider only the capacities of nodes in the network but also the bandwidth of each link. In order to increase user satisfaction for a group of heterogeneous destinations, we exploit different types of multiple multicast trees policy. Simulations show that the proposed schemes greatly improve the QoS requirements (increase user satisfaction) for a set of destinations. In addition, simulations show that multiple Hybrid-II multicast trees offer higher user satisfaction than multiple Hybrid-I multicast trees and multiple node-disjoint trees. The cost of that is the robustness against link failure. Therefore, it is a trade off between providing robustness against path breaks and increasing user satisfaction.

Keywords: Multilayered multicast; MDC; LC, Heterogeneous wireless ad hoc networks.

Title of the Paper: The Investigation of the Elliptic Curve Cryptology Applies to the New Generation Protocol


Authors: Po-Hsian Huang

Abstract: We face threats from virus, hacker, electronic eavesdropper, and electronic deceiver in the network environment. The safety issue is truly important. The growth of the computer and network system make the organizations and personal users to depend on the information that circulate in these systems more and more. For the reason, we must protect the data and resources from leak and insure the reliability of data and information. Besides, the system can be protected well when it is suffered any attacks from networks. Not only people start to care about the network security level where they use credit cards to order they want but also they have the idea about the network security.[1] The most well-known and the most extensive applied public key cryptosystem RSA is submitted by Rivet, Shamir and Adelman [2]. Its safety is based on the difficulty of the factorization of big integer. The problem of factorization of big integer is a well-known difficult mathematical question. Up to now, less valid system is mentioned to solve the problem. Therefore, the algorithm of RSA can insure the safety. For the sake of the security of RSA, the bit of key is always in the advance. The more key length will cause the speed of encryption and decryption to decline. Besides, the hardware will become more and more difficult to be accepted. This phenomenon brings very heavy load for RSA applications. For proceeding the large number of safe transactions on E-Commerce also will encounter the same problems. In Elliptic Curve Cryptology, its bytes are less than RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman). It can let computer performance and network transmission become good and fast. Although the next generation protocol modifies from IPv4 and applies to IPSEC, it is not perfect in network security. The unit of IP Security Protocol can’t coexist with the unit of IPv6 protocol service when IPv6 packets pass IPv4 protocol and Network Address Transfer’s field. For those weaknesses, one will discuss Elliptic Curve Cryptology how to translate in IPv6 protocol and compare the performance of Elliptic Curve Cryptology and RSA in IPv6 protocol.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptology, IPv6, RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)

Title of the Paper: Neural Network Approach for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration from Limited Climatic Data in Burkina Faso


Authors: Yu-Min Wang, Seydou Traore, Tienfuan Kerh

Abstract: The well known Penman-Monteith (PM) equation always performs the highest accuracy results of estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) among the existing methods is without any discussion. However, the equation requires climatic data that are not always available particularly for a developing country such as Burkina Faso. ETo has been widely used for agricultural water management. Its accurate estimation is vitally important for computerizing crop water balance analysis. Therefore, a previous study has developed a reference model for Burkina Faso (RMBF) for estimating the ETo by using only temperature as input in two production sites, Banfora and Ouagadougou. This paper investigates for the first time in the semiarid environment of Burkina Faso, the potential of using an artificial neural network (ANN) for estimating ETo with limited climatic data set. The ANN model employed in the study was the feed forward backpropagation (BP) type using maximum and minimum air temperature collected from 1996 to 2006. The result of BP was compared to the RMBF, Hargreaves (HRG) and Blaney-Criddle (BCR) which have been successfully used for ETo estimation where there is not sufficient data. Based on the results of this study, it revealed that the BP prediction showed a higher accuracy than RMBF, HRG and BCR. The feed forward backpropagation algorithm could be potentially employed successfully to estimate ETo in semiarid zone.

Keywords: Evapotranspiration, estimating, limited climatic data, neural network, feed forward backpropagation, semiarid environment, water management

Title of the Paper: Dynamics Modeling and Trajectory Tracking Control for Humanoid Jumping Robot


Authors: Zhao-Hong Xu, Libo-Song, Tian-Sheng Lu, Xu-Yang Wang

Abstract: Jumping or running belong to a non-regular motion in humanoid robot field. Stance phase has only the holonomic constraints, nevertheless flight phase has the holonomic and non-holonomic constraints. The relationship between angular moment and cyclic coordinate is analyzed by dynamics equations. The impact model is expatiated by transferring dynamics equation from flight phase to stance phase, and the impact force and velocity is obtained by Jacobian matrix. The method of eliminating shock is discussed. Finally, trajectory tracking using hybrid model of the adaptive fuzzy control and computed torques is studied on model with parametric uncertainty. The hybrid control system proves to be asymptotical stabilization by Lyapunov stability theory. The numerical simulation and experimental results show computed torque controller is valid for jumping movement.

Keywords: jumping robot, dynamics modeling, non-regular motion, trajectory tracking

Title of the Paper: Implementation of an Image Retrieval System Using Wavelet Decomposition and Gradient Variation


Authors: Kuo-An Wang, Hsuan-Hung Lin, Po-Chou Chan, Chuen-Horng Lin, Shih-Hsu Chang, Yung-Fu Chen

Abstract: Texture gradient is a popular operation for extracting features used for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) of texture images. It is useful for depicting gradient magnitude and direction of adjacent pixels in an image. In this thesis, we proposed two methods for retrieving texture images. In the first method, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and gradient operation were combined to extract features of an image with principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine weights of individual extracted features, while in the second method, only gradient operation without involvement of discrete wavelet transform was used to extract features. The Brodatz Album which contains 112 texture images, each has the size of 512×512 pixels, was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Before experiment, each image was cut into sixteen 128×128 non-overlapping sub-images, thus creating a database consisting of 1792 images. Regarding the number of features, a total of 126 features were extracted in the first method by calculating gradients after discrete wavelet transforms of the texture image, while in the second method only 54 features were extracted from each gradient image. By integrating useful features, image retrieval systems for retrieving texture images have been designed. The results show that the two proposed methods have been demonstrated to be able to achieve better retrieval accuracy than the method proposed by Huang and Dai. Additionally, our proposed systems, especially the second proposed method, use fewer features which significantly decrease the retrieval time compared to the previous investigation.

Keywords: Content-Based Image Retrieval, Texture, Gradient Operation, Entropy, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Principal component analysis

Title of the Paper: WhiteSteg: A New Scheme in Information Hiding Using Text Steganography


Authors: L. Y. Por, T. F. Ang, B. Delina

Abstract: Sending encrypted messages frequently will draw the attention of third parties, i.e. crackers and hackers, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. In this digital world, steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message inside another unsuspicious message. The hidden message maybe plaintext, or any data that can be represented as a stream of bits. Steganography is often being used together with cryptography and offers an acceptable amount of privacy and security over the communication channel. This paper presents an overview of text steganography and a brief history of steganography along with various existing techniques of text steganography. Highlighted are some of the problems inherent in text steganography as well as issues with existing solutions. A new approach, named WhiteSteg is proposed in information hiding using inter-word spacing and inter-paragraph spacing as a hybrid method to reduce the visible detection of the embedded messages. WhiteSteg offers dynamic generated cover-text with six options of maximum capacity according to the length of the secret message. Besides, the advantage of exploiting whitespaces in information hiding is discussed. This paper also analyzes the significant drawbacks of each existing method and how WhiteSteg could be recommended as a solution.

Keywords: Steganography,Text Steganography, Information Hiding, Security, Suspicion.

Title of the Paper: Parameter Adjustment for Genetic Algorithm for Two-Level Hierarchical Covering Location Problem


Authors: Miroslav Maric, Milan Tuba, Jozef Kratica

Abstract: In this paper the two-level Hierarchical Covering Location Problem - HCLP is considered. A new genetic algorithm for that problem is developed, including specific binary encoding with the new crossover and mutation operators that keep the feasibility of individuals. Modification that resolves the problem of frozen bits in genetic code is proposed and tested. Version of fine-grained tournament [5] was used as well as the caching GA technique [12] in order to improve computational performance. Genetic algorithm was tested and its parameters were adjusted on number of test examples and it performed well and proved robust in all cases. Results were verified by CPLEX.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary computing, Location problem, Hierarchical location, Covering models

Title of the Paper: Network Motif & Triad Significance Profile Analyses on Software System


Authors: Zhang Lin, Qian GuanQun, Zhang Li

Abstract: There has been considerable recent interest in network motif for understanding network local features, as well as the growth and evolution mechanisms. In order to discover the local features in software networks, we extended the network motif research methods to software domain. After comparing triad significance profiles from 138 java open source software packages, we found three typical kinds of network motifs. Moreover, the software networks could be divided into 3 clusters which are consistent with the known super-families from various other types of networks. It seems that software scale and interaction may be the reasons causing different motif SP distribution. The concepts
the principles and steps associated with the experiment were elaborated, as well as the results were analyzed and discussed, the direction for further research was given.

Keywords: Software Network, Network Motif, Triad Significance Profile, Superfamily

Title of the Paper: OCR for Printed Kannada Text to Machine Editable Format using Database Approach


Authors: B. M. Sagar, Shobha G., Ramakanth Kumar P.

Abstract: This paper describes an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for printed text documents in Kannada, a South Indian language. The proposed OCR system for the recognition of printed Kannada text, which can handle all types of Kannada characters. The system first extracts image of Kannada scripts, then from the image to line segmentation then segments the words into sub-character level pieces. For character recognition we have used database approach. The level of accuracy reached to 100%.

Keywords: Optical Character Recognition, Segmentation, Kannada Scripts

Title of the Paper: Establishment of Computational Models for Clothing Engineering Design


Authors: Amo Aihua, Li Yi, Wang Ruomei, Lou Xiaonan

Abstract: Clothing design achieved by engineering framework and method is a newly interest in the state of art of textile research, which may create many advantages, such as improving the design efficiency and strengthening the ability to consider more issues. The mathematical models describing the behind physical and chemical mechanisms of the involved various behaviors inside the textile materials and the interactions at its boundary with external environment play an significant role in the clothing engineering design system, since they are able to offer designers/users an advanced ability to simulate and preview the function performance of the textile products. Whereas, the assumptions and simplifications of the development of computational models determine their potential/suitability to be developed as CAD/simulation software for engineering design applications. Considering this issue, the criteria for selecting suitable computational models for engineering design purposes is of enormous importance in the development of engineering design CAD system, and the communication sockets between the boundaries of different models integrated for simulating the different functions in the human body-clothing-environment system need to be developed with scientific and accurate data flows. In this paper, with the development of the framework of engineering design of textile product, the discussion of models selection criteria is presented considering the behind physical mechanism, application limitation, parameters measurability and data availability. A critical analysis of the well known models for the thermal behaviors in the clothing is conducted, and thermal functional engineering design systems for textile products with the integration of different computational models as well as boundary communication sockets are demonstrated.

Keywords: Computational models, selection criteria, engineering design, thermal functions, clothing

Title of the Paper: Vehicle Number Plate Recognition Using Mathematical Morphology and Neural Networks


Authors: Humayun Karim Sulehria, Ye Zhang, Danish Irfan, Atif Karim Sulehria

Abstract: This paper presents a method for recognition of the vehicle number plate from the image using neural nets and mathematical morphology. The main theme is to use different morphological operations in such a way so that the number plate of the vehicle can be extracted efficiently. The method makes the extraction of the plate independent of color, size and location of number plate. The proposed approach can be divided into simple processes, which are, image enhancement, morphing transformation, morphological gradient, combination of resultant images and extracting the number plate from the objects that are left in the image. Then segmentation is applied to recognize the plate using neural network. This algorithm can quickly and correctly recognize the number plate from the vehicle image.

Keywords: Mathematical morphology, morphological gradient, vehicle number plate, morphing transformations, image enhancement.

Title of the Paper: Management Agent for Search Algorithms with Surface Optimization Applications


Authors: Jukkrit Kluabwang, Deacha Puangdownreong, Sarawut Sujitjorn

Abstract: This paper presents a management approach applied to search algorithms to achieve more efficient search. It acts as a management agent to a core search unit, in which the Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS) has been applied. The proposed management agent composes of partitioning mechanism (PM), sequencing method (SM), and discarding mechanism to speed up the search. It has been tested against Bohachevsky’s, Rastrigin’s and Shekel’s foxholes functions, respectively, for surface optimization. The paper gives a review of the ATS, detailed explanations of the PM, SM, and DM, respectively. Comparison of the optimization results are elaborated.

Keywords: search algorithms, management agent, partitioning mechanism, discarding mechanism, sequencing method, adaptive tabu search

Title of the Paper: Light Weight Log Management Algorithm for Removing Logged Messages of Sender Processes with Little Overhead


Authors: Jinho Ahn

Abstract: Sender-based message logging allows each message to be logged in the volatile storage of its corresponding sender. This behavior avoids logging messages on the stable storage synchronously and results in lower failure-free overhead than receiver-based message logging. However, in the first approach, each process should keep in its limited volatile storage the log information of its sent messages for recovering their receivers. In this paper, we propose a 2-step algorithm to efficiently remove logged messages from the volatile storage while ensuring the consistent recovery of the system in case of process failures. As the first step, the algorithm eliminates useless log information in the volatile storage with no extra message and forced checkpoint. But, even if the step has been performed, the more empty buffer space for logging messages in future may be required. In this case, the second step forces the useful log information to become useless by maintaining a vector to record the size of the information for every other process. This behavior incurs fewer additional messages and forced checkpoints than existing algorithms. Experimental results verify that our algorithm significantly performs better than the traditional one with respect to the garbage collection overhead.

Keywords: Distributed systems, Fault-tolerance, Rollback recovery, Sender-based message logging, Checkpointing, Garbage collection

Title of the Paper: Deriving Ontologies using Multi-Agent Systems


Authors: Victoria Iordan, Antoanela Naaji, Alexandru Cicortas

Abstract: The complex systems are designed using multi-agent concepts. Agent interaction is complex and requires appropriate models for a communication and cooperation. Also the interaction between the users and the system agents must be done in an efficient way. One of the basic conditions is that to use a convenient "language", a common way of understanding. The ontology is the appropriate concept that allows doing it. The operations on the ontologies cover many of such requirements. Due to the complexity of systems interaction that has an impact on the different ontologies used in them. Our model tries to define a specific operation deriving an ontology form another one. The competence descriptions in education are given as an application. The research for this paper has been partial supported by the project PN II 91-047/2007.

Keywords: Ontology, competence description, multi-agent systems

Title of the Paper: Grid Computing Services for Parallel Algorithms in Medicine and Biology


Authors: Dragos Arotaritei, Marius Turnea, Marius Cristian Toma, Radu Ciorap, Mihai Ilea

Abstract: The compartmental models using differential equations are basic models in epidemiology. The temporal evolution of spatial models for epidemic spreading is suitable for parallelization and GRID services are solutions for speeding the algorithms used in these models. We investigate several computational aspects of parallel algorithms used in cellular automata model and small world networks model. The four compartmental small world network model of disease propagation (SEIR) is parallelized. In the second application, we have found an asymptotic solution of zero degree for a nonlinear differential parabolic equations system with a unique, small parameter, in a cancerous disease model. We got a cancerous cells density using simulation in three stages according with some system parameter value. Grid service has been constructed for these numeric simulations.

Keywords: Epidimiological models, cancerous cells density, parallel algorithms, high performance computing

Title of the Paper: A Framework to Identify the ‘Motivational Factors’ of Employees; A Case Study of Pakistan IT Industry


Authors: Muhammad Wisam Bhatti, Ali Ahsan, Ali Sajid

Abstract: Employee motivation is one of the key drivers of success in today’s competitive environment. Relevant literature generally explains that motivated employees can perform their tasks much better than demotivated workers. It is due to this reason that there is always a requirement of a comprehensive framework that should be able to provide complete guidelines with the help of which supervisors* should be able to identify core factors that motivate employees. Keeping in line the requirement stated earlier, this research paper presents a self formulated† framework i.e. ‘Imperative Motivational Factors Framework’ (IMFF). This proposed framework familiarizes necessary stakeholders with the core motivational factors’ identification process. The framework takes into account very generic factors identified from various motivational theories, society and industry. Once the generic factors are identified then the framework formulates specific factors for a group of employees and / or for individual employee.

