WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 10,  2011
Print ISSN: 1109-2750
E-ISSN: 2224-2872








Issue 1, Volume 10, January 2011

Title of the Paper: Frequencies of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in a Hexagonal Waveguide


Authors: Arti Vaish, Harish Parthasarathy

Abstract: In this work, cut-off frequencies of propagation of electromagnetic waves in a hexagonal waveguide are calculated using two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method. The numerical approach is a standard one and involves six finite elements. A new type of hexagonal waveguide structure for the simple homogeneous dielectric case has been considered. The starting point is Maxwell’s equations in conjunction to the exponential dependence of the fields on the Z- coordinates. For the homogeneous case, it results in the Helmholtz equations. Finally, finite element method has been used to derive approximate values of the possible propagation constant for each frequency.

Keywords: Finite-element-method, Variational principle, Eigenvector, Matrix Equation, frequencies of propagation, hexagonal waveguide

Title of the Paper: Secure and Highly Efficient Three Level Key Management Scheme for MANET


Authors: Wan An Xiong, Yao Huan Gong

Abstract: MANET(Moving Ad hoc Network) is a convenient infrastructure-less communication network which is commonly susceptible to various attacks. Many key management schemes for MANETs are presented to solve various security problems. Identity (ID)-based cryptography with threshold secret sharing ,ECC and Bilinear Pairing computation is a popular approach for the key management design. In this article, we adopt these approaches to construct tree structure and cluster structure ad hoc network which has three level security communication framework. After constructing the security structure, we evaluate the security performance and efficiency of the scheme in detail.

Keywords: Three Level Key Management, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Bilinear Pairing Computation, (n,t) Threshold Key Distribution, ID-based key management

Title of the Paper: Selection of Polynomials for Cyclic Redundancy Check for the use of High Speed Embedded – An Algorithmic Procedure


Authors: A. Ahmad, L. Hayat

Abstract: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) technique which is widely used tools in globally standardized telecommunications systems for dealing with data errors detection and correction have not been fully standardized. Most of the CRCs in current use have some weakness with respect to strength or construction. Standardization of CRCs would allow for better designed CRCs to come into common use is primarily limited due to the complexity of search procedures of the primitive characteristic polynomials. To this direction this paper proposes a method of simplifying the computation and complexity of the search procedure of the primitive characteristic polynomials in order to facilitate implementation of the circuitry for high-speed CRC computation in standard CMOS technology.

Keywords: Cyclic Redundancy Check, CRC, Linear Feedback Shift Registers, LFSRs, Primitive Polynomial Primitive Characteristic Polynomial, Power Dissipation, Exclusive-OR, D-Flip-Flop

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of Distributed Database on PC Cluster Computers


Authors: Sorapak Pukdesree, Vitalwonhyo Lacharoj, Parinya Sirisang

Abstract: Presently, Information is very importance aspect to be recognized on every application. Modern organizations have stored and managed their information using database management system. The proprietary DBMSs Software is very expensive license to spend depending on the scale of capability to handle their transactions. Therefore this research would like to represent the distributed database methodology that can be scalable to improve performance the database system to meet business requirements. To implement the distributed database methodology, researcher will use an open source DMBS named MySQL Cluster as research’s tool. MySQL Cluster deploys on distributed database technology that can be scaled the performance dynamically on the PC Clustering computers. MySQL Cluster can provide higher performance with significantly lower cost than enterprise DBMSs based on PC Clustering computers. This research focuses on the small and medium of enterprise businesses in Thailand which their incomes are less than one and a half million dollar per year. Most of their budget have been spent on productions rather than invested on information technology section. Therefore SMEs businesses in Thailand can utilize this research’s information to make their plans for the database management system to meet the requirements of their businesses.

Keywords: High Performance Computing, PC Clustering Computers, Database, MySQL Cluster, Distributed Database, Distributed Processing

Issue 2, Volume 10, February 2011

Title of the Paper: Predict Strength of Rubberized Concrete Using Atrificial Neural Network


Authors: A. Abdollahzadeh, R. Masoudnia, S. Aghababaei

Abstract: In this paper, behaviour of rubberized concrete was modelled using artificial neural network ANN and obtained results were compared to experimental data. Experimental test include recycling 5, 10, 15 and 20% percentage of concrete aggregate with different powder size 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm of rubber. Results demonstrate high ability of ANN in Prediction of compressive strength of rubberized concrete compared to MLR (R2= 0.9650 and RMSE=0.017). Finally, the performance of each model was evaluated using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient(R), Correlation of determination (R2), and Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE).

Keywords: Rubberized concrete, Artificial neural network, Multi linear regression, Root Mean Square

Title of the Paper: New Standards for Competitive Distinctions: A Practical Model


Authors: Edson Pacheco Paladini, Fabricia Goncalves De Carvalho

Abstract: This paper discusses how to create a knowledge modeling processes for strategic management. Innovation is the main strategy for the management approach. Basic concepts of knowledge management were used to support a proposed model that involves people in strategic decisions. The search for solutions to problems in the field of innovation management is justified by the stiff competition companies now face. In this situation, corporations need to transform their culture by giving incentives to the search for creative and innovative solutions generated by their human resources. This position is essential for organizations that attempt to create new standards of action and establish competitive distinctions.

