WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 5, 2010
Print ISSN: 1991-8763
E-ISSN: 2224-2856








Issue 1, Volume 5, January 2010

Title of the Paper:  Eliminating Hysteresis Effect of Force Actuator in a SPM


Authors: Jium-Ming Lin, Po-Kwang Chang

Abstract: This research is to use fuzzy controller to eliminate hysteresis effect of a force actuator for a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). This improvement has been verified by MATLAB simulation and practical implementation to reduce the hysteresis effect of the force actuator. Comparisons with two previous designs with and without Linear Velocity Transducer (LVT) for inner-loop feedback compensation are also made. Thus the new system design is cheaper and valuable.

Keywords: SPM, LVT, LVDT, Fuzzy controller, PI compensator, Force actuator, Hysteresis effect

Title of the Paper:  Modeling and Simulation of a Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic System


Authors: Amal A. Hassan, Faten H. Fahmy, Abd El-Shafy A. Nafeh, Mohamed A. El-Sayed

Abstract: This paper gives a complete computer simulation program of a single phase grid connected PV system using Matlab/Simulink and SimPowerSystem tool in order to monitor the performance of each unit of the system during a selected day in the year representing a sunny day and another cloudy day using the hourly data of load demand, solar radiation and temperature at The Kharga Oasis site, as a case study. The system consists of a PV array subsystem as the primary source of energy, the electric grid as an auxiliary source of energy, the battery bank as a stand by source that feeds the electrical load in case of grid failure. This paper also focuses on the operation control of the system. This control is on/off switch control according to modes of operation of the system and there is a control of inverter using PI controller to achieve the maximum power point of the PV array. Finally this paper gives the simulation results of the required system output parameters; PV output power, grid power, load power, battery power, and battery voltage and state of charge.

Keywords: Renewable energy, Photovoltaic systems, Electric grid, Modeling, Control, Simulation

Title of the Paper:  Stability and Control of the UAV Formations Flight


Authors: Teodor-Viorel Chelaru, Valentin Pana

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the flight stability of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) formation by using 3 degrees of freedom (3 DOF) models. The problem of flight formation will be approached in a simple manner, by using 3 DOF nonlinear models, as well as using a linear one. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyze the stability of autonomous flight of the UAV formation. The work will present and analyze the calculus results for developed solution. The novelty of the paper consists in algorithms that allow evaluating the stability of the UAV formation. The results will focus on flight stability of a UAV formation and its answer to regular perturbations.

Keywords: Flight, Formation, Automation, Stability, Control, Simulation

Title of the Paper:  Turbo-Generator Vibration Fault Diagnosis Based on PSO-BP Neural Networks


Authors: Youpeng Zhang, Hongsheng Su

Abstract: To overcome the flaws of traditional BP learning algorithm of its low convergence speed and easy falling into local extremum during turbo-generator vibration faults diagnosis, a novel algorithm called PSO-BP is proposed for artificial neural network (ANN) learning based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) in this paper. The algorithm covers the two phases. Firstly, PSO algorithm is applied to optimize the weight values of neural networks based on training samples. BP algorithm is then applied for farther optimization based on verifying samples till the best weight values are achieved. In addition, to simplify the structure of the networks, rough set theory (RST) is applied to implement the attributes reduction from the diagnostic decision table quantified by Kohonen networks. Thus the learning speed and the misjudgment rate of the diagnostic networks are improved, dramatically. Finally, the trials in turbo-generator vibration faults diagnosis indicate that the proposed method possesses better forecasting accuracy and lower misjudgment rate, and is an ideal pattern classifier.

Keywords: Turbo-Generator, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), BP neural networks, Rough set, Kohonen networks, Evaluation

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Applying to Active Vehicle Suspentions


Authors: Milad Geravand, Nastaran Aghakhani

Abstract: Suspension system is an important part of the car design, because it influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. Controlling of Suspension system has special difficulties since this system is highly nonlinear, essentially unstable systems and energy demands of the system. In particular, this article is focused on experiments with the physical model of semi-active quarter-car suspension that using the method of fuzzy sliding mode which uses the fuzzy logic techniques to adjust the control gains that occur under the sliding mode. Functionality of the modification was verified taking various experiments and the results show that the proposed fuzzy controller robustly is efficiency. The computation of the command force to apply to the system in order to control the suspension was based on the fuzzy logic theory for which three essential steps were developed: fuzzification, inferences, and defuzzification. To put into evidence the efficiency and the performances of such a control system, we have compared the results obtained through the sliding mode technique solely, then through the combination of the fuzzy logic theory and the set up by the sliding mode, and the fuzzy sliding mode.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Active Control, Vehicle Suspension, Sliding Mode

Title of the Paper:  Aspects of Energy Use Monitoring Systems


Authors: Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: The system presented is based on Energomanager application installed on large energy consumers. The application is described in detail in the latter part of the paper; to the first part is the description of acquisition and communications equipment used. Teleinventory system performs a complete solution for power management, both at branches and at branches, using the most modern information and communication technologies.