Keywords: Employee Motivation, Framework, Case Study, Pakistan’s IT Industry, Satisfaction, Soft Issues

Issue 7, Volume 7, July 2008

Title of the Paper:  Object Oriented Implementation Monitoring Method of Zone Feature in Land Consolidation Engineering Using SPOT 5 Imagery


Authors: Wei Su, Chao Zhang, Ming Luo, Li Li, Yujuang Wang, Zhengshan Ju, Daoliang Li

Abstract: Land consolidation is an effective activity realizing the sustainable utilization of land use, and implementation monitoring of zone type land consolidation engineering. Funded by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China, an object oriented monitoring method is produced in this research. Object correlation images(OCIs) are used to measure if a zonal objects is consolidated (i. e., changed). There are three correction parameters are used in this study: correlation, slope and intercept in correction analysis process, and spectral and textural (4 Grey Level Co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features such as Homogeneity, Contrast, Angular second moment, Entropy) information are used in caculation of objects correction value. This approach consists in three phases: (1) multi-resulition image segmentation, (2) correlation analysis of two phase remote sensing images, and (3) implementation monitoring based on segmented correction results. Firstly,the temote sensing images before and after land consolidation are partitioned into objects using multi-resolution segmentation method. Secondly, correlation analysis is done between these images. Finally, focused on these regions, implementation monitoring is done based on the comparability of image objects in the same area resulting from these two phase remote sensing images. Accuracy assessment results indicate that this method can be used to monitor land consolidation engineering implementation status, total accuracy up to 86.30%.

Keywords: Object oriented, land consolidation engineering, implementation monitoring, object correlation images (OCIs), image segmentation, Fangshan district

Title of the Paper:  Texture feature Extraction for Land-Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Data in Land Consolidation District Using Semi-Variogram Analysis


Authors: Yan Huang, Anzhi Yue, Su Wei, Daoliang Li, Ming Luo, Yijun Jiang, Chao Zhang

Abstract: The areas of the land consolidation projects are generally small, so the remote sensing images used in land-cover classification for the land consolidation are generally high spatial resolution images. The spectral complexity of land consolidation objects results in specific limitation using pixel-based analysis for land cover classification such as farmland, woodland, and water. Considering this problem, two approaches are compared in this study. One is the fixed window size co-occurrence texture extraction, and another is the changeable window size according to the result of semi-variogram analysis. Moreover, the methodology for optimizing the co-occurrence window size in terms of classification accuracy performance is introduced in this study. Zhaoquanying land consolidation project is selected as an example, which located in Shunyi District, Beijing, China; texture feature is extracted from SPOT5 remote sensing data in the TitanImage development environment and involved in classification. Accuracy assessment result shows that the classification accuracy has been improved effectively using the method introduced in this paper.

Keywords: Semi-variogram, Land Consolidation, Texture feature, Classification

Title of the Paper:  Toward a System for Road Network Automatic Extraction in Land Consolidation using High Spatial Resolution Imagery


Authors: Rui Guo, Ming Luo, Wei Su, Daoliang Li, Yijun Jiang, Zhengshan Ju, Jun Wang

Abstract: Land consolidation is a tool for increasing the area of the arable land and improving the effectiveness of land cultivation. This paper presents a practical system for automatic road extraction in land consolidation to monitor the implementation of the project. The system integrates processing of color image data and information from digital spatial databases, takes into account context information, employs existing knowledge including plans of land consolidation, rules and models, and treats each road subclass accordingly. The system was designed as three-tier construction including interface, modules and database. The prototype system has been implemented as a stand-alone software package, and has been tested on a large number of images in different land consolidation areas. The parallel line segments are firstly detected and then the improved Active Contour Models (Snakes) are introduced to link the extracted road segments to the whole networks. The system was pilot used in the study area of Fangshan in Beijing which achieved satisfactory results.

Keywords: system, road extraction, land consolidation, high spatial resolution imagery, Snakes

Title of the Paper:  Comparation and Analysis Methods of Moderate -Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing Image Classification


Authors: Jinli Chen, Ming Luo, Li Li, Daoliang Li, Chao Zhang, Yan Huang, Yijun Jiang

Abstract: Moderate resolution remote sensing images provide broad spectrum, high spatial resolution, and rich texture information. However, most traditional classification approaches are based exclusively on the digital number of the pixel itself. Thereby only the spectral information is used for the classification. But some researches have shown that pixel-based approaches for classification of remotely sensed data are not very suitable for the analysis of moderate resolution images.In order to get a reasonable planning and effective management of land cover,the paper provide a new classification and extraction method .In this paper, the object-oriented image classification technology is used in the experiment of land cover information extraction for CBERS-01 data, and compared with the results of the pixel-based approaches . The results show that the Object-oriented technique is a more suited method for moderate-resolution remote sensing image classification and a better classification results.

Keywords: Object-oriented, moderate-resolution, CBERS-01, land cover, classification

Title of the Paper:  Spatial Decision Support System for the Potential Evaluation of Land Consolidation Projects


Authors: Xiaochen Zou, Ming Luo, Wei Su, Daoliang Li, Yijun Jiang, Zhengshan Ju, Jun Wang

Abstract: Land consolidation is the basis of making the land arrangement special plan, meanwhile, land consolidation sub area, ascertaining land consolidation item and setting land consolidation indices are mainly depended on land consolidation potentiality, so it is necessary to do this research. As the most important pattern of land consolidation, potential evaluation of cultivated land consolidation is more essential. However as far as theoretical and empirical researches in China’s mainland, few discuss on the connotation and evaluation of cultivated land consolidation potentiality. Facing present condition, in order to analyze potentiality of cultivated land, some research is compiled in this paper. Nowadays, spatial decision support system (SDSS) has been applied in variety of profession and domain not only in the fundamental research but also in the concrete project application. SDSS not only solves quantitative problems but also deals well with the uncertain, fuzzy information. It can help decision-makers to make sensible decisions. Facing the land consolidation problem, aiming at evaluating the potential of land consolidation effectively, we developed a SDSS for evaluating potential of land consolidation. In this research, land consolidation potentiality was evaluated from the following four parts, potential of new effective area of arable land, potential of improving productivity, potential of reducing production costs and potential of improving the ecological environment. In order to check the result of the evaluation, Fuzzy Assessment Model, Gray Correlation Analysis Model and PPE model based on RGRA are adopted in this SDSS. Through this study, we provided to the land managers and political departments an approach that is scientifically sound and practical.

Keywords: land consolidation, potential evaluation, model, SDSS

Title of the Paper:  Adaptive Kalman Procedure for SAR High Resolution Image Reconstruction in the Planning Phase of Land Consolidation


Authors: Li Li, Ming Luo, Chao Zhang, Wei Su, Yijun Jiang, Daoliang Li

Abstract: Remote Sensing technologies provide the spatial data/maps and offer great advantages for a land consolidation project. But sometimes in some regions, optics and infrared remote sensing can not work well. SAR (Synthetic aperture radar), an active microwave remote sensing imaging radar, has the unique capabilities of obtaining abundant electromagnetic information from ground objects all day/all night and all weather, and penetrating some special objects and detecting the shapes of ground objects. At this point, SAR can meet the requirement. However, for land consolidation application, high spatial resolution SAR images are required. To increase the spatial resolution of SAR images, this work presents a novel approximate iterative and recurrent approach for image reconstruction, namely adaptive Kalman Filter (KF) procedure. Mathematical models and Kalman equations are derived. The matched filter and Kalman Filter are integrated to enhance the resolution beyond the classical limit. Simulated results demonstrate that the method strongly improves the resolution by using prior knowledge, which is a scientific breakthrough in the case that the traditional pulse compression constrains the improvement of SAR spatial resolution. And it is also shown that it is an optimal method in the sense of mean square error and its computation cost is lower than the traditional Kalman Filter algorithm.

Keywords: Land, Agriculture, Synthetic Aperture Radar, Adaptive Kalman Filter, High Resolution, Mean Square Error, Image Reconstruction

Title of the Paper:  Particle Swarm Optimization for Multiuser Asynchronous CDMA Detector in Multipath Fading Channel


Authors: Jyh-Horng Wen, Chuan-Wang Chang, Ho-Lung Hung

Abstract: A multiuser detector for direct-sequence code-division multiple-access systems based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. To work around potentially computational intractability, the proposed scheme exploits heuristics in consideration of both global and local exploration maximum likelihood (ML). Computer simulation demonstrates that the proposed detector offers near-optimal performance with considerably reduced computation complexity compared with that of existing sub-optimum detectors are presented.

Keywords: Code-division multiple access, particle swarm optimization, evolutionary algorithm, multiuser detection.

Title of the Paper:  Load-Balance and Fault-Tolerance for Embedding a Complete Binary Tree in an IEH with N-expansion


Authors: Jen-Chih Lin

Abstract: Embedding is of great importance in the applications of parallel computing. Every parallel application has its intrinsic communication pattern. The communication pattern graph is embedded in the topology of multiprocessor structures so that the corresponding application can be executed. This paper presents strategies for reconfiguring a complete binary tree in a faulty Incrementally Extensible Hypercube (IEH) with N-expansion. This embedding algorithm show a complete binary tree can be embedded in a faulty IEH with dilation 4, load 1, and congestion 1 such that O(n2-h2) faults can be tolerated, where n is the dimension of IEH and (h-1) is the height of a complete binary tree. Furthermore, the presented embedding methods are optimized mainly for balancing the processor loads, while minimizing dilation and congestion as far as possible. According to the result, we can embed the parallel algorithms developed by the structure of complete binary tree in an IEH. This methodology of embedding enables extremely high-speed parallel computation.

Keywords: Incrementally Extensible Hypercube, Binary tree, Load-Balance, Fault-Tolerance, Embedding

Title of the Paper:  Parallel Crawler Architecture and Web Page Change Detection


Authors: Divakar Yadav, Ak Sharma, J. P. Gupta

Abstract: In this paper, we put forward a technique for parallel crawling of the web. The World Wide Web today is growing at a phenomenal rate. It has enabled a publishing explosion of useful online information, which has produced the unfortunate side effect of information overload. The size of the web as on February 2007 stands at around 29 billion pages. One of the most important uses of crawling the web is for indexing purposes and keeping web pages up-to-date, later used by search engine to serve the end user queries. The paper puts forward an architecture built on the lines of client server architecture. It discuses a fresh approach for parallel crawling the web using multiple machines and integrates the trivial issues of crawling also. A major part of the web is dynamic and hence, a need arises to constantly update the changed web pages. We have used a three-step algorithm for page refreshment. This checks for whether the structure of a web page has been changed or not, the text content has been altered or whether an image is changed. For The server we have discussed a unique method for distribution of URLs to client machines after determination of their priority index. Also a minor variation to the method of prioritizing URLs on the basis of forward link count has been discussed to accommodate the purpose of frequency of update.

Keywords: Divakar Yadav, Ak Sharma and J.P.Gupta

Title of the Paper:  Application Internet Multimedia on Region Travel Route Information Establishment


Authors: Tingsheng Weng

Abstract: This research applies to Alishan area which is filled with unique and rich culture resources as the case study area. Through the applications of information technology and multimedia techniques, a website with the functions, such as browsing an e-book and multi-languages, integrating particular history, people, and nature environment resources aspects of the traffic route information have been established in Chinese, English, and Japanese versions. The purpose of this study aims to display the characteristic of sufficient information of this area, and to attract tourists to understand the relationship between the eco-environment, people and geography, and industrial development. By leading people to familiarize nature, the study also intends to achieve several goals, such as promoting people’s concept of the environmental protection and increasing further understanding of local natural information, and fostering local industry simultaneously. The discussion of the paper is also in accordance with various information and theories the browsers can search on net. The aim of website design in this study takes digital education into concern and improve digital life and e-learning. By means of the information abundance, the goal of this paper is to enhance flourishing development of culture, travel marketing, digital education value and society.

Keywords: Multilanguage website, Traveling and Internet, 3D, International, Digital life, e-Learning, flow

Title of the Paper:  Constraint Satisfaction Problems Solved by Semidefinite Relaxations


Authors: Mohamed Ettaouil, Chakir Loqman

Abstract: We consider the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), where the values must be assigned to variables which are subject to a set of constraints. This problem is naturally formulated as 0-1 quadratic knapsack problem subject to quadratic constraint. In this paper, we present a branch-and-bound algorithm for 0-1 quadratic programming, which is based on solving semidefinite relaxations. At each node of the enumeration tree, a lower bound is given naturally by the value of (SDP) problem and an upper bound is computed by satisfying the quadratic constraint. We show that this method is able to determine whether a (CSP) has a solution or not. Then we give some hints on how to reduce as much as possible the initial size of the (CSP). Some numerical examples assess the effectiveness of the theoretical results shown in this paper, and the advantage of the new modelization.

Keywords: Constraint satisfaction problem, 0-1 Quadratic knapsack problem, SDP relaxation, Branch-and-bound, Filtering algorithms.

Title of the Paper:  Design and Implementation of a Cipher System (LAM)


Authors: Panagiotis Margaronis, Emmanouil Antonidakis

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a digital integrated encryption/decryption circuitry called LAM which is based on Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Architecture for a Personal Computer (PC) communication card. The implementation of a hardware PC cryptography card has been designed using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip in combination with the PCI Bus. The main objective of this paper is to provide the reader with a deep insight of the design of a digital cryptographic circuit, which was designed for a FPGA chip with the use of Very (High-Speed Integrated Circuit) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) for a PCI card. A demonstration of the LAM circuitry will be presented. To see the effect of the LAM cryptography in the operation of the card, it was also simulated and analyzed. The Simulations were run under various conditions, which are applicable to most PCI applications.

Keywords: Hardware, Security, Communication, Computer, Design, Architecture

Title of the Paper:  Optimizing Energy Consumption of Data Flow in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks


Authors: Haiyang Hu, Hua Hu

Abstract: Because of the limited node battery power, energy optimization is important for the mobile nodes in wireless ad hoc networks. Controlled node mobility is an effective approach to reduce the communication energy consumption while the movement itself also consumes energy. Based on cooperative communication (CC) model, this paper takes the energy consumption of node movement and their individual residual energy into account, and then proposes localized algorithms for directing mobile node mobility and adapting their transmission power dynamically in mobile ad hoc networks. Compared with other algorithms by simulation, our mechanism named DEEF shows its efficiency in improving the system lifetime.