Keywords: Strategic decisions; knowledge modeling; innovation management

Title of the Paper: Predict Soil Erosion with Artificial Neural Network in Tanakami (Japan)


Authors: A. Abdollahzadeh, M. Mukhlisin, A. El Shafie

Abstract: In recent years using artificial neural networks has increased as powerful tool with capability to predict linear and nonlinear relationships in complex engineering problems. Using this toolbox has been significant in different civil engineering fields, especially hydrological problems for various important parameters with different variables and complex mathematical equation. Predict soil erosion has been studied as one of the important parameters of the catchment management in this study. To obtain data artificial rainfall was used in a catchment located in Jakujo Rachidani in Tanakami area. Artificial network has developed foe predict soil erosion and this results compared with obtained results from Multi Linear Regression (MLR) . The results show high ability of ANN to Prediction of soil erosion compared to MLR. The performance of each model is evaluated using the Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) Correlation Coefficient(R), Correlation of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE).

Keywords: Soil Erosion, Catchment, Modeling, Artificial neural network, Multi linear regression, Mean Square Error

Title of the Paper: Orthogonal Software Architecture Design for Radar Data Processing System with Object-oriented Component and COM Interface


Authors: Zhongzhi Li, Xuegang Wang, Xuelian Yu

Abstract: Large scale software system is usually developed by software engineering method, and it needs good architecture and reusable components. Radar data processing system is a complex software system; it needs to complete many tasks such as multi-sensor data fusion, target tracking, data storing and displaying, remote controlling, etc. Based on orthogonal software architecture and component-based software engineering, we propose a new method, orthogonal software architecture with object-oriented component and COM interface in this paper, and we use the proposed method to complete the architecture and components design for radar data processing software system. By eliminating correlation between components, we can improve the reusability and maintainability of component. At the same time, we use COM interface to implement mixed language programming and system integration. After the system development and test, it proves that the new software architecture is reasonable and applicable.

Keywords: Orthogonal software architecture; Component-based software engineering; Object-oriented component; Component object model (COM); Module; Radar data processing system

Issue 3, Volume 10, March 2011

Title of the Paper: A Comparative Analysis of Methods for Probability Estimation Tree


Authors: Na Chu, Lizhuang Ma, Ping Liu, Yiyang Hu, Min Zhou

Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of probability estimation of decision trees. This problem has received considerable attention in the areas of machine learning and data mining, and techniques to use tree models as probability estimators have been suggested. We make a comparative study of six well-known class probability estimation methods, measured by classification accuracy, AUC and Conditional Log Likelihood (CLL). Comments on the properties of each method are empirically supported. Our experiments on UCI data sets and our liver disease data sets show that the PETs algorithms outperform traditional decision trees and naive Bayes significantly in classification accuracy, AUC and CLL respectively. Finally, a unifying pseudocode of algorithm is summarized in this paper.

Keywords: Probability estimation tree, Decision trees, Classification, Joint distribution, AUC, Conditional log likelihood

Title of the Paper: The Influence of Antecedent Factors of IS/IT Utilization Towards Organizational Performance - A Case Study of IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang


Authors: Rika Kharlina Ekawati, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto

Abstract: Information technology is one thing that is important in supporting the operational success of an organization. In an uncertain environment, information is needed primarily to support the performance of organization in decision-making. Information Systems is an orderly combination of human, hardware, software and communication network of data resources, which collect, modify, and distribute information within an organization to support organizational decision-making and control. But before the IS/IT is implemented, it is worth considering the antecedent factors that may be used as reference to see the history before the IS/IT is implemented, whether antecedent factors of IS/IT implementation has correlation and influence on organizational performance. Antecedent factors consist of six aspects, which are social factors, attitudes, support conditions, system complexity, long-term consequences and habits. This study aims to find empirical evidence that there is correlation and influence between antecedent factors of IS/IT implementation and organizational performance. Using Pearson correlation analysis and Regression analysis for the testing, the results obtained showed that attitude, facilitating conditions and system complexity have correlation with organizational performance. Among these, only attitude and facilitating condition that influence organizational performance.

Keywords: Information System, Information Technology, Antecedent Factors, Organizational Performance, Utilization Model.

Title of the Paper: A Study on Factors Influencing Power Consumption in Multithreaded and Multicore CPU’s


Authors: Vijayalakshmi Saravanan, Senthil Kumar Chandran, Sasikumar Punnekkat, D. P. Kothari

Abstract: The ever-growing demand for computational power and high performance has led to a rapid growth in the semiconductor industry. This evolution has seen a continuous increase in CPU performance and the number of transistors on a chip has roughly doubled every two years – proving Moore’s law. An inevitable consequence when achieving this is that more functional units, deeper pipelining and larger cache sizes have had to be implemented on the CPU chip. The result is a significant increase in the power consumption. Achieving high performance with low power consumption has been the traditional goal in high-end processors. In order to accomplish high performance, multithreaded and multicore CPUs have become the recent trend in semi-conductor technology. The purpose of this paper is to statistically analyse various factors that affect power, to study their relationship, and to quantify their influence on power consumption in multithreaded and multicore CPUs. The paper also discusses recent advancements in power savings through the implementation of power-limiting micro-architectural features (e.g. out-of-order execution, branch prediction, caching and prefetching) in contemporary multi-core processors, such as Intel Nehalem and AMD’s Istanbul processors.

Keywords: Power consumption, statistical analysis, power-limiting factors

Issue 4, Volume 10, April 2011

Title of the Paper: A New Immune Clone Algorithm to Solve the Constrained Optimization Problems


Authors: Liang Zhou, Jianguo Zheng

Abstract: In recent years, the constrained optimization problems have become a hot topic among the interest of scholars. In this paper, a new improved artificial immune algorithm is proposed and then used for solving constrained optimizations problems (COPs). This algorithm will treat these COPs as multi-objective optimization problems, and it is based on the concept of Pareto optimization to solve COPs. The mechanism of clone is imported into this new immune algorithm, at the same time, the new improved immune algorithm consists some new concepts, such as linear non-equilibrium recombination operator and preference difference, which can build an efficient immune model for solving this kind of multi-object problems. Finally, simulation on some test functions show that the new immune clone algorithm can obtain better results compared with the existing algorithms.

Keywords: Constrained optimization, Multi-object optimization, linear non-equilibrium recombination operator, immune, clone, preference difference, Pareto optimization

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of Artificial Neural Networks for Spatial Data Analysis


Authors: Akram A. Moustafa, Ziad A. Alqadi, Eyad A. Shahroury

Abstract: The artificial neural network training algorithm is implemented in MATLAB language. This implementation is focused on the network parameters in order to get the optimal architecture of the network that means (the optimal neural network is the network that can reach the goals in minimum number of training iterations and minimum time of training). Many examples were tested and it was shown that using one hidden layer with number of neuron equal to the square of the number of inputs will lead to optimal neural network by mean of reducing the number of training stages (number of training iterations) and thus the processing time needed to train the network.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), Back-propagation, training rate and training iteration (epochs), hidden layer, net simulation, multilayer perceptron (MLP)

Title of the Paper: Improving Arabic Information Retrieval System using N-Gram Method


Authors: Rammal Mahmoud, Sanan Majed

Abstract: This paper presents the application of the indexing method and the Retrieval systems based on N-grams to the Arabic legal language used in official Lebanese government journal documents. In our work we have used N-gram as a representation method, based on words and characters, and then compared the results using the vector space model with three similarity measures: the TF*IDF weighting, Dice's coefficient and the Cosine Coefficient.
The experiments demonstrate the use of trigrams to index Arabic documents is the optimal choice for Arabic information retrieval using N-grams. But using N-grams to indexing and retrieval legal Arabic documents is still insufficient in order to obtain good results and it is indispensable to adopt a linguistic approach that uses a legal thesaurus or ontology for juridical language.

Keywords: Arabic language, Indexing, N-grams, Information Retrieval, Word segmentation

Issue 5, Volume 10, May 2011

Title of the Paper: Designing Test Engine for Computer-Aided Software Testing Tools


Authors: Xue-Ying Ma, Bin-Kui Sheng

Abstract: With the rapid development of software scale and programming languages, it is impossible to test software manually. The case for automating the software testing process has been made repeatedly and convincingly by numerous testing professionals. Automated tests can promote the efficiency of software testing and then to increase software productivity, improve software quality, and reduce cost in almost all processes of software engineering. White-box testing is one of the most important software testing strategies that can detect error even when the software specification is vague or incomplete. This paper gives a detailed description of the design and implementation of a testing engine. The testing engine, which is the kernel of a developed structured software-testing tool for the Visual Basic and C/C++ language, mainly consists of three components: program analyzer, source code instrumentation tool and intermediate database. In the testing engine, a block division mechanism and a new block-based CFG model are introduced and some block-based test adequacy criteria are extended. The programs are divided into a sequence of blocks and then instrumented and compiled in the testing engine, and all the information related to the test is saved in the intermediate database. The testing engine, acting as an agency, associates the testing automation module with instrumented executable program rather than the source code, and therefore the testing tool can easily be developed to accommodate new requirements and different testing adequacy criteria. It is also convenient to build a testing environment for multi-languages by modifying the program analyzer only, due to the flexibility of the software architecture.

Keywords: Computer-aided software test, testing engine, program instrumentation, Intermediate database, object-oriented software-testing

Title of the Paper: The Computer Aided Analysis of the Bus Accidents Oriented to the Numerical Simulation of the Injury of the Human Body


Authors: Xiao-Yun Zhang, Xian-Long Jin, Jie Shen

Abstract: While bus accidents tend to draw public concerns in China, much recent research has only focused on the analyses of car accidents due to relative high rates. However, the research dedicated itself to the scope of reconstructing and analyzing traffic accidents involving bus and quasi bus vehicle. Thus, the paper here is to represent a comprehensive method for the reconstruction of bus accidents, introducing analysis of human body injury as an auxiliary approach to verify the results of simulation in order to improve the accuracy of whole judgments, apart from using the technique of trajectory optimization as conventional reconstructions of car accidents, which ignore human body injury. According to clinical results and information collecting and concluding from the accident sites, the studies of body injury, which work as a kind of feedback in order to check and guide ordinary simulations, were carried out investigating the severity levels and dynamic response of human body under the given conditions calculated from common method. Within the method, the corresponding modifications of modeling, calculating and simulating need to be made, relating to the comparisons between predicted injury parameters and practical effects on victims. Through the demonstrations of the reconstructions and analyses of two real-life paradigms regarding bus accident, this paper indicates the general routing of the method for common cases. The research looks at applying two useful numerical reconstruction techniques, namely Multi-body body dynamics and trajectory optimization methods. With the help of two numerical modeling skills, preliminary results indicate that the combined reconstruction method can reflect the process of bus accident reasonably well. In comparison with conventional methods, the method provides more reliability as well as accuracy.

Keywords: Bus accident; accident reconstruction; injury; occupant kinematics; trajectory optimization

Title of the Paper: An Optimization for the Design of a Simple Asynchronous Processor


Authors: Sun-Yen Tan, Wen-Tzeng Huang

Abstract: The asynchronous circuit style is based on micropipelines, a style used to develop asynchronous microprocessors at Manchester University. This paper has presented some engineering work on developing a micropipeline Stump processor. The work presented in this paper demonstrates that VHDL can be used to describe the behaviour of micropipelined systems. It also shows a comparison of 2-phase and 4-phase implementations in transistor count, speed, and energy. Though the nature of the work is mainly engineering, there are some significant new insights gained in the course of the work. The 2-phase circuits have good performance in speed. This is due to the rising and falling transitions of the 4-phase circuits following the same routes. Asymmetric delays with fast reset circuit can be applied to improve the performance. The fastest speed is 1.55 MIPS for the two-phase synthesized processor and the lowest power consumption is 362.33 fj for the synthesized four-phase long hold processor.