Keywords: ad hoc networks; node mobility; cooperative communication; energy consumption; multi-flow; local algorithm

Title of the Paper:  Video-based Wireless Sensor Networks Localization Technique Based on Image Registration and SIFT Algorithm


Authors: Daniela Fuiorea, Vasile Gui, Dan Pescaru, Petronela Paraschiv, Istin Codruta, Daniel Curiac, Constantin Volosencu

Abstract: Localization discovery techniques are required by most Wireless Sensor Networks applications. Moreover, in case of video surveillance, localization includes not only spatial coordination but also cameras direction and video-field overlap estimation. Accurate methods involve expensive and power consuming hardware. This paper presents an efficient node localization including video-field overlap estimation that employs image registration in order to align images quasi-simultaneously acquired from different video sensors. A SIFT algorithm is used to discover common features between pairs of images. Experimental and simulation evaluation shows the estimation accuracy comparing with a manual approach.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, topology, localization, deployment, image processing, image registration, SIFT

Title of the Paper:  Measuring with Ultra-Low Power Wi-Fi Sensor Tags in LabVIEW


Authors: Tom Savu, Marius Ghercioiu

Abstract: G2 Microsystems of Campbell, California, USA, released in 2007 the first ever ultra-low power Wi-Fi System on a Chip (SoC) named G2C501. This SoC includes a 32-bit CPU, crypto accelerator, real-time clock and a versatile sensor interface that can serve as a standalone host subsystem. The G2C501 goes beyond today’s basic radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to offer intelligent tracking and sensor capabilities that leverage IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) networks. Due to its support for multiple location technologies, small form factor and ultra-low power consumption, the G2C502 SoC can be integrated into Wi-Fi sensor tags that lower cost of ownership and meet the needs of a variety of industries including consumer electronics, pharmaceuticals, chemical manufacturing, cold chain and more.
A battery powered, small size ultra low-power Wi-Fi wireless measurement node name IP Sensor has been built using the G2C501 SoC. Sensors for measurement of temperature, humidity, light, and vibration or motion are currently mounted on the IP Sensor board. The node is able to read a sensor and send data to the network by using an IP-based application protocol such as UDP.
This paper describes the new IP Sensor device and gives a programming methodology using LabVIEW.

Keywords: Wi-Fi sensors, System on a Chip (SoC), ultra-low power, LabVIEW

Title of the Paper:  Business Intelligence Applications for University Decision Makers


Authors: Carlo Dell'Aquila, Fransesco Di Tria, Ezio Lefons, Filippo Tangorra

Abstract: The development of a Business Intelligence Application starts with the execution of OLAP queries to extract information from data stored in a Data Warehouse. The results of these queries, together with an opportune data representation, offer a deep synthesis of data and help business users to better discover hidden knowledge than using conventional database queries. Nowadays, information discovery is getting more and more important also in academic environments, because internal evaluation teams have to provide the guidelines to improve the quality of both Didactics and Research. In this paper, we present an approach to implement Business Intelligence technology in the University context. The architecture of the data warehouse and examples of analytic queries for the didactics management are also presented and discussed.

Keywords: Data warehouse (DW), Data mart (DM), Online analytical processing (OLAP), Academic application.

Title of the Paper:  A Tool for the Creation and Management of Level-of-Detail Models for 3D Applications


Authors: Oscar Ripolles, Francisco Ramos, Miguel Chover, Jesus Gumbau, Ricardo Quiros

Abstract: Real-time visualization of 3D scenes is a very important feature of many computer graphics solutions. Current environments require complex scenes which contain an increasing number of objects composed of thousands or even millions of polygons. Nevertheless, this complexity poses a problem for achieving interactive rendering. Among the possible solutions, stripification, simplification and level of detail techniques are very common approaches to reduce the rendering cost. In this paper, we present set of techniques which have been developed for offering higher performance when rendering 3D models in real-time applications. Furthermore, we also present a standalone application useful to quickly simplify and generate multiresolution models for arbitrary geometry and for trees.

Keywords: Computer graphics, level of detail, simplification, triangle strips, multiresolution, tree rendering

Title of the Paper:  Using Computer-aided Techniques in the Dynamic Modeling of the Human Upper Limb


Authors: Antoanela Naaji

Abstract: The wide mobility of human body leads to the necessity of modeling the osteoarticular system as a mechanism with a large number of degrees of freedom. Dynamic modeling of osteoarticular system is necessary because the exertion of various actions and natural physiological movements are essentially dynamic. Very often we use a simplified model because the phenomena produced are so complex that accurate mathematical reproduction is practically impossible. A dynamic model must provide a good estimate of total weight and mass distribution as well as transmissibility and amortization proprieties for bones, muscles, joints, blood and skin.
The paper presents a dynamic functional model considering the human upper limb as a mechanic system with 5 degrees of freedom in the case the segments are moved by their own weight forces. The bones and the muscles were modeled in Solid Works, the model of the upper limb obtained being very close as form to the real one. Based on this model, the calculus of mass proprieties was made. The differential equations of motion obtained were solved using Lagrange formalism.

Keywords: Modeling, Human upper limb, Dynamic model, Osteoarticular system

Title of the Paper:  Building Three Dimensional Maps based on Cellular Neural Networks


Authors: Michal Gnatowski, Barbara Siemiatkowska, Rafal Chojecki

Abstract: One of the main problem in robotics is map building. In the article 3D map building based on 3D laser data is presented. The data is obtained from a SICK laser mounted on a rotating support what gives a 3D representation of the scene. The map is divided into cells and each cell represents a certain area of the scene and keeps a list of objects.
This is a real-time system, which consumes little computer memory and works properly in indoor environment.

Keywords: Modeling, Human upper limb, Dynamic model, Osteoarticular system

Title of the Paper:  Software Simulation for Femur Fractures in Case of Frontal Car Accidents


Authors: Cris Precup, Antoanela Naaji, Csongor Toth, Arpad Toth

Abstract: According to a study carried out by one of the authors at the County Clinical Emergency Hospital in Arad, over 40% of the accidents resulting in femur fracture take place on roads and highways.
This work briefly presents these results, and on the basis of bibliographical data regarding the mechanical behavior of bones and the classification of femur fractures occurring in expert literature, a simulation program of these fractures in the case of car accidents.
The aim of the program is to determine the pressure at which the femur is fractured in different conditions of mass and speed of the vehicle, braking distance, age of the victim, femur size, etc. The use of this program represents an exemplification method, as an alternative to direct expertise at the site.

Keywords: Simulation, Model, Femur, Biomechanics, Fractures

Title of the Paper:  Robot Mapping and Map Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks


Authors: Inci Cabar, Sirma Yavuz, Osman Erol

Abstract: This paper is about an autonomous robot map creation and optimization algorithm. To create the map, calibrated sensor data transfered to the x-y coordinate system were used. Afterwards we tried to otimize the anomalies of the map with different methods as artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms.

Keywords: Robot Map, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Networks, Autonomous Robot, Three-Wheeled Robot, Map Optimization, DBSCAN, Robot Kinematics, Sensor Calibration, Mapping

Title of the Paper:  Modern Approaches in Detection of Page Separators for Image Clustering


Authors: Costin-Anton Boiangiu, Dan-Cristian Cananau, Andrei-Cristian Spataru

Abstract: This paper describes a model for detecting all types of separators on a document page and combining the results towards obtaining elements clusters on every document image page. The separators are determined by using various methods as for example the Delaunay triangulation. The physical layouts of the documents are always hard to extract, but determining the simplest separators found in most documents is the starting point for correct layout detection.

Keywords: automatic content conversion, Delaunay triangulation, separator detection, line detection, contour points, neighborhood relations, white-space detection, page clustering

Title of the Paper:  Methods of Bitonal Image Conversion for Modern and Classic Documents


Authors: Costin-Anton Boiangiu, Andrei-Iulian Dvornic

Abstract: Bitonal conversion is a basic preprocessing step in Automatic Content Analysis, a very active research area in the past years. The information retrieval process is performed usually on black and white documents in order to increase efficiency and use simplified investigation techniques. This paper presents a number of new modern conversion algorithms which are aimed at becoming an alternative to current approaches used in the industry. The proposed methods are suitable for both scanned images and documents in electronic format. Firstly, an algorithm consisting of a contrast enhancement step, followed by a conversion based on adaptive levelling of the document is presented. Then a new multi-threshold technique is suggested as a solution for noise interferences, a common feature of scanned books and newspapers. Finally, three more approaches adapted to the particular properties of electronic documents are introduced. Experimental results are given in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: automatic content analysis, electronic documents, bitonal conversion, information retrieval, noise, scanned images, contrast enhancement

Title of the Paper:  Normalized Text Font Resemblance Method Aimed at Document Image Page Clustering


Authors: Costin-Anton Boiangiu, Andrei-Cristian Spataru, Andrei-Iulian Dvornic, Dan-Cristian Cananau

Abstract: This paper describes an approach towards obtaining the normalized measure of text resemblance in scanned images. The technique, aimed at automatic content conversion, is relying on the detection of standard character features and uses a sequence of procedures and algorithms applied sequentially on the input document. The approach makes use solely of the geometrical characteristics of characters, ignoring information regarding context or the character-recognition.

Keywords: automatic content conversion, text characteristics, font size, boldness, italic, texture measurements

Title of the Paper:  Software Simulation for Femur Fractures in Case of Frontal Car Accidents


Authors: Cris Precup, Antoanela Naaji, Csongor Toth, Arpad Toth

Abstract: According to a study carried out by one of the authors at the County Clinical Emergency Hospital in Arad, over 40% of the accidents resulting in femur fracture take place on roads and highways.
This work briefly presents these results, and on the basis of bibliographical data regarding the mechanical behavior of bones and the classification of femur fractures occurring in expert literature, a simulation program of these fractures in the case of car accidents.
The aim of the program is to determine the pressure at which the femur is fractured in different conditions of mass and speed of the vehicle, braking distance, age of the victim, femur size, etc. The use of this program represents an exemplification method, as an alternative to direct expertise at the site.

Keywords: Simulation, Model, Femur, Biomechanics, Fractures

Issue 8, Volume 7, August 2008

Title of the Paper:  A Synopsis of Sound - Image Transforms based on the Chromaticism of Music


Authors: Dionysios Politis, Dimitrios Margounakis

Abstract: Numerous algorithms have been proposed for image to sound and sound to image transforms. Based on heuristic assignments of sound frequencies to RGB values, they perform effective mappings between musical entities (notes) and values for optical wavelengths. In this paper, the chromaticism of the sound domain is taken into account and the coloring of the performed music is depicted for interrelated sound segments that have acoustic polymorphism and form entities of pitch organization. This algorithm helps visualize musical files according to their melodic structure and not only according to their temporal characteristics (i.e. rhythm).

Keywords: Sound to Image Transforms, Visualizations, Chromatic Index of Music.

Title of the Paper:  Laboratory Integrated Schema


Authors: Panagiotis Kalagiakos

Abstract: The IHE initiative for clinical laboratories defines an architecture that promotes understanding, usability and reusability among the laboratories. The primary goal is to ensure that medical information is correct and on time to the healthcare professionals. The IHE attempt does not define new standards but uses well established existing standards like HL7, ASTM, DICOM, ISO, IETF, OASIS, CLSI in a strict framework and defines specific implementations of the standards to achieve integration goals of clinical laboratories. The functional components of a healthcare system are called Actors. Actors interact through transactions. The schema produced by IHE is based on the notion of Integration Profile and is comprised of Actors. The goal of this paper is to present the clinical laboratories integration profiles as a sequence of transactions between actors. The set of Workflow Integration Profiles involving clinical laboratories, clinical wards and other teams within healthcare institutions to fully integrate diagnostic testing on in vitro specimens are presented together with a Content Integration Profile; the Content Integration Profile enables clinical laboratories (local, regional or national) as well as standalone laboratories to share their result reports.


Title of the Paper:  Characterization of Ag-PEO10LiCF3SO3-PolyPyrrole-Au Neural Switch


Authors: Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

Abstract: The design, build and characterization of a semiconducting, organic neural switch are carried out.
Voltage-Current characteristics for an ionic-electronic interacting neural switch are presented. Neural Switch characteristics analyzed using an electronic equivalent circuit model. The model is proved to describe to a great degree of soundness the interacting mechanism between the used materials. Programmability of the switch is proved to be bi-directional and reversible with hysterisis effect which is due to excess charge storage, with a behavior similar to a biological Synapse.

Keywords: Neural, modeling, Synapse, Memory, Information Processing, Polymers, Computing, Intelligence

Title of the Paper:  Anti-Counterfeit Ownership Transfer Protocol for Low Cost RFID System


Authors: Chin-Ling Chen, Yu-Yi Chen, Yu-Cheng Huang, Chen-Shen Liu, Chia-I Lin, Tzay-Farn Shih

Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new technology. In recent years, it is convenient and feasible in many applications. However, it also addresses many security issues which are worth discussing. The Counterfeit imposes a menace to industry worldwide, and the problem is not specific for certain products or countries. In 2003, Koh et al. describe a RFID system based on “track and trace” solution to apply into pharmaceutical supply chain management to fight the counterfeit. Moreover, there are applications to solve malicious manner were presented. But there always still existed some disputes and not conform Class 1 Generation 2 (C1G2) standards. Unfortunately, the trick is changeable. The Koh et al.’s scheme is at premise rather primitive. In order to tackle this problem, we propose an anti-counterfeit ownership transfer protocol for low cost RFID system. We only use a tag to be a storage media. The proposed scheme can ensure a secure transaction.

Keywords: security; digital signature; authentication; Anti- counterfeit; ownership transfer; RFID; EPC

Title of the Paper:  DDoS Attacks Detection Model and its Application


Authors: Muhai Li, Ming Li, Xiuying Jiang

Abstract: With the proliferation of Internet applications and network-centric services, network and system security issues are more important than before. In the past few years, cyber attacks, including distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, have a significant increase on the Internet, resulting in degraded confidence and trusts in the use of Internet. However, the present DDoS attack detection techniques face a problem that they cannot distinguish flooding attacks from abrupt changes of legitimate activity. In this paper, we give a model for detecting DDoS attacks based on network traffic feature to solve the problem above. In order to apply the model conveniently, we design its implementation algorithm. By using actual data to evaluate the algorithm, the evaluation result shows that it can identify DDoS attacks.

Keywords: Algorithm, Attack, Application, DDoS, Detection, Modal

Title of the Paper:  Topics Related with the Wind Turbine


Authors: Jose De Jesus Rubio-Avila, Andres Ferreyra-Ramirez, Fernando Baruch, Santillanes-Posada, Martin Salazar-Pereyra, Genaro Deloera-Flores

Abstract: In this paper we present the modeling of a wing turbine, using the Euler Lagrange method and circuits theory. We get the mathematical equation (modeling) that describes the wind turbine and we simulate it using the mathlab program. We leave this result as a contribution and an opened line to continue the researching in the field of the renewable energies in our country.

Keywords: Wind turbine, Modeling, Simulation.

Title of the Paper:  The Clustering Algorithm for Nonlinear System Identification


Authors: Jose De Jesus Rubio Avila, Andres Ferreyra Ramirez, Carlos Aviles-Cruz, Ivan Vazquez-Alvarez

Abstract: A new on-line clustering fuzzy neural network is proposed. In the algorithm, structure and parameter learning are updated at the same time. There is not difference between structure learning and parameter learning. It generates groups with a given radius. The center is updated in order to get that the center is near to the incoming data in each iteration, in this way, It does not need to generate a new rule in each iteration, i.e., it does not generate many rules and it does not need to prune the rules.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, Fuzzy systems, Modeling, Identification.

Title of the Paper:  Using Genetic Algorithms to Find New Color Transformations for JPEG-2000 Image Compression


Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Rawi, Abdel-Latif Abu-Dalhoum, Yousef Salah, Wesam Al-Mobaideen, Ansar Khoury

Abstract: Image compression techniques play an important role in multimedia applications. The JPEG-2000 which is based on the wavelet transform is a promising image compression technique expected to replace the current discrete cosine transform based compression known as JPEG. In this paper, genetic algorithms are used to optimize the coefficients of the RGB to YCbCr color transform used in JPEG-2000 and to find alternate color transforms. Color transformation in JPEG-2000 is an early phase of the compression process intended to improve the compression performance. The matrix elements are optimized using fitness functions based on the root mean square error between the original and the reconstructed image. The resultant color transformations revealed an enhancement in the JPEG-2000 codec by.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Irreversible Color Transform, Reversible Color Transform, JPEG2000, Image Compression, Wavelet Transform, ITU-R, jasper.