Keywords: Asynchronous design, Micropipelines, Processor, VHDL, Synthesis

Issue 6, Volume 10, June 2011

Title of the Paper: A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Using Pixel Shuffling and BASE 64 Encoding Based Chaotic Block Cipher (IMPSBEC)


Authors: G. A. Sathishkumar, K. Bhoopathy Bagan

Abstract: The image encryption is widely used to secure transmission of data in an open internet and internet works. Each type of data has its own unique features; therefore different data requires a different type of encryption algorithm. Most of the present day techniques are suitable for textual data and they are not suitable for multi- media content rich data such as images. Combined with nonlinear dynamic (chaotic) maps, a new algorithm is developed and applied to image based cryptosystems. In this proposed algorithm, we propose a pixel shuffling, base 64 encoding based algorithm, which is a combination of block permutation, pixel permutation and value transformation. In general, diffusion and permutation is performed in an iterative fashion. These two methods are opened and operated alternatively in every round of encryption process; at least four such chaotic sub keys are employed in every round of primitive encryption process. Decryption has the same structure, which operates in reverse order. The statistical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has good immunity to various attacks and it is suitable for various software and hardware applications. A new approach is proposed to generate a random-bit sequence with a high degree of randomness. The proposed algorithm is a better alternative to satisfy the need for information security services. The performance analysis of the proposed new approach is tested for randomness by carrying out various testing rules and statistical test. Results of the various types of analysis are encouraging and imply that the proposed approach is very successfully able to adeptly trade offs between the speed and protection. Hence it is suitable for the real-time transmission of image and wireless communication applications.

Keywords: Image encryption, Base 64 encoding, chaotic maps, logistic map and block cipher

Title of the Paper: LDAG: A New Model for Grid Workflow Applications


Authors: Guiping Wang, Yan Wang

Abstract: Grid workflow and its application are one of main focuses of Grid Computing. Due to data or control dependencies between tasks and the requirement of no directed circuit, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is a natural model for Grid workflow, and has been extensively used in Grid workflow modeling. For some workflow applications, there may exist another requirement that each task should be accomplished at an expected stage, that is, at a given level. In this paper, we discuss such workflow applications in depth, and propose a new DAG model, which we called LDAG. In LDAG, each node possesses a level. Several cases of the level of nodes are discussed in detail. For a reasonable one of these cases, we propose the topological sorting algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases, namely Level Adjusting and Topological Sorting. We discuss some relevant problems, such as choice of stack or queue, the determination of directed circuit, complexity of the algorithm, etc. The experiment and analysis of LDAG and topological sorting algorithm show its correctness and efficiency in modeling grid workflow.

Keywords: Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), LDAG; Grid workflow; Level; Topologic sorting; Directed circuit

Title of the Paper: Certain Investigation on MRI Segmentation for the Implementation of CAD System


Authors: J. Jaya, K. Thanushkodi

Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the detection of brain tumor by using parallel implementation of ACO system for medical image segmentation applications due to the rapid execution for obtaining and extracting the Region of Interest (ROI) from the images for diagnostic purposes in medical field. For ROI segmentation, metaheuristic based Parallel Ant colony Optimization (PACO) approach has been implemented. The system has been simulated in the Mat lab for the parallel processing, using the master slave approach and information exchange. The scheme is tested up to 10 real time MRI brain images. Here parallelism is inherent in program loops, which focused on performing searching operation in parallel. The computational results shows that parallel ACO systems uses the concept of the parallelization approach enabled the utilization of the intensity similarity measurement technique because of the capability of parallel processing. Medical image segmentation and detection at the early stage played vital roles for many health-related applications such as medical diagnostics, drug evaluation, medical research, training and teaching. Due to the rapid progress in the technologies for segmenting digital images for diagnostic purposes in medical field parallel Ant based CAD system are technologically feasible for Medical Domain which will certainly reduce the mortality rate.

Keywords: ACO, CAD system, MRI, PACO, ROI and Segmentation

Issue 7, Volume 10, July 2011

Title of the Paper: Applying Data Mining and Grey QFD to Mine the Dynamic Trends for Computer Life Cycle-oriented Green Supply


Authors: Chih-Hung Hsu, An-Yuan Chang, Hui-Ming Kuo

Abstract: Green products can reduce the environmental burden during design and disposal. The most approved technique to evaluate the environmental profile of a green product is the life cycle assessment. Data mining has also been successfully applied in many fields. However, little research has been done in the quality function deployment of mining the dynamic trends of customer requirements and engineering characteristics, using data mining and grey theory. This study proposed an approach to use data mining and grey theory in quality unction deployment for mining dynamic trends of the computer life cycle-oriented green supply. An Empirical example is provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. Certain advantages may be observed when the dynamic and future requirements trends were identified, using the proposed approach. Since CRs can change rapidly, the database of CRs must be updated continually; therefore, the proposed approach in this study, will continually mine the database and identify the dynamic trends for the designers and manufacturers. The results of this study can provide an effective procedure of mining the dynamic trends of CRs and ECs for improving customer satisfaction and green competitiveness in the marketplace.

Keywords: Data mining, Grey theory, Quality function deployment, Dynamic trends, Life cycle, Green supply

Title of the Paper: Cryptanalysis of Simplified-DES using Computational Intelligence


Authors: Vimalathithan R., M. L. Valarmathi

Abstract: Cryptanalysis with Computational Intelligence has gained much interest in recent years. This paper presents an approach for breaking the key used in Simplified-Data Encryption Standard (S-DES) using Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and a novel approach called Genetic Swarm Optimization (GSO) obtained by combining the effectiveness of GA and PSO. Ciphertext-only attack is embraced here and an optimum key is produced based on Letter Frequency analysis as Cost function. The key is optimized using the capabilities of Computational Intelligence and the experimental results indicate GSO is an effective tool which runs through less time to break the key used in S-DES and reduces the search space nearly by a factor of 6.

Keywords: Cryptanalysis, ciphertext-only attack, Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization , Genetic Swarm Optimization , cost, plaintext and ciphertext

Title of the Paper: Enhancements to Reputation Based Trust Models for Improved Reliability in Grid Computing


Authors: Srivaramangai P., Rengaramanujam Srinivasan

Abstract: A Grid integrates, coordinates resources and users from different domains. Grid computing is an interconnected computer system, where machines share resources that are highly heterogeneous. Grid computing and its related technologies will only be adopted by users, if they are confident that their data and privacy are secured, and the system is as scalable, robust and reliable as of their own, in their places. Trust and reputation systems have been recognized as playing an important role in decision making on the internet. Reputation based systems can be used in a Grid to improve the reliability of transactions. Reliability is the probability that a process will successfully perform its prescribed task without any failure at a given point of time. Hence, ensuring reliable transactions plays a vital role in grid computing. To achieve reliable transactions, mutual trust must be established between the initiator and the provider. Trust is measured by using reputation, where reputation is the collective opinion of others. The main purpose of security mechanisms in any distributed environment such as the Grid is to provide protection against malicious parties. There is a whole range of security challenges that are yet to be met by traditional approaches. Traditional security mechanisms such as authentication, and authorization, typically protect resources from malicious users, by restricting access to only authorized users. However, in many situations users have to protect themselves from those who offer resources so that the problem, in fact, is reversed. Information providers can deliberately mislead by providing false information; traditional security mechanisms are unable to protect against this type of security threat. Trust and reputation systems, on the other hand, can very well provide protection against such threats. Reputation models can be modeled in such a way they it could provide reliability for both users and providers. Reputation systems provide a way for building trust through social control, by utilizing community based feedbacks about past experiences of peers to help making recommendations and judgments on the quality and reliability of the transactions. Reputation and trust systems are soft security mechanisms which can assure behavior conformity. In this paper two new reputation based trust models are proposed. The first, model, Model 1, uses a new factor called compatibility, which is based on Spearman’s rank correlation. The feed backs of the recommenders which are incompatible with those of the initiator are eliminated by using the compatibility factor. Model 2 is an improvement over the Model 1. In this model, new factors are included for measuring the direct trust. In order to effectively evaluate the trustworthiness of different entities and to address various malicious behaviors, this comprehensive trust model based on reputation, is proposed. Two important factors – context and size, are incorporated in evaluating the trustworthiness of entities.

Keywords: Grid computing, Reputation, Trust, Reliability

Issue 8, Volume 10, August 2011

Title of the Paper: Market Information Needs Risk Assessment toward ICT Usage for Green Bean Producers in Dakar Region of Senegal


Authors: Wen-I Chang, Chao-Lin Tuan

Abstract: In Senegal, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been applied to accelerate the development of horticulture. Farmers can access information about weather, market price, and production volume through the ICT-based information systems. However, little is known about the nature and limitations of actual ICT usage among farmers in rural areas. Green bean is one of the dominant garden crops in Senegal, and market information is crucial to its farm management. Therefore, this study aims to assess the marketing risks, ICT usage, and information needs of green bean producers to further promote the use of ICT-based information systems. A survey was conducted in Dakar Region, the chief production area of green bean in Senegal. From the results of this study, it is found that perishability and competition were the main marketing risks of green bean producers. Mobile phone and telecentre were the most commonly adopted ICT in their daily life. Their key information needs included wholesale, retail, and input prices. Language and cost were the major limiting factors in further usage of ICT. Furthermore, female producers showed vulnerability in price risk. Younger producers appeared to have relatively higher usage of TV and household telephone while older producers had higher usage of radio usage. Similarly, higher education was positively correlated to higher information needs on weather and agricultural policy. Among ethnic groups, Serer and other ethnic minority groups appeared to be more vulnerable to marketing risks. Members of producers’ associations seemed to have less concern about marketing risks and higher radio usage. Meanwhile, telecentre users showed higher marketing risks and greater information needs, indicating the telecentre as one of the key media to assist the vast uses. In sum, the findings of this study suggested tailored information requires handy media and proper format to reach rural producers. Based on the results, there is a necessity to develop an information system supported by voice service in local dialects as well as reliable and cost effective power sources. Finally, a research model for horticultural market information systems is also proposed to meet users’ needs and enhance growth opportunities for horticulture industry in Senegal.