Title of the Paper:  Grid Workflows Specification and Verification


Authors: P. Kurdel, J. Sebestyenova

Abstract: Grids are being adopted and developed in several scientific disciplines that deal with large-scale collaboration, massive distributed data, and distributed computing problems. The service orchestration is a problem of making multiple services coordinate themselves and communicate in an orderly fashion so as to accomplish a task more complex than the single tasks provided by the individual composing services. Composition is devoted to the aim of connecting services in a collaborative fashion. A Grid workflow system is a type of application-level Grid middleware that is supposed to support modelling, redesign and execution of large-scale processes. A grid workflow can be represented by a grid workflow graph, where nodes correspond to activities and edges correspond to dependencies between activities, called flows. Verification is usually based on an extension of a kind of formal method. Grid workflow verification and validation must be conducted so that we can identify any violations of the correctness in workflow specification and consequently remove them in time.

Keywords: Distributed computing, Grid infrastructure, Service orchestration, Workflow management system, Verification, Web portal

Title of the Paper:  Better Learning of Supervised Neural Networks Based on Functional Graph – An Experimental Approach


Authors: Joseph Raj V.

Abstract: Multilayered feed forward neural networks possess a number of properties which make them particularly suited to complex problems. Neural networks have been in use in numerous meteorological applications including weather forecasting. As Neural Networks are being more and more widely used in recent years, the need for their more formal definition becomes increasingly apparent. This paper presents a novel architecture of neural network models using the functional graph. The neural network creates a graph representation by dynamically allocating nodes to code local form attributes and establishing arcs to link them. The application of functional graph in the architecture of Electronic neural network and Opto-electronic neural network is detailed with experimental results. Learning is defined in terms of functional graph. The proposed architectures are applied in weather forecasting and X-OR problem. The weather forecasting has been carried out based on various factors consolidated from meteorological experts and documents. The inputs are temperature, air pressure, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, wind direction, wind speed, etc., and outputs are heavy rain, moderate rain and no rain. The percentage of correctness of the weather forecasting of the conventional neural network models, functional graph based neural network models and the meteorological experts are compared.

Keywords: Back propagation, Convergence, Functional Graph, Neural network, Optical neuron, Weather forecasting

Title of the Paper:  GSM Mobile SMS/MMS using Public Key Infrastructure: m-PKI


Authors: Nor Badrul Anuar, Lai Ngan Kuen, Omar Zakaria, Abdullah Gani, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab

Abstract: Presently, mobile handheld device has successfully replaced traditional telephone to become the most popular wireless communication tools. Mobile Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) fulfill almost all the user requirements as an effective communication and information delivering service. Since SMS/MMS become so popular on daily communication, there is a demand to communicate or exchange confidential information in a secure environment. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a proven solution, which using pairing of key, for secure communication encryption. In this paper, m–PKI is introduced to provide PKI encryption to the mobile SMS and MMS. This new approach allows the end-user to send private and classified message via SMS. The key pair generation and distribution are performed by the Certificate Authority (CA). The size of the key pair are studied and decided by the tradeoff between performance and security.

Keywords: cryptography, message classification, PKI, SMS/MMS, RSA

Title of the Paper:  Software Project Management: New Analysis of Specific Engineering and Management Processes in Modern Graphical Printing Industry Production


Authors: Vladimir Simovic

Abstract: Proper and effective Software Project Management (SPM) is usually the most important factor in the outcome of a project for many companies in “modern graphical printing industry production” (MGPIP) and their project engineers and managers [7]. Article opens new analytical directions for proper management of the software project in MGPIP, which can be one of the important reasons for success. By using effective project management techniques a project manager can improve the chances of success in graphical printing production. Problem is how to analytically combine these techniques into a practical and best effective workable process? For effective solution one need a balanced process that covers the management and production of the entire project from inception to completion. This work proposes that only few simulation models (and stochastic simulations) can analytically (and on scientific research basis) solve specific management and engineering organisational, controlling and monitoring problems of SPM in MGPIP. Mentioned simulation models are bases for simulations of components of whole graphical production process, from digital records arrivals to finished printing plate. Why to simulate components of whole graphical production process, from digital records arrivals to finished printing plate? Possible important answer is that nowadays MGPIP is in a time of big changing of (especially “mass printing”) production technology in a way of to integration traditional printing with digital printing, and moving in the space of digital printing for internet, intranet and for wide web systems usage [5]. This research solve some practical problems of MGPIP in accordance with the stated before, and this paper shows the result of a scientific comparison of the existing practical systems that function in different ways in MGPIP of famous Croatian printing house “Vjesnik” Zagreb and largest Croatian (daily news) publishing house EPH (“Europapress Holding”) Zagreb, but whose main aim is offering solution contents, knowledge, information, etc., and to reach as many users as possible by means of this and similar solutions. This research was part of main Scientific research named “Analytical Model for Monitoring of New Education Technologies for Long Life Learning“ conducted by Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia (Registered Number 227-2271694-1699).

Keywords: Software Project Management, Stochastic Simulation, Modern Graphical Printing Industry Production

Title of the Paper:  Developing Multi-User Online Games with Agents


Authors: Agostino Poggi

Abstract: This paper presents a software framework able to extend the coverage of virtual communities across the boundaries of the everyday Internet by providing ubiquitous and integrated access to applications regardless of the users connecting though conventional, fixed-network computers, mobile, wireless-network devices or even interactive digital television set-top boxes. This software framework is an extension of the JADE multiagent development environment and has been experimented for the realization of a special kind of virtual community applications, i.e., multi-user online games.

Keywords: Multi-agent systems, Mobile devices, DTV, Multi-games, Java.

Title of the Paper:  A Fast and Robust Method for the Identification of Face Landmarks in Profile Images


Authors: Andrea Bottino, Sandro Cumani

Abstract: Several applications in Computer Vision, like recognition, identification, automatic 3D modeling and animation and non conventional human computer interaction require the precise identification of landmark points in facial images. Here we present a fast and robust algorithm capable of identifying a specific set of landmarks on face profile images. First, the face is automatically segmented from the image. Then, the face landmarks are extracted. The algorithm is based on the local curvature of the profile contour and on the local analysis of the face features. The robustness of the presented approach is demonstrated by a set of experiments were ground truth data are compared with the result of our algorithm. A percentage of 92% correct identification and a mean error of 3.5 pixels demonstrate the robustness of the approach, which is of paramount importance for several applications.

Keywords: silhouettes, profile images, face landmark, robust identification

Title of the Paper:  Hierarchical Localization Strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks


Authors: Tzay-Farn Shih, Wei-Teng Chang

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging network technology. Among the varying research focused upon WSN, Location-Aware is a topic worthy of study. We are putting forward a hierarchical localiza-tion strategy. By using wireless localization and a few GPS, sensor networks can be more economical and localization can be more accurate. Our strategy includes two aspects: first, getting a relatively good measure-ment error value from the survey distance between two nodes by way of simple statistics and then correcting the survey distance to get a more accurate node location; second, using relaying nodes to fulfill hierarchical positioning strategy. The advantage of these methods is that they can reduce cost in the considerable extra hardware common in sensor networks. Through simulation experiment, the evidence confirmed the proposed methods can effectively improve localization accuracy and enhance the localization rate of estimated nodes.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; GPS; Wireless Ad Hoc network; AOA; TOA; TDOA

Title of the Paper:  Location-Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks


Authors: Tzay-Farn Shih, Chao-Cheng Shih, Chin-Ling Chen

Abstract: Wireless network offers freedom moving around the effective transmission area and the flexibility and easy to use function for Internet application. Many applications of computer network involve multiple users that will rely on the ability of the network to provide multicast services. Thus, multicasting will be concerned as an essential part of Ad Hoc networks. Some of the proposed routing algorithms require maintaining a global network state at each node, the imprecision of global state and the large amount of storage and communication overhead induce poor scalability. In this paper, we propose a distributed cluster-based QoS multicast routing algorithm which only requires maintaining a local state at each node. The location information provided by positioning device is aided in route discovery and route maintenance procedure. Our protocol partitions the network into square clusters. In each cluster, a cluster head and gateways are selected by a cluster head selection algorithm and a gateway selection algorithm respectively. After the construction of cluster heads and gateway nodes, a distributed computation collectively utilizes the local state information to construct multicast tree in a hop-by-hop basis. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. As it turns out, our protocol has better performance and lower routing overhead than the non-cluster based algorithm.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, Multicasting, QoS, GPS, Proactive routing, Reactive routing

Title of the Paper:  Performance and Reliability Analysis of New Fault-Tolerant Advance Omega Network


Authors: Rita Mahajan, Renu Vig

Abstract: The performance and fault tolerance are two very crucial factors in designing interconnection networks for a multiprocessor system. A new type of MIN, Fault Tolerant Advanced Omega network, which using 4×4 switches, is proposed on the basis of the idea of the Delta network and the Omega network. In this paper, it is proved that 4×4 switches have the better performance/cost ratios than 2×2 switches based on the current level of the VLSI technology. This paper expounds its topological properties and routing algorithm and makes performance/cost ratios comparisons. The mathematical analysis approach is used here to find the probability of acceptance and bandwidth with change in traffic. Furthermore reliability analysis of Fault-Tolerant Advanced Omega Network (FTAON) is discussed in detail, It is seen that FTAON is more reliable and cost effective than other previously proposed MINs of similar class. It has been also observed that it has fault tolerant and nonblocking capability in complex parallel systems.

Keywords: Interconnection Network, Advanced Omega Network, Fault-Tolerance, Reliability.

Title of the Paper:  Performance Review of Taiwanese IC Design Industry: DEA-based Malmquist Productivity Measure


Authors: Wei-Hwa Pan, Yuan-Yao Feng, Yueh-Chuen Huang, Yan-Kwang Chen

Abstract: The total revenue of Taiwan's IC design industry is now the second in the world, only behind the United States. To keep pace with abroad leaders, continually innovating by the IC design companies to main-tain and enhance their performance is the most import for obtaining the sustainable competitive advantage. This paper is concerned with a study on exploring the performance of Taiwan's IC design industry, including the managerial and productive technical efficiencies and their change over time. Data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based Malmquist method was employed to analyze the financial and non-financial data of 72 companies, from the financial panel listed in Taiwan Stock Exchange market, and examine the performance of these com-panies over the period from 2003 to 2005. Accordingly, IC design companies can recognize which function is important to their performance and which function can be further improved to achieve competitive advantage in the industry.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Malmquist productivity, Efficiency, IC design industry

Title of the Paper:  T-Detector Maturation Algorithm with Overlap Rate


Authors: Jungan Chen, Wenxin Chen, Feng Liang

Abstract: A parameter called overlap rate is proposed to control the number of valid detectors generated for a T-detector Maturation Algorithm. The achieved algorithm TMA-OR can reduce the number of detectors for abnormal detection. Experiment results show that TMA-OR is more effective than V-detector algorithms such as naive estimate and hypothesis testing method and can be applied on different data sets.

Keywords: Artificial immune system, overlap rate, match range

Title of the Paper:  StegCure: A Comprehensive Steganographic Tool using Enhanced LSB Scheme


Authors: L. Y. Por, W. K. Lai, Z. Alireza, T. F. Ang, M.T. Su, B. Delina

Abstract: Protected and encrypted data sent electronically is vulnerable to various attacks such as spyware and attempts in breaking and revealing the data. Thus, steganography was introduced to conceal a secret message into an unsuspicious cover medium so that it can be sent safely through a public communication channel. Suspicion becomes the significant key determinant in the field of steganography. In other words, an efficient stegnographic algorithm will not cause any suspicion after the hidden data is embedded. This paper presents an overview of steganography on GIF image format in order to explore the potential of GIF in information hiding research. A platform, namely StegCure is proposed by using an amalgamation of three different Least Significant Bit (LSB) insertion algorithms that is able to perform steganographic methods. This paper explains about the enhancement of the Least Significant Bits (LSB) insertion techniques from the most basic and conventional 1 bit to the LSB colour cycle method. Various kinds of existing steganographic methods are discussed and some inherent problems are highlighted along with some issues on existing solutions. In comparison with the other data hiding applications, StegCure is a more comprehensive security utility where it offers user-friendly functionality with interactive graphic user interface and integrated navigation capabilities. Furthermore, in order to sustain a higher level of security, StegCure has implemented a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) mechanism at both sender and receiver sites. With this feature, StegCure manages to restrict any unauthorized user from retrieving the secret message through trial and error. Besides, we also highlight a few aspects in LSB methods on image steganography. At the end of the paper, the evaluation results of the hybrid method in StegCure are presented. The future work will be focused in assimilation of more diversified methods into a whole gamut of steganography systems and its robustness towards steganalysis.

Keywords: steganography, GIF, security, information hiding, least significant bit, LSB.

Title of the Paper:  Orthogonal Array Application for Optimal Combination of Software Defect Detection Techniques Choices


Authors: Ljubomir Lazic, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: In this paper, we consider a problem that arises in black box testing: generating small test suites (i.e., sets of test cases) where the combinations that have to be covered are specified by input-output parameter relationships of a software system. That is, we only consider combinations of input parameters that affect an output parameter, and we do not assume that the input parameters have the same number of values. To solve this problem, we propose interaction testing, particularly an Orthogonal Array Testing Strategy (OATS) as a systematic, statistical way of testing pair-wise interactions. In software testing process (STP), it provides a natural mechanism for testing systems to be deployed on a variety of hardware and software configurations. The combinatorial approach to software testing uses models to generate a minimal number of test inputs so that selected combinations of input values are covered. The most common coverage criteria are two-way or pairwise coverage of value combinations, though for higher confidence three-way or higher coverage may be required. This paper presents some examples of software-system test requirements and corresponding models for applying the combinatorial approach to those test requirements. The method bridges contributions from mathematics, design of experiments, software test, and algorithms for application to usability testing. Also, this study presents a brief overview of the response surface methods (RSM) for computer experiments available in the literature. The Bayesian approach and orthogonal arrays constructed for computer experiments (OACE) were briefly discussed. An example, of a novel OACE application, to STP optimization study was also given. In this case study, an orthogonal array for computer experiments was utilized to build a second order response surface model. Gradient-based optimization algorithms could not be utilized in this case study since the design variables were discrete valued. Using OACE novel approach, optimum combination of software defect detection techniques choices for every software development phase that maximize all over Defect Detection Effectiveness of STP were determined.

Keywords: Software testing, Opzimization, Design of Experiments, Orthogonal array

Title of the Paper:  Datapath Error Detection with No Detection Latency for High-Performance Microprocessors


Authors: Yung-Yuan Chen, Kuen-Long Leu, Kun-Chun Chang

Abstract: Error detection plays an important role in fault-tolerant computer systems. Two primary parameters concerned for error detection are the coverage and latency. In this paper, a new, hybrid error-detection approach offering a very high coverage with zero detection latency is proposed to protect the data paths of high-performance microprocessors. The feature of zero detection latency is essential to real-time error recovery. The hybrid error-detection approach is to combine the duplication with comparison, triple modular redundancy (TMR) and self-checking mechanisms to construct a formal framework, which allows the error-detection schemes of varying hardware complexity, performance and error-detection coverage to be incorporated. An experimental 32-bit VLIW core was employed to demonstrate the concept of hybrid detection approach. The hardware implementations in VHDL and simulated fault injection experiments were conducted to measure the interesting design metrics, such as hardware overhead, performance degradation and error-detection coverage.

Keywords: Concurrent error detection, error-detection coverage, error-detection latency, fault injection, hybrid detection approach.