Keywords: Green bean, horticultural marketing, ICT usage, information needs, marketing risks, Senegal

Title of the Paper: Agent Based Load Balancing Scheme using Affinity Processor Scheduling for Multicore Architectures


Authors: G. Muneeswari, K. L. Shunmuganathan

Abstract: Multicore architecture otherwise called as CMP has many processors packed together on a single chip utilizes hyper threading technology. The main reason for adding large amount of processor core brings massive advancements in parallel computing paradigm. The enormous performance enhancement in multicore platform injects lot of challenges to the task allocation and load balancing on the processor cores. Altogether it is a crucial part from the operating system scheduling point of view. To envisage this large computing capacity, efficient resource allocation schemes are needed. A multicore scheduler is a resource management component of a multicore operating system focuses on distributing the load of some highly loaded processor to the lightly loaded ones such that the overall performance of the system is maximized. We already proposed a hard-soft processor affinity scheduling algorithm that promises in minimizing the average waiting time of the non critical tasks in the centralized queue and avoids the context switching of critical tasks. In this paper we are incorporating the agent based load balancing scheme for the multicore processor using the hard-soft processor affinity scheduling algorithm. Since we use the actual round robin scheduling for non critical tasks and due to soft affinity the load balancing is done automatically for non critical tasks. We actually modified and simulated the linux 2.6.11 kernel process scheduler to incorporate the hard-soft affinity processor scheduling concept. Our load balancing performance is depicted with respect to different load balancing algorithms and we could realize the performance improvement in terms of response time against the various homogeneous and heterogeneous load conditions. The results also shows the comparison of our agent based load balancing algorithm against the traditional static and dynamic sender, receiver initiated load balancing algorithms.

Keywords: Hard Affinity, Soft Affinity, Scheduler, Middle Agent, Processor Agent, Multicore Architecture, Scheduling, Agent Control Block , Load balancing, Response time

Title of the Paper: Image Analysis Based on the Discrete Magnetic Field Generated by the Virtual Edge Current in Digital Images


Authors: X. D. Zhuang, N. E. Mastorakis

Abstract: In this paper, the spatial property of the magneto-static field generated by the stable current is discussed and exploited in image analysis. The region-division feature of the magnetic field generated by a current element on 2D plane is investigated experimentally for some simple test images. The virtual edge current in gray-scale images is presented by a magneto-static analogy, which is composed of the tangent edge vectors as a discrete form of the physical current element. The virtual magnetic field generated by the edge current in digital images is investigated experimentally, which is applied in region border detection and region division. A novel image segmentation method is proposed based on the virtual magnetic field generated by the edge current. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, and also indicate the promising application of the physics-inspired methods in image processing tasks.

Keywords: Image analysis, virtual edge current, magnetic field, tangent edge vector, image segmentation

Issue 9, Volume 10, September 2011

Title of the Paper: Evaluating Peer Behaviour in Distributed Participatory Sensing


Authors: Ramaprasada R. Kalidindi, Kvsvn Raju, V. Valli Kumari, C. S. Reddy

Abstract: Recent advances in ubiquitous computing and availability of low cost sensors have led to the wide spread use of sensor networks in civilian applications. These networks along with multisensory personal devices generate lot of data in digital domain. Harnessing this data for urban sensing applications reduces the cost of implementation. This is possible when people share their data as a community service. However, people hesitate to participate because of trust deficit. Instilling trust among the participants will enhance people?s participation and make a way for newer applications to share data among people. This paper describes a model for data sharing by computing confidence among networked peers. The social interactions in digital domain and reputation in community establish goodwill among peers. This goodwill and the trust on various control factors that influence a peer are used to evaluate its behaviour. However, trusting on peer?s behaviour may involve risk otherwise there is an opportunity. More of opportunity than risk induces confidence on a peer. Finally, this confidence in peer decides whether to share data or not.

Keywords: Trust management, Privacy control, Risk, Behaviour aware computing, Participatory sensing, Urban sensing

Title of the Paper: On Performance Analysis of Hybrid Algorithm (Improved PSO with Simulated Annealing) with GA, PSO for Multiprocessor Job Scheduling


Authors: K. Thanushkodi, K. Deeba

Abstract: Particle Swarm Optimization is currently employed in several optimization and search problems due its ease and ability to find solutions successfully. A variant of PSO, called as Improved PSO has been developed in this paper and is hybridized with the simulated annealing approach to achieve better solutions. The hybrid technique has been employed, inorder to improve the performance of improved PSO. This paper shows the application of hybrid improved PSO in Scheduling multiprocessor tasks. A comparative performance study is reported. It is observed that the proposed hybrid approach gives better solution in solving multiprocessor job scheduling.

Keywords: PSO, Improved PSO, Simulated Annealing, Hybrid Improved PSO, Job Scheduling, Finishing time, waiting time

Title of the Paper: Automatic Edge Detection using Vector Distance and Partial Normalization


Authors: Shuhan Chen, Weiren Shi, Kai Wang

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel edge detection method for both gray level images and color images, and which can overcome the limitations of gradient-based edge detection methods. A vector distance between feature vector and minimum vector which determines the edge intensity is defined based on four directional summed magnitude differences in a mask, and partial normalization is applied to facilitate threshold selecting. This paper also proposes an improved approach to determine the edge direction. According to the improved edge direction, non-maxima suppression is applied to thin edges, and final edges are extracted automatically using OTSU, even in a changing environment. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method does well in keeping low-contrast edges, selecting threshold and processing time.

Keywords: Edge detection, Color edge detection, Vector distance, Partial normalization, Non-maxima suppression

Title of the Paper: SWIDE: Semantic Web Integrated Development Environment


Authors: Islam Hany Harb, Abdurrahman A. Nasr, Salah Abdel-Magid, Hany Harb

Abstract: Ontology is a specification of conceptualization. This paper introduces an environment to develop semantic web applications. This environment integrates a lot of tools such as an editing capability, logic reasoner and semantic search engine. Design and implementation of a generalized ontology editor is presented in this paper through which the user may create, edit, validate, open, search (local and global), or visualize an ontology or an instance file. The user may edit an instance to be stored either in a RDF/XML file, OWL/XML, xml knowledge base or other formats. The user may present the ontology hierarchy and the knowledge base in a tabular form. The environment provides an interface through which the user may consult the knowledge base by SQL-like statements. It also allows the user to map ontology to another. It also introduces the virtualization concept providing a mechanism to categorize the ontology instances based on given ontology features. It also provides logic reasoner so we may check the truth of an instance against a specific knowledge base. A semantic search engine is also available either locally or globally.