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Boolean Algebraic Framework for Association and Pattern Mining


Authors: Hatim A. Aboalsamh

Abstract: Data mining has been defined as the non- trivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data. Association mining and sequential mining analysis are considered as crucial components of strategic control over a broad variety of disciplines in business, science and engineering. Association mining is one of the important sub-fields in data mining, where rules that imply certain association relationships among a set of items in a transaction database are discovered. In Sequence mining, data are represented as sequences of events, where order of those events is important. Finding patterns in sequences is valuable for predicting future events. In many applications such as the WEB applications, stock market, and genetic analysis, finding patterns in a sequence of elements or events, helps in predicting what could be the next event or element. At the conceptual level, association mining and sequence mining are two similar processes but using different representations of data. In association mining, items are distinct and the order of items in a transaction is not important. While in sequential pattern mining, the order of elements (events) in transactions (sequences) is important, and the same event may occur more than once. In this paper, we propose a new mapping function that maps event sequences into itemsets. Based on the unified representation of the association mining and the sequential pattern, a new approach that uses the Boolean representation of input database D to build a Boolean matrix M. Boolean algebra operations are applied on M to generate all frequent itemsets. Finally, frequent items or frequent sequential patterns are represented by logical expressions that could be minimized by using a suitable logical function minimization technique.

Keywords: Sequence mining, data mining, association mining, Boolean association expressions, Boolean matrix, Association matrix.

Title of the Paper: Lexicalized and Statistical Parsing of Natural Language Text in Tamil using Hybrid Language Models


Authors: M. Selvam, A. M. Natarajan, R. Thangarajan

Abstract: Parsing is an important process of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Computational Linguistics which is used to understand the syntax and semantics of a natural language (NL) sentences confined to the grammar. Parser is a computational system which processes input sentence according to the productions of the grammar, and builds one or more constituent structures which conform to the grammar. The interpretation of natural language text depends on the context also. Language models need syntax and semantic coverage for the better interpretation of natural language sentences in small and large vocabulary tasks. Though statistical parsing with trigram language models gives better performance through tri-gram probabilities and large vocabulary size, it has some disadvantages like lack of support in syntax, free ordering of words and long term relationship. Grammar based structural parsing provides solutions to some extent but it is very tedious for larger vocabulary corpus. To overcome these disadvantages, structural component is to be involved in statistical approach which results in hybrid language models like phrase and dependency structure language models. To add the structural component, balance the vocabulary size and meet the challenging features of Tamil language, Lexicalized and Statistical Parsing (LSP) is to be employed with the assistance of hybrid language models. This paper focuses on lexicalized and statistical parsing of natural language text in Tamil language with comparative analysis of phrase and dependency language models. For the development of hybrid language models, new part of speech (POS) tag set with more than 500 tags and dependency tag set with 31 tags for Tamil language have been developed which have the wider coverage. Phrase and dependency structure treebanks have been developed with 3261 Tamil sentences which cover 51026 words. Hybrid language models were developed using these treebanks, employed in LSP and evaluated against gold standards. This LSP with hybrid language models provides better results and covers all the challenging features of Tamil language.

Keywords: Dependency Structure, Hybrid Language Model, Lexicalized and Statistical Parsing, Natural Language Processing, Part of Speech, Treebank, Phrase Structure, Trigram Language Model, Tamil Language.

Issue 9, Volume 7, September 2008

Title of the Paper: WordNet-based Summarization of Unstructured Document


Authors: Chenghua Dang, Xinjun Luo, Haibin Zhang

Abstract: This paper presents an improved and practical approach to automatically summarizing unstructured document by extracting the most relevant sentences from plain text or html version of original document. This technique proposed is based upon Key Sentences using statistical method and WordNet. Experimental results show that our approach compares favourably to a commercial text summarizer, and some refinement techniques improves the summarization quality significantly.

Key-words: Document Summarization, Key Sentence, WordNet, POS, Semantic Similarity 

Title of the Paper: Data Models for Retrieving Task-Specific and Technicians-Adaptive Hypermedia


Authors: Ammar M. Huneiti

Abstract: - This paper introduces a set of data models for facilitating the retrieval of task-specific and user-adaptive hypermedia documents concerning product fault diagnosis. These models include an integrated fault data model, a stereotype user model, and a semantic product data model. Moreover, the paper outlines the benefits of employing adaptive hypermedia to support the performance of technicians specifically for product fault diagnosis. The suggested stereotype user model represents the knowledge of the technician regarding the performed task. This user model is then used for the adaptive retrieval of finely separated and semantically classified product information elements. A detailed example of how task-specific and user-centred hypermedia can assist in synchronizing the output of a product diagnostic expert system with the product technical documentation is introduced. A general architecture for the suggested adaptive hypermedia system is outlined. The data models proposed in this paper are demonstrated through a prototype adaptive expert system for locating and correcting braking system faults in a forklift truck.

Key-Words: - Adaptive hypermedia, Semantic data modeling, Performance support systems, User modeling, Diagnostic expert systems.

Title of the Paper: A Generalized Software Fault Classification Model


Authors: Omar Shatnawi, P. K. Kapur

Abstract: - Most non-homogenous Poisson process (NHPP) based software reliability growth models (SRGMs) presented in the literature assume that the faults in the software are of the same type. However, this assumption is not truly representative of reality. It has been observed that the software contains different types of faults and each fault requires different strategies and different amount of testing-effort to remove it. If this assumption is not taken into account, the SRGM may give misleading results. This paper proposes a generalized model based on classification the faults in the software system according to their removal complexity. The removal complexity is proportional to the amount of testing-effort required to remove the fault. The testing-effort expenditures are represented by the number of stages required to remove the fault after the failure observation / fault isolation (with time delay between the stages). Therefore, it explicitly takes into account the faults of different severity and can capture variability in the growth curves depending on the environment it is being used and at the same time it has the capability to reduce either to exponential or S-shaped growth curves. Such modelling approach is very much suited for object-oriented programming and distributed development environments. Actual software reliability data have been used to demonstrate the proposed generalized model.

Key-Words: - Software engineering, Software testing, Software reliability, NHPP, SRGM, Fault severity.

Title of the Paper: Implementation of Real-Time Video Conference System Using high speed Multimedia Communication


Authors: Hyen Ki Kim

Abstract: - Recently, Peer to Peer(P2P) networks become more and more popular. This paper describes an implementation of real-time video conference system using high speed multimedia communication. The proposed real-time video conference system has hybrid Peer to Peer architecture based on a client-server and peer-to-peer, where client-server is used for exchange of account management, client list and status information and P2P is used for the real-time video conference. The proposed real-time video conference system decreases the traffic of server, and can cuts down the load of multimedia communication. Because the multimedia data is decentralized to client by hybrid peer-to-peer network architecture. Also, the proposed system is implemented and tested by the real-time video conference system using communication protocol and application software through high speed multimedia communication

Key-Words: - Real-Time, Video conference, High speed, Hybrid, P2P, Multimedia, Communication.



Title of the Paper: Measurements to Determine the Effectiveness of the Phobias Treatments


 Authors: Mauricio Plaza Torres

Abstract: With the levels of stress that involve the everyday activities of human being, the number of phobias and the people who suffer of these phobias has increased. The phobia treatments by direct exposure used by the psychologists have shown be effective, but in many cases it can be a danger for the physical and psychological health of the patient. In some treatments additional trauma or physical damage might be caused as a consequence of an incorrect control of the treatment; thinking about the decrease of the traumas caused by the treatment of the direct exposition, some medical centers use new technologies as the virtual reality. The doctor does not have a certain control of the variables of measurement for the determination of the level in the phobia conditions, which show an indication of the medical evolution. The article explain the research with the objective to determine if the virtual environment has any influence in the person’s psychological change seen through the changes of the controlled vital signs.

Key - Words: virtual reality, Experimentation, Security, Standardization, Measurement, Performance, Reliability, phobia, vital signs, measurements, phobia environment, phobia treatment Graphical environment, Interactive environments Design.

Title of the Paper: A Model of Implicit Term Relationship for Information Retrieval


 Authors: Tetsuya Yoshida

Abstract: This paper proposes a model for dealing with implicit term relationship among terms toward information retrieval, in the context of information retrieval over the Web. Until now various keyword based search engines have been developed to facilitate information retrieval over the Web. However, it can still be difficult to specify appropriate keywords (terms), which are to be provided to the engines to conduct the retrieval. We hypothesize that, although it is not explicitly represented or specified from the user, there can be some (hidden) relationship among the specified terms. Such relationship can be useful to facilitate effective retrieval, since it can work as “between the terms”, as in the between the lines in effective reading. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a model for representing the implicit relationship among the specified terms. Our model tries to capture the implicit relationship in terms of semantic aspect, and represents it as a concrete tree structure so that it can be utilized for further processing. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed model in the context of retrieval, and the results are reported.

Key–Words: Information Retrieval, Term Relationship, Tree Structure Thesaurus, World Wide Web

Title of the Paper: Assessing Object-oriented Programming Skills in the Core Education of Computer Science and Information Technology: Introducing New Possible Approach


Authors: Norazlina Khamis, Sufian Idris, Rodina Ahmad, Norisma Idris

Abstract: - Deciding on how to evaluate each students programming skills is one of the largest challenges facing educators who teach object-oriented courses. Traditional assessment of programming education is with Grade. Quite often students get good grades in programming but still facing great challenges or have difficulties to take on real programming jobs. This research focus on how we addressed this challenge in object oriented programming course by proposing a new assessment method to assess students’ object-oriented programming skills. The process begins by identifying generic object-oriented skills that students should acquired. In this paper we discuss the issues on object-oriented programming assessment and our proposed solution for a new assessment model. This followed by an approach taken in the process of identifying the object-oriented skills using Delphi technique. Delphi technique is a structured multi-step process that uses a group of experts to achieve a consensus opinion. We present the methodology of three Delphi processes to identify object-oriented programming skills. The identified skills will be used to guide both the coverage of student learning assessments and can be used by instructors to identify what topics merit emphasis.

Key-Words: - Object-oriented programming, assessment, programming skills, Delphi technique, goal questions metrics.

Title of the Paper: A Study of Issues and Considerations of Service Interaction Management in IMS Architecture


Authors: Hui-Na Chua , Chor-Min Tan, Yuxin Ho

Abstract: - Though IMS (IP Multimedia subsystem) is aimed to provide an open architecture environment for rapid service creation, it does not necessarily solve all the problems of service interactions and service provisioning. Service Brokering function as currently being studied by the 3GPP [1], is aimed to manage service capabilities interaction between any type of IMS application servers. However, the Service Broker definition in standards does not specify precisely the mechanism of how it achieves the service interaction management. Due to the definition is still not concrete, the Service Broker function is currently implemented in a proprietary manner. In this paper, we examine the evolution of Service Broker functionality proposed in standards and evaluate the existing Service Broker approaches that are proprietarily implemented. From architectural and interaction management aspects, we discuss the issues and considerations of Service Broker function.

Key-Words: - IMS, Service Broker, SOA, orchestration, Service Interaction and invocation.

Title of the Paper: Transformations Techniques for extracting Parallelism in Non-Uniform Nested Loops


Authors: Fawzy A. Torkey, Afaf A. Salah, Nahed M. El Desouky, Sahar A. Gomaa

Abstract: - Executing a program in parallel machines needs not only to find sufficient parallelism in a program, but it is also important that we minimize the synchronization and communication overheads in the parallelized program. This yields to improve the performance by reducing the time needed for executing the program. Parallelizing and partitioning of nested loops requires efficient iteration dependence analysis. Although many loop transformations techniques exist for nested loop partitioning, most of these transformation techniques perform poorly when parallelizing nested loops with non-uniform (irregular) dependences. In this paper the affine and unimodular transformations are applied to solve the problem of parallelism in nested loops with nonuniform dependence vectors. To solve these problem few researchers converted the non-uniform nested loops to uniform nested loops and then find the parallelism. We propose applying directly the two approaches affine and unimodular transformations to extract and improve the parallelism in nested loops with non-uniform dependences. The study shows that unimodular transformation is better than affine transformation when the dependences in nested loops exist only in one statement. While affine transformation is more effective when the nested loops have a sequence of statements and the dependence exists between these different statements.

Keywords: - Unimodular transformation, Affine transformation, Parallelism, Uniform dependence, Nonuniform dependence, Distance vector, Distance matrix

Title of the Paper: Information Society and its Development in the Czech Republic


Authors: Jitka Komarkova, Pavel Sedlak, Katerina Langrova

Abstract: - Development of information society has been strongly supported by all governments including the government of the Czech Republic. Recently, ways how to evaluate efficiency of the investments and development of information society have been searched for. Paper deals with utilization of geographic information systems, spatial analyses and exploratory spatial data analyses (both global and local indicators) for evaluation of development of information society and participation of the citizens. Within the case study development in all 14 regions of the Czech Republic during last few years is evaluated. Evaluation is based on available data which were provided by Czech Statistical Office. One of the results is that Prague (the capital) was a leader in the first years but during last few years the other regions have made the gap on the capital smaller so many differences across the country have been decreased.

Key-Words: - eGovernment, Information Society, eParticipation, Spatial Analyses, ESDA, GIS, DEMO-net.

Title of the Paper: Four-Dimensional Multi-Inkdot Finite Automata


Authors: Yasuo Uchida, Takao Ito, Hidenobu Okabe, Makoto Sakamoto, Hiroshi Furutani, Michio Kono

Abstract: During the past about thirty-five years, many automata on a two- or three-dimensional input tape have been proposed and a lot of properties of such automata have been obtained. On the other hand, we think that recently, due to the advances in computer animation, motion image processing, and so forth, it is very useful for analyzing computational complexity of multi-dimensional information processing to explicate the properties of four-dimensional automata, i.e., three-dimensional automata with the time axis. In this paper, we propose a fourdimensional multi-inkdot finite automaton and mainly investigate its recognizability of four-dimensional connected pictures. Moreover, we briefly investigate some basic accepting powers of four-dimensional multi-inkdot finite automata.

Key–Words: Alternation, Connected Pictures, Finite Automaton, Four-Dimension, Inkdot, Recognizability.

Title of the Paper: A Back-End Compiler with Fast Compilation for VLIW based Dynamic Reconfigurable Processor


Authors: Ryuji Hada, Kazuya Tanigawa, Tetsuo Hironaka

Abstract: We have developed a compiler for dynamic reconfigurable processor based on VLIW model. VLIW model fetches and executes one configuration data as VLIW instruction. For this model, our compiler schedules mapping elements as operations and live variables in program, with consideration of hardware resources. Next, place-and-route procedure places and routes the mapping elements to hardware resources for several configuration data. However the conventional place-and-route algorithms require much compilation time. The reason is that, for difficulty place-and-route condition, the number of place-and-route iteration is increased to get high code quality. Thus we propose a novel compiler method, which is combining scheduling and place-and-route with fast compilation, on keeping code quality. Our idea is that if a scheduling simplifies the place-and-route condition, small compilation time of place-and-route can realize a reasonable code quality. In scheduling, to balance the number of operations and live variables, and make the place-and-route condition easy, the operations are moved to another step with a fewer operations. In place-and-route, to reduce iteration procedures to get the reasonable result, it limits targets for replace-and-reroute. In this paper, we use PARS as one of target processors based on VLIW model. We evaluate our method and compare it with another method based on Simulated Annealing (SA). From the results, our method achieves that the difference of code quality (the number of configuration data like VLIW instruction) is -3.4% - +1.2%, and compilation time is cut to 1/128 - 1/67, compared with SA base method.

Key-Words: VLIW, Reconfigurable processor, compiler, scheduling, place and route.


Title of the Paper: An Improved Steganalysis Approach for Breaking the F5 Algorithm


Authors: Hatim Aboalsamh, Hassan Mathkour, Sami Dokheekh, Mona Mursi, Ghazyassassa

Abstract :In this paper, we present an enhancement to the steganalysis algorithm that successfully attacks F5 steganographic algorithm using JPEG digital images. The key idea is related to the selection of an “optimal” value of â (the probability that a non-zero AC coefficient will be modified) for the image under consideration. Rather than averaging the values of â for 64 shifting steps worked on an image, an optimal â is determined that corresponds to the shift having minimal distance E from the double compression removal step. Numerical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed enhanced algorithm and compare it against the original one. Both algorithms were tested and compared using two sets of test images. The first set uses reference test data of 20 grayscale images [1], and the second uses 432 images created by manipulating 12 images for various image parameters: two sizes (300x400 and 150x2000), six JPEG old quality factors (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100), and 3 message lengths (0, 1kB, 2 kB). The results suggest that the original algorithm may be used as a classifier, since it shows a good detection performance of both clean and stego test images; whereas, the proposed enhanced algorithm may be used as an estimator for the true message length for those images that have been classified by original algorithm as stego images.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Steganography, F5 algorithm, Discrete Cosine Transforms DCT, Matrix encoding, JPEG images.