Keywords: Ontology Editor, RDF, OWL, XML, Semantic Web, SPARQL, Jena

Issue 10, Volume 10, October 2011

Title of the Paper: A Complete Path Representation Method with a Modified Inverted Index for Efficient Retrieval of XML Documents


Authors: Hsu-Kuang Chang, King-Chu Hung, I-Chang Jou

Abstract: Compiling documents in extensible markup language (XML) increasingly requires access to data services which provide both rapid response and the precise use of search engines. Efficient data service should be based on a skillful representation that can support low complexity and high precision search capabilities. In this paper, a novel complete path representation (CPR) associated with a modified inverted index is presented for the provision of efficient XML data services, where queries can be versatile in terms of predicates. CPR can completely preserve hierarchical information, and the new index is used to save semantic information. The CPR approach can provide template-based indexing for fast data search. An experiment is also conducted for the evaluation of the CPR approach.

Keywords: XML, DTD, Complete path representation (CPR), Structural summary tree (SST), versatile query

Title of the Paper: Two-Dimensional Clustering Algorithms for Image Segmentation


Authors: Intan Aidha Yusoff, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa

Abstract: This paper introduces modified versions of the K-Means (KM) and Moving K-Means (MKM) clustering algorithms, called the Two-Dimensional K-Means (2D-KM) and Two-Dimensional Moving K-Means (2D-MKM) algorithms respectively. The performances of these two proposed algorithms are compared with three of the commonly used conventional clustering algorithms, namely K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), and Moving K-Means (MKM). The new algorithms incorporate the median value of considered pixel intensity with its neighboring pixel; together with the pixel’s own intensity for the assigning process of the pixel to the nearest cluster. From the observed qualitative and quantitative results, it is proven that 2D-KM and 2D-MKM perform better than KM, FCM, and MKM in terms of producing more homogeneous segmentation results, while taking shorter time in executing the process as compared to FCM.

Keywords: Two-Dimensional K-Means (2D-KM), Two-Dimensional Moving K-Means (2D-MKM), Image Segmentation, Clustering

Title of the Paper: Semantic Classification of Human Behaviors in Video Surveillance Systems


Authors: Alberto Amato, Vincenzo Di Lecce

Abstract: The semantic analysis of the human behavior in video streaming is still an open issue for the computer vision research community, especially when real-time analysis of complex scenes is concerned. The researchers’ community has achieved many progresses in this field. A popular class of approaches has been devised to enhance the quality of the semantic analysis by exploiting some background knowledge about scene and/or the human behavior, thus narrowing the huge variety of possible behavioral patterns by focusing on a specific narrow domain. Aim of this paper is to present an innovative method for semantic analysis of human behavior in video surveillance systems. Typically, this kind of systems are composed of a set of fixed cameras ach one monitoring a fixed area. In the proposed methodology, the actions performed by the human beings are described by means of symbol strings. For each camera a grammar is defined to classify the strings of symbols describing the various behaviors. This system proposes a generative approach to human behavior description so it does not require a learning stage. Another advantage of this approach consists in the simplicity of the scene and motion descriptions so that the behavior analysis will have limited computational complexity due to the intrinsic nature both of the representations and the related operations used to manipulate them. This methodology has been used to implement a system to classify human behaviors in a scene. The results are discussed in this paper and they seem to be encouraging.

Keywords: Human behavior analysis, grammar based approach, semantic analysis of video streaming, video surveillance systems, generative human behavior description

Title of the Paper: Design and Evaluation of Parallel , Scalable ,Curve Based Processor over Binary Field


Authors: Rahila Bilal, M. Rajaram

Abstract: Implementing Public-Key cryptography systems is a challenge for most application platforms when several factors have to be considered in selecting the implementation platform. Elliptic Curve Cryptography is considered much more suitable than other public-key algorithms. It uses lower power consumption, has higher performance and can be implemented on small areas that can be achieved by using ECC. In this work, scalable and parallel framework of FPGA based ,Dual Field ( Prime and Binary Field) ECC processor is explored.Using Altera –Quartus software tool, a 160 bit ECC processor core with four 32 bit Arithmetic Units is evaluated on EP3SE50F780C3 .Scalar multiplication is performed in 445 ?secs and occupies 9763 LUT’s.

Keywords: Public-Key cryptography ,ECC, Prime Field , Binary Field, FPGA, Scalar Multiplication

Issue 11, Volume 10, November 2011

Special Issue: Applied Soft Computing

Editor: Les Sztandera

Title of the Paper: Incremental Radial Basis Function Computation for Neural Networks


Authors: Vaclav Skala

Abstract: This paper present a novel approach for incremental computation of Radial Basis Functions (RBF) for Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks with computational complexity of O(N2) is presented. This technique enables efficient insertion of new data and removal of selected or invalid data. RBF are used across many fields, including geometrical, image processing and pattern recognition, medical applications, signal processing, speech recognition, etc. The main prohibitive factor is the computational cost of the RBF computation for larger data sets or if data set is changed and RBFs have to be recomputed. The presented technique is applicable in general to fuzzy systems as well offering a significant speed up due to lower computational complexity of the presented approach. The Incremental RBF Computation enables also fast RBF recomputation on “sliding window” data due to fast insert/remove operations. This is a very significant factor especially in guided Neural Networks case. Generally, interpolation based on RBF is very often used for scattered scalar data interpolation in n-dimensional space. As there is no explicit order in data sets, computations are quite time consuming that leads to limitation of usability even for static data sets. Computational complexity of RBF for N values is of O(N3) or O(k N2), k is a number of iterations if an iterative method is used, which is prohibitive for many real applications. The inverse matrix can also be computed by the Strassen algorithm based on matrix block notation with O(N2.807) complexity. Even worst situation occurs when interpolation has to be made over non-constant data sets, as the whole set of equations for determining RBFs has to be recomputed when data set is changed. This situation is typical for applications in which some values are becoming invalid and new values are acquired.