Title of the Paper: Context-Aware Remote Healthcare Support System based on Overlay Network


Authors: Debasish Chakraborty, Hideyuki Takahashi, Takuo Suganuma, Atsushi Takeda, Gen Kitagata, Kazuo Hashimoto, Norio Shiratori

Abstract: Many countries are facing an ever-growing need to supply constant care and support for their disabled and elderly populations. So the importance to remote monitoring is becoming essential for looking after them. With an environment full of smart and cooperating artifacts will at the same time pose great risks to personal privacy. To protect personal information patient's data should be available irrespective of their location, but only to the authorized person. At the same time quality and reliability of transferring data is also important depending on the content of the data and the recipient. In this paper we propose a system where a personalized overlay network will be built in an ad hoc basis and links between different entities will be established according to the social relationship between the person under observation and the people at the other end and the situation of the observed person. The connected links will provide reliability, quality and other required characteristics according to the requirements specialized by the members involved. For efficient cost and resource utilization, an on-demand network connection is considered for our proposed context aware ubiquitous healthcare system.

Key-Words: Adaptive context aware, Overlay networks, Ubiquitous healhcare, Multi-agent system, Security.

Issue 10, Volume 7, October 2008

Title of the Paper: The Framework of the Turkish Syllable-Based Concatenative Text-to-Speech System with Exceptional Case Handling


Authors: Zeynep Orhan, Zeliha Gormez

Abstract: - This paper describes the TTTS (Turkish Text-To-Speech) synthesis system, developed at Fatih University for Turkish language. The framework of the Turkish syllable-based concatenative text-to-speech system with exceptional case handling is introduced. TTTS is a concatenative TTS system aiming to advance the process of developing natural and human sounding Turkish voices. The resulting system is implemented by concatenating pieces of pre-recorded limited number of speech units that are stored in a database. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units affecting the output range, the quality and the clarity, therefore the number of the concatenation units, synthetic units obtained and the computational power required should be kept in balance. The letters of the Turkish alphabet and the syllables that consist of two letters at most are used as the smallest phonemes in the context of this study. The syllables that have more than two letters are derived from these smallest units. The words, which are generally borrowed from other languages throughout cultural interactions, present exceptional behaviors and should be handled specifically. The results are evaluated by using the Degradation Mean Opinion Score (DMOS) method.

Key-Words: - Text-to-speech (TTS), Speech Synthesis, Concatenative Turkish TTS.

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Production and Transportation Planning with Uncertainty and Risk


Authors:  Kuentai Chen, Hung-Chun Chen, Z. H. Che

Abstract: - Inevitable in the practical supply chain planning, uncertainties, including unsure demand and various risks such as machine failure and transportation loss, are fundamental issues for all members of the supply chain. In this research, a mathematic model of supply chain with risk and uncertain demand are established and solved. The inherent complexity of such an integer programming model leads to the solving difficulty in speedily finding exact and integer optimal solutions. Therefore, a quick and decent answer becomes essential to pace up with the competitive business world, even it is usually only an approximate estimate. Four types of model are discussed in this study, including certain demand without risk, certain demand with risk, uncertain demand without risk, and uncertain demand with risk. After model verification and validation, computer simulations are performed with three selecting policies, namely “low cost first”, “random”, and “minimum cost path”. The results are analyzed and compared, in which the “minimum cost path” is the better policy for node selection according to simulation runs. A general linear programming solver called LINDO was used to find the optimal solutions but took days as the problem size increases, while simulation model obtains an acceptable solution in minutes. For small size problems, numerical examples show that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) between integer simulation solution and mathematical non-integer solution falls into the range of 3.69% to 7.34%, which demonstrates the feasibility and advantage of using simulation for supply chain planning.

Key-Words: Supply Chain, Risk, Simulation, Integer Programming, Uncertainty.


Title of the Paper: Sequential and Parallel Deficit Scaling Algorithms for Minimum Flow in Bipartite Networks


Authors:  Laura Ciupala, Eleonor Ciurea

Abstract: - In this paper, first we describe the deficit scaling algorithm for minimum flow in bipartite networks. This algorithm is obtained from the deficit scaling algorithm for minimum flow in regular networks developed by Ciupală in [5] by replacing a pull from a node with sufficiently large deficit with two consecutive pulls. This replacement ensures that only nodes in N1 can have deficits. Consequently, the running time of the deficit scaling algorithm for minimum flow is reduced from O(nm+n2 logC) to O(n1m+n12 logC) when it is applied on bipartite networks. In the last part of this paper, we develop a parallel implementation of the deficit scaling algorithm for minimum flow in bipartite networks on an EREW PRAM. The parallel bipartite deficit scaling algorithm performs a pull from an active node with a sufficiently large deficit and with the smallest distance label from N1 at a time followed by a set of pulls from several nodes in N2 in parallel. It runs in O(n12 log C log p) time on an EREW PRAM with p = m/n1 processors, which is within a logarithmic factor of the running time of the sequential bipartite deficit scaling algorithm for minimum flow.

Key-Words: - Network flow; Network algorithms; Bipartite network; Parallel algorithms; Minimum flow problem; Scaling technique

Title of the Paper:  Segmentation Techniques for Target Recognition


Authors:  G. N. Srinivasan, Shobha G.

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for segmenting 2D images as a means in detecting target objects embedded in visual images for an Automatic Target Detection application.

Keywords: Target Detection, Image Processing, Pattern Recognition, Segmentation.


Title of the Paper: Multimedia Interactive Environment for Study the Plane Analytical Geometry


Authors:  Anca Iordan, George Savii, Manuela Panoiu, Caius Panoiu

Abstract: - In this work will be presented the elaboration of an educational informatics system for studying plane analytical geometry elements. The achieved informatics system will be able to be used for teaching geometry, both in pre-university and in university education. Incorporating modern methods and techniques, the presented software will lead the user to obtain experience in understanding and handling the knowledge in geometry field and will grant easy and efficient access to the newest information and knowledge.

Key-Words: - Interactive software, plane analytical geometry, Java, distance education.

Title of the Paper: Reduced-Set Vector-Based Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Network


Authors:  Long Yu, Jian Xiao, Song Wang

Abstract: - This paper describes an interval type-2 fuzzy modeling framework, reduced-set vector-based interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (RV-based IT2FNN), to characterize the representation in fuzzy logic inference procedure. The model proposed introduces the concept of interval kernel to interval type-2 fuzzy membership, and provides an architecture to extract reduced-set vectors for generating interval type-2 fuzzy rules. Thus, the overall RV-based IT2FNN can be represented as series expansion of interval kernel, and it does not have to determine the number of rules in advance. By using a hybrid learning mechanism, the proposed RV-based IT2FNN can construct an input-ouput mapping from the training data in the form of fuzzy rules. At last, simulation results show that the RV-based IT2FNN obtained possesses nice generalization and transparency.

Key-Words: - interval type-2; fuzzy modeling; reduced-set; interval kernel; insensitive learning.

Title of the Paper: Grammar-based Classifier System: A Universal Tool for Grammatical Inference


Authors: Olgierd Unold

Abstract: - Grammatical Inference deals with the problem of learning structural models, such as grammars, from different sort of data patterns, such as artificial languages, natural languages, biosequences, speech and so on. This article describes a new grammatical inference tool, Grammar-based Classifier System (GCS) dedicated to learn grammar from data. GCS is a new model of Learning Classifier Systems in which the population of classifiers has a form of a context-free grammar rule set in a Chomsky Normal Form. GCS has been proposed to address both regular language induction and the natural language grammar induction as well as learning formal grammar for DNA sequence. In all cases near-optimal solutions or better than reported in the literature were obtained.

Key-Words: - Machine Learning, Grammatical Inference, Learning Classifier Systems, Regular Language Induction, DFA Induction, Natural Language Processing, Promoter Recognition.

Title of the Paper: Several Aspects of Context Freeness for Hyperedge Replacement Grammars.


Authors:  Silviu Dumitrescu

Abstract: - In this paper we survey several aspects related to normal forms of hyperedge replacement grammars. Considering context free hyperedge replacement grammars we introduce, inspired by string grammars, Chomsky Normal Form and Greibach Normal Form. The algorithm of conversion is quite the same with the algorithm for string grammars. The important difference is related to the fact that hyperedge grammars are two-dimensional and that’s why parsing productions, in order to transform into string grammars, can be done only nondeterministic. A detailed example of conversion to both normal forms is introduced to clarify all the algorithm steps.

Key-Words: - Hyperedge Replacement Grammars, Normal Form, Chomsky, Greibach, Context Freeness, Nondeterministic.

Title of the Paper: Using COBIT Indicators for Measuring Scrum-based Software Development


Authors:  Viljan Mahnic, Natasa Zabkar

Abstract: - The aim of this paper is to determine the level of compliance of AGIT model, developed during our previous research for measuring Scrum-based software development, with the information systems auditing criteria. For this purpose we use COBIT model. After a short introduction of Scrum, AGIT and COBIT, we perform comparison analysis of their indicators for software development. Then we upgrade AGIT model with the selected COBIT indicators. In order to improve the clarity of the model, we present its structure using IT Balanced Scorecard. Finally we suggest possible further research.

Key-Words: - Scrum, Agile software development, IT performance measurement, IT indicators, IT Balanced Scorecard, COBIT, AGIT.

Title of the Paper: Counter Register. Algebraic Model and Applications


Authors: Anca Vasilescu

Abstract: Hardware system consists of interconnected components, meaning communicating and synchronized components. Since the number of interconnected components in a computer system is continuously increasing, it follows that it is useful to have an alternative solution for verifying the computer operation instead of a simulation based  verification. In this paper we consider a specific component of the modern computer systems, namely a counter register, and we propose an algebraic approach as a solution for modeling and verifying the specification agents. As a final part of the paper, we mention some practical applications of the counter register, both in the everyday life and for the internal structure of the computer systems.

Key–Words: communication, counting operation, hardware system, modeling, SCCS process algebra, synchronization, verification.

Title of the Paper: A New Scalable Distributed Authentication for P2P Network and its Performance Evaluation


Authors: Atushi Takeda, Debashish Chacraborty, Gen Kitagata, Kazuo Hashimoto, Norio Shiratori

Abstract: Recently P2P networks become more and more popular. Though they have many advantages, P2P networks suffer from authentication of nodes. To overcome this problem, a new authentication method called Hash-based Distributed Authentication Method (HDAM) is proposed in this paper. HDAM realizes a decentralized efficient mutual authentication mechanism for each pair of nodes in the P2P network. It performs a distributed management of public keys by using Web of Trust and Distributed Hash Table. Our proposed scheme significantly reduces both the memory size requirement and the overhead of communication data sent by the nodes. Additionally, the results also show that required resource size of HDAM is O(log n) and HDAM is more scalable than the conventional method.

Key–Words: Distributed authentication, Decentralized public key exchange, Peer-to-peer network

Title of the Paper: A Survey of Automata on Three-Dimensional Input Tapes


Authors: Makoto Sakamoto, Naoko Tomozoe, Hiroshi Furutani, Michio Kono, Takao Ito, Yasuo Uchida, Hidenobu Okabe

Abstract: The question of whether processing three-dimensional digital patterns is much more difficult than two dimensional ones is of great interest from the theoretical and practical standpoints. Recently, due to the advances in many application areas such as computer vision, robotics, and so forth, it has become increasingly apparent that the study of three-dimensional pattern processing has been of crucial importance. Thus, the research of threedimensional automata as computational models of three-dimensional pattern processing has also been meaningful. The main purpose of this paper is to survey the definitions and properties of various three-dimensional automata.

Key–Words: Computation, Constructability, Finite Automaton, Inkdot, Marker, Recognizability, Three-Dimension, Turing Machine

Title of the Paper: A General Approach to Off-line Signature Verification


Authors: Bence Kovari, Istvan Albert, Hassan Charaf

Abstract: - Although automatic off-line signature verification has been extensively studied in the last three decades, there are still a huge number of open questions and even the best systems are still struggling to get better error rates than 5%. This paper targets some of the weak spots of the research area, which are comparability, measurability and interoperability of different signature verification systems. After delivering an overview of some of the main research directions, this paper proposes a generic representation of signature verifiers. In the first part of the paper it is shown how existing verification systems compare to the generic model, detailing the differences and their resolutions. In the second part a signature verification framework is introduced, which was created based on the generic model. It is demonstrated how existing algorithms and even an existing signature verifier can be modularized and modified to allow an execution through the framework. Finally the benefits of the model are outlined including the unified benchmarking, comparability of different systems and the support for distributed software architectures like SOA.

Key-Words: - signature verification; off-line; unified model; component based; loose coupling

Title of the Paper: Implementation of Semantic Services in Enterprise Application Integration


Authors: Bence Peter Martinek, Balazs Tothfalussy, Bela Szikora

Abstract: - In this paper, we present an approach for the implementation of semantically enriched services in Enterprise Application Integration (EAI). We present an integration platform based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) which consists of a service registry, a process designer and a run-time engine. There are some additional components for realizing semantic enrichment of services and composed processes e.g. the semantic profiler and the Ontology. The focus of the paper is the preparation for the process run-time. We propose a mediator based approach where data transformations are assigned to each service during the deployment. The standard services of ERP, CRM, SCM etc. systems are encapsulated into mediator services which makes possible to apply them in a semantic integration framework. Still, created semantic services remain compatible with current Web service standards and communicate with standard SOAP messages. Hence the collaborative processes composed by attached semantic meta-information of services are also executable by standard Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) run-time engine.

Key-Words: - Enterprise application integration, Semantic services’ run-time, Collaborative business processes.

Title of the Paper: Key Consumer Group for Late Comers in Network Effect Product Markets: A Multi-agent Modeling Approach


Authors: Zhou Geng

Abstract: - The first movers in network effect market enjoy the first-mover advantages. However, through proper strategy, late comers still hold a chance to win the competition. I divide the consumers into 5 categories (active rational, passive rational, active non-rational, passive non-rational and sheep herd) and simulate the market with multi-agent modeling method. Through analyzing the interactions between these consumer groups, I find that the active non-rational group is the most important consumer group for the late comers—late comers should focus on attracting this group first so that they may compete with the first movers. In support of my study, I also provide case studies of China’s blog service market and China’s online game market.

Key-Word: - multi-agent modeling, network effect, consumer group, first mover advantage, consumer behavior, decision making, herd behavior.


Title of the Paper: Implementation of Classifiers for Choosing Insurance Policy Using Decision Trees: A Case Study


Authors: Chin-Sheng Huang, Yu-Ju Lin, Che-Chern Lin

Abstract: - In this paper, we use decision trees to establish the decision models for insurance purchases. Five major types of insurances are involved in this study including life, annuity, health, accident, and investment-oriented insurances. Four decision tree methods were used to build the decision models including Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID), Exhaustive Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (ECHAID), Classification and Regression Tree (CRT), and Quick-Unbiased-Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST).Six features were selected as the inputs of the decision trees including age, sex, annual income, educational level, occupation, and risk preference. Three hundred insurants from an insurance company in Taiwan were used as examples for establishing the decision models. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the decision trees. The first one used the purchase records of primary insurances as examples. The second one used the purchase records of primary insurances and additional insurances. Each experiment contained four rounds according to different partitions of training sets and test sets. Discussion and concluding remarks are finally provided at the end of this paper.