Keywords: RBF, interpolation, incremental computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, algorithm, matrix inversion

Title of the Paper: Classification Data Mining with Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Aggregation


Authors: John F. Sanford, Les M. Sztandera

Abstract: Fuzzy logic is applied to the category discrimination problem related to identification of mammary lesions as benign or malignant. Results of other similar studies are reviewed. The current analysis expands the fuzzy logic approach by using the normal distribution function as set membership functions and using a genetic algorithm to optimize performance with the training partition. The approach is applicable to problems having arbitrarily large number of parameters. Two different data sets are examined. Data is portioned into a training set and validation set and each set is segregated into benign and malignant records. Values of mean and standard deviation are initially computed from the associated attributes and are different for the benign and malignant records. In one training method the standard deviations are adjusted to minimize overall error. In a second method a bias adjusts the importance of each membership function. Defuzzification is accomplished in three ways: modified averaging and OR process; comparison of multiplied fuzzy set values; and comparison of the multiplied squared set values. Results are compared with results obtained through statistical logistic regression.

Keywords: Fuzzy data-analysis discrimination statistical analysis screening

Title of the Paper: Extracting Information from Failure Equipment Notifications – Use of Fuzzy Sets to Determine Optimal Inventory


Authors: Les M. Sztandera

Abstract: This paper addresses the use of a data analysis approach to extract information from a large number of failure equipment notifications. Based on that, a fuzzy system, capable of learning and optimizing the knowledge from historical evidence, is formed. Subsequently, its use as a guiding tool in decision making processes at the strategic level (estimation of the number of spare parts based on the warehouse location and type of failure), is outlined. To highlight its advantages, the fuzzy sets approach for spare parts allocation is compared with a probabilistic one.

Keywords: Computer repair parts; Optimal inventory; Data analysis; Fuzzy sets

Title of the Paper: Use of a Genetic Algorithm – Neural Network Hybrid Algorithm in the Search for High Efficiency Solid-State Phosphors


Authors: Hugh Cartwright, Arsenij Leontjev

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence methods have been employed in the search for solid-state phosphors with a high luminescence quantum yield. An Artificial Neural Network was used to investigate how luminescence efficiency can be linked to phosphor composition. The trained network was then coupled to a Genetic Algorithm whose role was to locate the global optimum composition in the search space. The compound Tb0.039Gd0.104Ce0.063Si0.401B0.393Oä (where ä indicates the stoichiometrically-required amount of oxygen) is estimated to be the optimum oxide composition that generates the highest green phosphor luminescence for use in tricolour white LEDs, when excited by a 400 nm light source.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network, phosphor, LED, oxide, hybrid algorithm

Issue 12, Volume 10, December 2011

Title of the Paper: Countermeasure against the Jacobi symbol attack


Authors: David Tinoco Varela

Abstract: Many physical attack types (Timing attacks, Power consumption attacks, Fault attacks, etc.) have been developed against cryptosystems in the recent years. Indeed there is a real necessity to eliminate the vulnerabilities of the cryptosystems, like CRT-RSA or the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, that make them susceptible to those attacks. In 2006 Boreale described a new type of physical attack which is based in the Jacobi symbol concept. In this paper a countermeasure against the Jacobi symbol attack is presented and implemented in two modular exponentiation algorithms to make them immune to such attack.

Keywords: Cryptography, Security, Modular exponentiation algorithms, Side channel attacks, Jacobi symbol, Embedded devices

Title of the Paper: A Novel Jamming-Aware Metric for MHWN Routing


Authors: B. Q. Kan, J. H. Fan

Abstract: In recent years, framework based on multi-hop wireless network (MHWN ) mechanism has been paid more attentions. While the broadcast nature of wireless medium in MHWN makes it extremely attractive and vulnerable to malicious attacks. So how to ensure continuous network service becomes a critical problem especially in jammed situations. Although some research has been conducted on countering jamming attacks, few works consider jamming dynamics. In this paper,we address the dynamical jamming problem in MHWN. In our proposed solutions, interference avoidance mechanisms were well concerned and a proactive multi-path routing mechanism based on novel jamming aware metric was proposed. The proposed mechanisms need extra support in the form of routing Interference Activity (IA) entries to build higher robust anti-jamming paths in MHWN, while keeping the less reroute request times. Our evaluations based on NS2 show that the proposed mechanisms can provide robust anti-jamming paths for MHWN.

Keywords: multi-hop wireless network (MHWN), jamming, dynamics, multi-path routing

Title of the Paper: Improving the Generalization Capability of HIDMA with DeJong’s Gene Expression


Authors: Jungan Chen, Feng Liang, Zhaoxi Fang

Abstract: In this work, an augmented hybrid immune detector maturation algorithm applied in anomaly detection is proposed. In order to improve the generalization capability, the DeJong’s gene expression is used. Experiment results show the algorithm is more effective than other algorithms with binary string expression.

Keywords: Artificial immune system, generalization capability, hybrid immune detector


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