Key-Words: - Insurance policy; Decision tree; Decision model; ECHAID; CRT; CHAID; QUEST; Classification tree; Decision support system..

Title of the Paper: Design of Individualizing Learning Framework with Fuzzy Expert System and Variable Learning Route Model: A Case Study of UML


Authors: Che-Chern Lin, Shen-Chien Chen, Chin-Chih Lin

Abstract: - In this paper, we discuss how a fuzzy expert system is utilized in education. We present a conceptual framework for designing individualizing learning materials using a fuzzy expert system and a variable learning route model. The framework can help teachers to design their customized teaching materials  for individual students based on the academic achievements of the students. In the framework, we first use pre-assessment to evaluate the students’ academic achievements. The fuzzy expert system is then used to select  suitable learning material for the students according to their academic achievements. The variable learning route model serves to determine the adaptive learning paths for the students based on the results of the fuzzy  expert system. We introduce the concepts of the learning model with a simulative example. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is utilized in this paper to describe the structures and behaviors of the proposed framework. Discussion and concluding remarks are finally provided at the end of this paper.

Key-words: Fuzzy expert system, Variable route model, Individual learning, Adaptive learning, UML, OOAD, System analysis and design.

Title of the Paper: Managing Ontology Change and Evolution via a Hybrid Matching


Authors: Saravanan Muthaiyah, Marcel Barbulescu, Larry Kerschberg

Abstract: - In this paper, we present the problem of ontology evolution and change management. We provide a systematic approach to solve the problem by adopting a multi-agent system (MAS). The core of our solution is the Semantic Relatedness Score (SRS) which is an aggregate score of five well-tested semantic as well as syntactic algorithms. The focus of this paper is to resolve current problems related to ontology upgrade and managing evolution amongst shared ontologies. This paper highlights issues pertaining to ontological changes in a shared ontology environment which includes creating, renaming, deletion and modification of existing classes. These changes will definitely impact shared concepts and users would have to update their local ontologies to be consistent with changes in the commonly shared ontology. We propose a less laborious method to achieve this by using a semi-automated approach where a bulk of the processing is carried out by matching agents that would eliminate extraneous data and hence would only recommend to the ontologist data that can actually be upgraded. We have also designed and built a prototype in the Java Agent DEvelopment Framework (JADE) for proof-of-concept.

Key-Words: - Hierarchical Repository, Semantic Matching, Syntactic Matching, Agent, Ontology.

Title of the Paper: Development of Bio-Mimetic Entertainment Dolphin Robots


Authors: Daejung Shin, Seung Y. Na, Jin Y. Kim, Yong-Gwan Won, Bae-Ho Lee

Abstract: - Development of bio-mimetic entertainment dolphin robots that act like real dolphins in terms of autonomous swimming and human-dolphin interactions are introduced. Body structures, sensors and actuators, governing microcontroller boards, swimming and interaction features are described for a typical entertainment dolphin robot. Actions of mouth-opening, tail splash or water blow through a spout hole are the typical responses of interaction when touch sensors on its body detect users’ demand. A pair of microphones as the ears of a dolphin robot, in order to improve the entertainment dolphin robot’s ability to interact with people, is used to estimate the peak sound directions from surrounding viewers. Dolphin robots should turn towards people who demand to interact with them, while swimming autonomously.

Key-Words: - Entertainment Dolphin Robot, Bio-mimetic, Interaction, Autonomous Dolphin System

Title of the Paper: MPI based Parallel Method of Moments Approach for Microstrip Structures Analysis


Authors: Francisco Cabrera, Eugenio Jimenez

Abstract: In this paper we will present a parallel Method of Moments (MoM for short) technique using the MPI library. Here, the MoM is used to analyze microstrip structures. The main goals to achieve are efficient parallel coef[1]cient computation and ef[1]cient linear equation system solving. The efficiency and accuracy of the parallel processing MoM code is analyzed through several examples with two data distribution using ScaLAPACK library.

Key–Words: MoM, microstrip, parallel, MPI, ScaLAPACK

Title of the Paper: Aspects of Dictionary Making Developing an In-House Text Parsing Tool


Authors: Livia Sangeorzan, Marinela Burada, Kinga Kiss Iakab

Abstract: - This paper reports on particular aspects of ongoing research funded by the National University Research Council and conducted by an interdisciplinary team of academics from Transilvania University of Braşov, Romania, of which the authors of the present contribution are members. Based on the results yielded by a large-scale survey of seventy online bilingual/multilingual dictionaries involving the English and Romanian domains, we begin with an assessment of the status quo in the area of glossaries and dictionaries available on the internet; we then focus on one particular aspect of dictionary design, i.e. the development and operation of a flexible, customizable scanner-parser that we designed with a view to optimizing the work associated with data collection and dictionary compiling.

Key-Words: - accessibility, customizability, interstructure, Java, macrostructure, online dictionary, parsing tool

Title of the Paper: An Arbitration Web Service for E-learning based on XML Security Standards


Authors: Robert Andrei Buchmann, Sergiu Jecan

Abstract: This paper promotes a non-repudiation system for student evaluation in an e-learning environment based on web services, AJAX frameworks and PEAR packages in order to implement XML security standards, to provide improved user experience, asynchronous data exchange and message authentication for on-line test papers. The motivation of this research is the need to arbitrate on-line evaluation for both parties, the e-teacher and the e-student, the evaluation criteria and the rating against open answers.

Keywords: - e-learning, XML, digital signature, AJAX.

Title of the Paper: Querying XML Documents with XPath/XQuery in Presence of XLink Hyperlinks


Authors: Lule Ahmedi, Mentor Arifaj

Abstract: Nowadays XML documents are prezented into the Web more than ever. Using XLink hyperlinks, a docu-ment can refer different portions of information in different documents into the Web. With XLink hyperlinks the XML documents in the Web can be investigated from querying point of view not just while browsing these docu-ments. There are few implementations regarding XLink recommendation and just two implementations regarding quering XML documents using XPath/XQuery expressions in presence of XLink hyperlinks. On the other side XPath/XQuery has many implementations and wide support from IT leaders in the world. In this paper it is shown another way of using XPath/XQuery to query XML documents in presence of hyperlinks. The paper shows a model and its implementation. To materialize the new model it is used Saxon-B processor, with which was created an ex-tention named BOTA. Prototype BOTA can be used in different web applications and easly can be integrated into Web Services in order to select something more narrow that the whole XML document. The prototype Bota espe-cially can be used in applications with RSS and Atom.

Key-Words: - XML, Querying XML, XLink hyperlinks, XML Applications, LDAP.

Title of the Paper: Real-Time Background Subtraction using Adaptive Thresholding and Dynamic Updating for Biometric Face Detection


Authors:   K. Sundaraj

Abstract: Face biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person’s face based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Face recognition works by first obtaining an image of a person. This process is usually known as face detection. In this paper, we describe an approach for face detection that is able to locate a human face embedded in an outdoor or indoor background. Segmentation of novel or dynamic objects in a scene, often referred to as background subtraction or foreground segmentation, is a critical early step in most computer vision applications in domains such as surveillance and human-computer interaction. All previous implementations aim to handle properly one or more problematic phenomena, such as global illumination changes, shadows, highlights, foreground-background similarity, occlusion and background clutter. Satisfactory results have been obtained but very often at the expense of real-time performance. We propose a method for modeling the background that uses per-pixel time-adaptive Gaussian mixtures in the combined input space of pixel color and pixel neighborhood. We add a safety net to this approach by splitting the luminance and chromaticity components in the background and use their density functions to detect shadows and highlights. Several criteria are then combined to discriminate foreground and background pixels. Our experiments show that the proposed method possesses robustness to problematic phenomena such as global illumination changes, shadows and highlights, without sacrificing real-time performance, making it well-suited for a live video event like face biometric that requires face detection and recognition.

Key–Words: Background Modeling, Face Detection, Biometric Identification.

Title of the Paper: The Development of Evaluation Indicators for LEGO Multimedia Instructional Material


Authors: Eric Zhi Feng Liu, Shan Shan Chen, Chun Hung Lin, Yu Fang Chang, Wen Ting Chen

Abstract: - The robotics education is more and more important, but there is a lack of evaluation indicators for evaluating robotics multimedia instructional material. Therefore, the researchers developed evaluation indicators for robotics multimedia instructional material in this paper. The researchers applied content analysis in the first stage, and then applied Delphi technique and invited 2 robotics teachers and 4 experts of multimedia instructional material designer and 4 users of robotics multimedia instructional material to develop the scale. The well developed scale included 40 evaluative indicators can be classified into 4 factors that are motivation, interface design, content, and feasibility.

Key-Words: - LEGO, MINDSTORMS NXT, Robot, Evaluation indicator, Multimedia instructional material

Title of the Paper: Solving Large Scale Optimization Problems by Opposition-Based Differential Evolution (ODE)


Authors: Shahryar Rahnamayan, G. Gary Wang

Abstract: This work investigates the performance of Differential Evolution (DE) and its opposition-based version (ODE) on large scale optimization problems. Opposition-based differential evolution (ODE) has been proposed based on DE; it employs opposition-based population initialization and generation jumping to accelerate convergence speed. ODE shows promising results in terms of convergence rate, robustness, and solution accuracy. A recently proposed seven-function benchmark test suite for the CEC-2008 special session and competition on large scale global optimization has been utilized for the current investigation. Results interestingly confirm that ODE outperforms its parent algorithm (DE) on all high dimensional (500D and 1000D) benchmark functions (F1-F7). Furthermore, authors recommend to utilize ODE for more complex search spaces as well. Because results confirm that ODE performs much better than DE when the dimensionality of the problems is increased from 500D to 1000D. All required details about the testing platform, comparison methodology, and also achieved results are provided.

Key–Words: Opposition-Based Differential Evolution (ODE), Opposition-Based Optimization (OBO), Opposition- Based Computation (OBC), Cooperative Co evolutionary Algorithms (CCA), Large Scale Optimization, Scalability, High-Dimensional Problems

Title of the Paper: A Complete Analyze of using Shift Registers in Cryptosystems for Grade 4, 8 and 16 Irreducible Polynomials


Authors: Mirella Amelia Mioc

Abstract: A Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) is always the kernel of any digital system based on pseudorandom bits sequences and is frequently used in cryptosystems, in codes for errors detecting, in wireless system communication. The Advanced Encryption System (Rijndael) is based on using a grade 8 irreducible polynomials in a Galois Field. For a better understanding this study contains aspects of functioning for Linear Feedback Shift Register and Multiple Input-Output Shift Register (MISR) using grade 4, 8 and 16 irreducible polynomials. This experiment shows that the Linear Feed-back Shift Register and Multiple Input-Output Shift Register have the same function. The conclusion of this paper is that for grade 8 and 16 irreducible polynomials the weights are calculated with a formula discovered in this work.

Key-Words: Cryptosystem, Shift registers, Calculate, Irreducible polynomials, Simulate, Rijndael,Pseudo-Random Sequence, Error Detect.

Issue 11, Volume 7, November 2008

Title of the Paper: Short Term Wind Speed Prediction using Support Vector Machine Model


Authors: K. Sreelakshmi, P. Ramakanth Kumar

Abstract – Wind speed prediction in short term is required to asses the effect of wind on different objects in action in free space, like rockets, navigating ships and planes, guided missiles satellites in launch etc. Forecasting also helps in usage of wind energy as an alternative source of energy in Electrical power generation plants. The wind speed depends on the values of other atmospheric variables, such as pressure, moisture content, humidity, rainfall etc. This paper reports a Support Vector Machine model for short term wind speed prediction. The model uses the values of these parameters, obtained from a nearest weather station, as input data. The trained model is validated using a part of data. The model is then used to predict the wind speed, using the same meteorological information.

Keywords — Short term wind speed prediction, Support Vector Machine [SVM], forecasting, hyper plane, kernels, classification

Title of the Paper: Color Correction for Multi-view Video Based on Background Segmentation and Dominant Color Extraction


Authors: Feng Shao, Zongju Peng, You Yang

Abstract: - Color correction is a necessary operation in multi-view video processing, because color tends to be influenced by camera characteristic, surface reflectance or scene illumination. To achieve high-quality correction results, a new color correction method, based on the theoretical model of multi-view imaging and image restoration, is proposed in this paper. Considering the illumination problem in multi-view imaging, foreground and background regions are separated from images and dominant color extraction is used only for background regions of reference and input images, so that uniform reference surface information is used. Then, color correction is extended to video sequences with a tracking approach. Furthermore, an objective performance evaluation is proposed to evaluate the color correction. We present a variety of results for different test sequences, arguing that background-based method outperforms foreground-based method, and better subjective and objective visual effect can be achieved for images as well as videos.

Key-Words: - Multi-view video, color correction, background segmentation, dominant color extraction, principal component analysis, color difference.

Title of the Paper: Power-Aware Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (PHIDS) using Cellular Automata in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks


Authors: P. Kiran Sree, I. Ramesh Babu, J. V. R. Murty, R. Ramachandran, N. S. S. S. N Usha Devi

Abstract :Ad hoc wireless network with their changing topology and distributed nature are more prone to intruders. The network monitoring functionality should be in operation as long as the network exists with nil constraints. The efficiency of an Intrusion detection system in the case of an ad hoc network is not only determined by its dynamicity in monitoring but also in its flexibility in utilizing the available power in each of its nodes. In this paper we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system, based on a power level metric for potential ad hoc hosts, which is used to determine the duration for which a particular node can support a network-monitoring node. Power –aware hybrid intrusion detection system focuses on the available power level in each of the nodes and determines the network monitors. Power awareness in the network results in maintaining power for network monitoring, with monitors changing often, since it is an iterative power-optimal solution to identify nodes for distributed agent-based intrusion detection. The advantage that this approach entails is the inherent flexibility it provides, by means of considering only fewer nodes for re-establishing network monitors. The detection of intrusions in the network is done with the help of Cellular Automata (CA). The CA’s classify a packet routed through the network either as normal or an intrusion. The use of CA’s enable in the identification of already occurred intrusions as well as new intrusions.

Issue 12, Volume 7, December 2008

Title of the Paper: Power Efficiency Study of Multi-threading Applications for Multi-core Mobile Systems


Authors: Marius Marcu, Dacian Tudor, Sebastian Fuicu, Silvia Copil-Crisan, Florin Maticu, Mihai Micea

Abstract: One constant in computing which is true also for mobile computing is the continue requirement for greater performance. Every performance advance in mobile processors leads to another level of greater performance demands from newest mobile applications. However, on battery powered devices performance is strictly limited by the battery capacity, therefore energy efficient applications and systems have to be developed. The power consumption problem of mobile systems is in general a very complex one and remained very actual for quite a long time. In this paper we aim to define a software execution framework for mobile systems in order to characterize the power consumption profile of multi-threading mobile applications. Study results for different thread libraries, multi-core processors and multithreaded parallelized applications are also presented.

Key-Words: Power consumption, multi-threading, multi-core, mobile applications, power profiling

Title of the Paper: Modelling a Plasma System for Soliton and Shockwaves with a Splitting Scheme and a Second and a Third Order High Resolution Scheme


Authors: R. Naidoo

Abstract: A splitting and a fully discrete second order and a third order semi discrete schemes are modified and adapted for a numerical solution of a hyperbolic system of a one dimensional electrostatic plasma fluid equation. Illustrations as to how the splitting and the NNT (fully discrete) and the semi-discrete (SD3) schemes capture the formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons and shockwaves were performed. In this study we perform a comparison between a fully discrete NNT and the semi discrete SD3 high resolution schemes and the splitting scheme which is constructed for the first time for a one dimensional plasma systems in the present study. The results indicate that the splitting scheme demonstrates clear superiority over the NNT and SD3 schemes in the soliton solution where the numerical noise of the electron waves is reduced significantly. For the shock wave solution the NNT and SD3 schemes are similar to the splitting scheme but exhibit oscillations at the contact discontinuity. However the splitting scheme exhibit a smaller computational time than the NNT and SD3 schemes. It is thus advocated that in a one dimensional plasma system for solution and shockwaves simulations the splitting scheme and NNT /SD3 schemes be utilised respectively.

Key-Words: Solitons,shockwaves,hyperbolic,plasma,split scheme,high resolution scheme

Title of the Paper: Quality Inspection of Textile Artificial Textures Using a Neuro-Symbolic Hybrid System Methodology


Authors: Vianey Guadalupe Cruz Sanchez, Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas, Gerardo Reyes Salgado, Humberto De Jesus Ochoa Dominguez

Abstract: In the industrial sector there are many processes where the visual inspection is essential, the automation of that processes becomes a necessity to guarantee the quality of several objects. In this paper we propose a methodology for textile quality inspection based on the texture cue of an image. To solve this, we use a Neuro-Symbolic Hybrid System (NSHS) that allow us to combine an artificial neural network and the symbolic representation of the expert knowledge. The artificial neural network uses the CasCor learning algorithm and we use production rules to represent the symbolic knowledge. The features used for inspection has the advantage of being tolerant to rotation and scale changes. We compare the results with those obtained from an automatic computer vision task, and we conclude that results obtained using the proposed methodology are better.

Key-Words: Computer Vision, Neuro-Symbolic Hybrid Systems, Artificial Neural Networks, Production Rules

Title of the Paper: Identifying Appropriate Methodologies and Strategies for Vertical Mining with Incomplete Data


Authors: Faris Alqadah, Zhen Hu, Lawrence J. Mazlack

Abstract: Many data mining methods are dependent on recognizing frequent patterns. Frequent patterns lead to the discovery of association rules, strong rules, sequential episodes, and multi-dimensional patterns. All can play a critical role in helping corporate and scientific institutions to understand and analyze their data. Patterns should be discovered in time and space efficient manner. Discovered patterns have authentic value when they accurately describe data trends; and, do not exclusively reflect noise or chance encounters. Vertical data mining algorithms key advantage is that they can outperform their horizontal counterparts in terms of both time and space efficiency. Little work has addressed how incomplete data influences vertical data mining. Consequently, the quality and utility of vertical mining algorithms results remains ambiguous as real data sets often contain incomplete data. This paper considers how to establish methodologies that deal with incomplete data in vertical mining; additionally, it seeks to develop strategies for determining the maximal utilization that can be mined from a dataset based on how much and what data is missing.

Key-Words: Incomplete data, vertical, data mining, ignorability, efficiency, privacy preserving, data sensitivity, maximal utilization, methodologies, strategies

Title of the Paper: A Comparison of Multi-Agents Competing for Trading Agents Competition


Authors: Dan Mancas, Stefan Udristoiu, Ecaterina–irina Manole, Bogdan Lapadat

Abstract: We present a comparative analysis for several multi-agents participating in Trading Agents Competition, Classic. The game is first partitioned into separate modules, for which distinct strategies may be developed. The strategies used are taken into consideration both individually and in relation with other agents, but also the game medium. Conclusions regarding possible improvements, better strategies and potential weaknesses are driven from each agent analysis. Alternatives like static market algorithms vs. dynamic market algorithms are considered in detail and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Also a discussion of TAC market and possibilities for the stochastic system approximation with a deterministic one is realized.

Key-Words: Multi – agent, artificial intelligence, autonomous trading agents, probabilistic market strategy, machine learning, agents

Title of the Paper: Increasing Level of Correctness in Correlation with and Reliability Level


Authors: Dan Mancas, Nicolae-Iulian Enescu, Ecaterina-Irina Manole

Abstract: The scope of our research is finding a correlation between the correctness indicator and the reliability indicator for software programs. For this, the correctness and reliability indicators will be calculated for a simple program, written in C programming language. The computations will be made for each program version obtained by correcting different error type found in the testing process. Will be observed there is a closed correlation between correctness and reliability in the way that for an increasing of the correctness level there will also be a significant increase of the reliability level.

Key-Words: Testing, correctness, reliability, correlation

Title of the Paper: Evaluating Retina Image Fusion Based on Quantitative Approaches


Authors: Zhengmao Ye, Hua Cao, Sitharama Iyengar, Habib Mohamadian

Abstract: Image registration and fusion are conducted using an automated approach, which applies the automatic adaptation from frame to frame with the threshold parameters. Rather than qualitative approach, quantitative measures have been proposed to evaluate outcomes of retina image fusion. Concepts of the discrete entropy, discrete energy, relative entropy, mutual information, uncertainty coefficient and information redundancy have been introduced. Both the Canny edge detector and control point identification are employed to extract retinal vasculature using the adaptive exploratory algorithms. The shape similarity criteria have been selected for control point matching. The Mutual-Pixel- Count maximization based optimal procedure has also been developed to adjust the control points at the sub-pixel level. Then the global maxima equivalent result has been derived by calculating Mutual-Pixel-Count local maxima. For two cases of image fusion practices, the testing results are evaluated on a basis of information theories where the satisfactory outcomes have been made.

Key-Words: Image Fusion, Image Registration, Histogram, Discrete Energy, Discrete Entropy, Relative Entropy, Mutual Information, Uncertainty Coefficient, Information Redundancy

Title of the Paper: An Object-Oriented Framework with Corresponding Graphical User Interface for Developing Ant Colony Optimization Based Algorithms


Authors: Raka Jovanovic, Milan Tuba, Dana Simian

Abstract: This paper describes GRAF-ANT (Graphical Framework for Ant Colony Optimization), an object-oriented C# framework for developing ant colony systems that we have developed. While developing this framework, abstractions that are necessary for ant colony optimization algorithms were analyzed, as well as the features that their implementing classes should have. During creation of these classes, several problems were solved: implementation of individual ants and ant colonies, connection between visualization and problem spaces, creation of a multithread application in which multiple ant colonies can communicate, creation of a problem independent graphical user interface (GUI), establishing an opportunity for hybridization of ACO (Ant colony optimization). Effects of this hybridization to different variations of ant colony systems is analyzed. The use of the GRAF-ANT and its suitability is illustrated by few instances of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). We also present a concept of escaping ACO stagnation in local optima, named suspicious path destruction, that is also a part of GRAF-ANT.

Key-Words: Ant colony system, Evolutionary computing, Combinatorial Optimization, Swarm Intelligence

Title of the Paper: An Efficient A* Algorithm for the Directed Linear Arrangement Problem


Authors: Derchian Tsaih, Guangming Wu, Chiehyao Chang, Shaoshin Hung, Chinshan Wu, Huiling Lin

Abstract: In this paper we present an efficient A* algorithm to solve the Directed Linear Arrangement Problem. By using a branch and bound technique to embed a given directed acyclic graph into a layerwise partition search graph, the optimal directed ordering is then be identified through a A* shortest path search in the embedding graph. We developed a hybrid DC+BDS algorithm to approximate the optimal linear arrangement solution, which includes directed clustering and bidirectional sort technique. Along with a lower bound based on the maximum flow technique, this approximation solution is used as an upper bound to prune the state space during the A* search. In order to reduce the memory requirement of the A* search, we also discuss a implementation of the relay node technique from Zhou and Hansen [22].

Key-Words: Directed Linear Arrangement, Directed Clustering, A* Search

Title of the Paper: Software Quality and Assurance in Waterfall model and XP - A Comparative Study


Authors: Sana'a Jawdat Khalaf, Mohamed Noor Al-Jedaiah

Abstract: Dealing with an increasingly volatile organizational environment is a serious challenge for managers of any software development .Traditional formal software development methodologies can be characterized as reflecting linear, sequential processes ,and the related management approaches ,and be effective in development software with stable ,known ,consistent requirements .Yet most realworld development efforts are much more likely to be conducted in more volatile environments, as organizations adapt to changing technology, markets, and social conditions. Requirements for systems must be able to change right along with them, often at “Internet speed” [1]. Project management approaches based on the traditional linear development methodologies are mismatched with such dynamic systems. The support of software quality in a software development process may be regarded under two aspects: first, by providing techniques, which support the development of high quality software and second, by providing techniques, which assure the required quality attributes in existing artifacts. Both approaches have to be combined to achieve effective and successful software engineering [2]. Agile methods may produce software faster but we also need to know how they meet our quality requirements. In this paper we compare the waterfall model with agile processes to show how agile methods achieve software quality under time pressure and in an unstable requirements environment, i.e. we analyze agile software quality assurance. We present a detailed waterfall model showing its software quality support processes. We then show the quality practices that agile methods have integrated into their processes. This allows us to answer the question “Can agile methods ensure quality even though they develop software faster and can handle unstable requirements?”[3].

Key-Words: Agile processes, Extreme Programming, Waterfall model, Software development, Software quality, Customer Satisfactions, Customer needs

Title of the Paper: A New Technique for Detecting Dental Diseases by using High Speed Artificial Neural Networks


Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: In this paper, a new fast algorithm for dental diseases detection is presented. Such algorithm relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between input image and the input weights of fast neural networks (FNNs). It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented FNNs is less than that needed by conventional neural networks (CNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations. One of the limitations of Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) is noise. Some recent publications have indicated that Digital Subtraction Radiography (DSR) might significantly aid in the clinical diagnosis of dental diseases, once various clinical logistic problems limiting its widespread use have been over come. Noise in digital radiography may result from sources other than variation in projection geometry during exposure. Structure noise consists of all anatomic features other than those of diagnostic interest. Limitations of plain radiographs in detecting early, small bone lesions are also due to the presence of structure noise. This research work has been under - taken in an attempt to minimize structure noise in digital dental radiography by using digital subtraction radiography. By minimizing the structure noise, the validity of the digitized image in detecting diseases is enhanced.

Key-Words: Direct digital radiography, structure noise, dental bone lesions, digital subtraction radiography, fast neural networks, cross correlation

Title of the Paper: Fast Evolution of Large Digital Circuits


Authors: Xiaoxuan She

Abstract: Evolvable hardware (EHW) refers to self-reconfiguration hardware design, where the configuration is under the control of an evolution algorithm. One of the main difficulties in using EHW to solve real-world problems is scalability, which limits the size of the circuit that may be evolved. This paper outlines evolvable hardware based on a 2-LUT (2-input lookup table) array, which allows the evolution of large circuits via decomposition. The proposed EHW has been tested with multipliers and logic circuits taken from the Microelectronics Centre of North Carolina (MCNC) benchmark library. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme improves the evolution of logic circuits in terms of the number of generations, area and delay, reduces computational time and enables the evolution of large circuits. The proposed EHW automatically generates a complete circuit netlist in a SDRAM. Because of the low cost and large data storage of a SDRAM, the evolvable hardware provides a good platform to evolve large circuits.

Key-Words: Evolvable hardware, Evolutionary computation, Adaptive systems, Digital circuits, Problem decomposition, Circuit design

Title of the Paper: Enhancement of Data Aggregation Using A Novel Point Access Method


Authors: Hung-Yi Lin, Rong-Chang Chen, Shih-Ying Chen

Abstract: The B+-tree and its variants have been reported as the good index structures for retrieving data. Database systems frequently establish the B+-tree style indices for fast access to data records. However, traditional B+-tree index could be a performance bottleneck because of its inflatable hierarchy. Many works focus on improving indexing techniques. In fact, the optimization of data organization inside index nodes is the most critical factor to improve retrieval quality. Some handles like pre-partition of data space, node splitting by force, node splitting with unbalanced partition, and node splitting upon overflow loading always burden index structures with plenty of storage space and building overhead. In this paper, we propose a new index scheme to highly aggregate the external structure in a B+-tree. It also adopts a better splitting policy to completely remove the suffering from data insertion orders. Our new index technique can compress data records in leaves and in turn reduce index size to improve query performance. In addition, the entire index’s space utilization is promoted to a higher level; thereby the index’s space requirement becomes smaller and easily resides in memory.

Key-Words: B+-tree, Index structure, B*-tree, Databases, Data aggregation, Node splitting

Title of the Paper: A New Approach of Secret Key Management Lifecycle for Military Applications


Authors: Nikolaos Bardis, Nikolaos Doukas, Konstantinos Ntaikos

Abstract: In this paper a new approach is presented for key management access and sharing secret keys between certified users of a group. Such schemes are referred to as Symmetric Key Management Systems. The concept of information lifecycle management is first presented and analysed in the context of data storage efficiency. This concept is then extended for use with the management of symmetric secret keys. The need for a standard in symmetric secret key management is presented and founded on software engineering principles. A novel scheme contributing in this direction is hence presented. Specifically, access controls processes are presented that are based on passwords. These passwords, with the additional use of the AES cryptographic algorithm and nonces can be used to provide not only authentication for the access control in the system but additionally for the access in the encrypted file that stores all the symmetrical secret keys of each user of certified group. Following this, a new approach for the lifecycle management of secret keys is presented in order to achieve the secure communication based on encryption - decryption of all the messages in real time with the simultaneous use of two symmetrical secret keys for each transmission of information between the users. It is finally concluded that this innovative technology guarantees the automatic password and secret keys management lifecycle irrespective of the actions of the users and provides secure communication between certified group of users in local network and in internet.

Key-Words: Key management lifecycle, key management system, access control, symmetrical secret key

Title of the Paper: Routing Optimization Heuristics Algorithms for Urban Solid Waste Transportation Management


Authors: Nikolaos V. Karadimas, Nikolaos Doukas, Maria Kolokathi, Gerasimoula Defteraiou

Abstract: During the last decade, metaheuristics have become increasingly popular for effectively confronting difficult combinatorial optimization problems. In the present paper, two individual meatheuristic algorithmic solutions, the ArcGIS Network Analyst and the Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm, are introduced, implemented and discussed for the identification of optimal routes in the case of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection. Both proposed applications are based on a geo-referenced spatial database supported by a Geographic Information System (GIS). GIS are increasingly becoming a central element for coordinating, planning and managing transportation systems, and so in collaboration with combinatorial optimization techniques they can be used to improve aspects of transit planning in urban regions. Here, the GIS takes into account all the required parameters for the MSW collection (i.e. positions of waste bins, road network and the related traffic, truck capacities, etc) and its desktop users are able to model realistic network conditions and scenarios. In this case, the simulation consists of scenarios of visiting varied waste collection spots in the Municipality of Athens (MoA). The user, in both applications, is able to define or modify all the required dynamic factors for the creation of an initial scenario, and by modifying these particular parameters, alternative scenarios can be generated. Finally, the optimal solution is estimated by each routing optimization algorithm, followed by a comparison between these two algorithmic approaches on the newly designed collection routes. Furthermore, the proposed interactive design of both approaches has potential application in many other environmental planning and management problems.

Key-Words: Ant Colony System, ArcGIS Network Analyst, Waste Collection, Optimization Algorithms, Routing, Simulation

Title of the Paper: Prediction of Domestic Warm-Water Consumption


Authors: Elena Serban, Daniela Popescu

Abstract: The paper presents methodologies able to predict dynamic warm water consumption in district heating systems, using time-series analysis. A simulation model ccording to the day of a week has been chosen for modeling the domestic warm water consumption in a block of flats with 60 apartments. The analysis of the residuals indicates good simulation and prediction models for the cases studied. Double-cross validation was done using data collected by the SCADA system from District Heating Company of Iasi.

Key-Words: District heating systems, domestic warm water, time series models, autoregressive model, simulation, prediction

Title of the Paper: An Algorithm for Minimum Flows


Authors: Oana Georgescu, Eleonor Ciurea

Abstract: In this paper we consider an advanced topic for minimum flow problem: the use of the dynamic trees data structure to efficiently implement decreasing path algorithm. In the final part of the paper we present an example for this algorithm, some practical applications for the minimum flow problem, conclusions and open problems.

Key-Words: Network flow, network algorithms, minimum flow problem, dynamic tree

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