Keywords: Electric and solar, Data acquisition, Communication, Monitoring

Issue 2, Volume 5, February 2010

Title of the Paper:  Realizations of 2D Continuous-Discrete Systems with Boundary Conditions over Spaces of Regulated Functions


Authors: Valeriu Prepelita

Abstract: 2D hybrid continuous-discrete systems with boundary conditions are studied, in the general approach of the coefficient matrices and controls over spaces of functions of bounded variation or of regulated functions. The formul? of the state and of the general response of these systems are provided, both in the case of causal and acausal cases. It is shown that the behaviour of the systems with boundary conditions is characterized by some generalized 2D semiseparable kernels. The existence of realizations of generalized 2D semiseparable kernels is proved and necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimality of the realizations are obtained.

Keywords: 2D continuous-discrete systems, input-output map, regulated functions, functions of bounded variation, semiseparable kernels, realizations

Title of the Paper:  The Heuristic and Analytical Methodologies Applied in a Computer Assisted Exercise


Authors: Ion Badoi, Teofil-Cristian Oroian

Abstract: This very brief example of military simulation shows usefulness as a practical basis for education, training, analysis, and decision-support. As an analytically challenging field of pursuit, military simulation has the potential to make a significant improvement to the effectiveness of military personnel.

Keywords: Modeling and Simulation, Analytic Model, HERO heuristics Helmbold model, Asymmetric Conflict, War Gaming, Computer Assisted Exercises (CAXs)

Title of the Paper:  Current Trends on Command, Control, Modeling and Simulation of the Induction Machines


Authors: Marcel Ionel, Mihail-Florin Stan, Elena-Otilia Virjoghe

Abstract: AC motor drives have produced and still produce a particularly high impact in many technical applications. Advantages of adjusting the frequency operation can not be fully exploited without adjustment command and control strategies through modeling of the corresponding components. Simulation of drive systems is complicated due to nonlinear high level they bring power electronics and also due to control, adjustment and protection in the transfer of power flux. Moreover, mathematical models of semiconductor and control functions not yet found in many programs and this requires the designer or specialist to introduce its version in the simulation program [1]. Currently known multi-level modeling, which is available to describe static converters and each model can introduce undesirable effects on the behavior of electric machine [2]. This paper presents the current trends of advanced control techniques and control of induction machines used for variable frequency drives, depending on the torque, speed and rotor position. It analyzes the possibilities of command and control without sensors and estimates are made of results obtained by modeling and simulation of the control and adjustable system. Also, present paper recommends how to run a simulated vector controlled induction electric machines.

Keywords: Non-sensorial control, vector control, parameter estimation, modeling drive system, model of vector controlled electric drive system, block diagram, mathematical models, micro-models, macro-model

Title of the Paper:  Inductive Voltage Transformers Calibration by the Parameters


Authors: Augusto F. Brandao Jr., Izael P. Da Silva, Antonio C. De Silos, Dimetri Ivanov, Eduardo M. Dias

Abstract: The accuracy class of an IVT – Inductive Voltage Transformer – is typically assessed in laboratory installations either by comparing with another IVT presenting greater accuracy and traceable to a national laboratory or by using a capacitive divider. Calibration in the field using internal parameters is considered herein, using results obtained from typical open and short circuit tests and winding resistances, performed with common meters. A Mollinger & Gewecke graphic diagram is employed together with the results of an accuracy test previously carried out to determine the exact value of the winding turn relation and of the primary winding dispersion reactance. These values are used to calculate the phase and ratio errors, which must lie between definite limits, defined by the accuracy class of the instrument. Four commercial IVTs were tested to determine the validity of the procedure. The errors are compared with those obtained with the Schering-Alberti method (AC Bridge and comparison with standard IVT).

Keywords: Instrument Transformers, Inductive Voltage Transformer, Voltage Transducers, Measurement Errors, Error Estimation, Certification, Calibration

Title of the Paper:  Observer Gain Adaptation of Output Feedback Sliding Mode Controller with Support Vector Machine Regression


Authors: Sezai Tokat, Serdar Iplikci, Lutfi Ulusoy

Abstract: The conventional sliding mode controller needs the exact knowledge of system state measurements. In this study, nonlinear second order systems with unmeasured system states and bounded external disturbances are considered. The sliding mode observer based on nonlinear observation error dynamics is considered and the observer gain is adjusted by using a support vector machine based plant model. From the output of the support vector machine model, k-step ahead predictions are obtained. Therefore, the value of k is first analyzed to search for a proper value. It is also shown with the simulations that the stability conditions are satisfied for the chosen observer gains. Computer simulations are presented to show the effect of the proposed gain adjustment mechanism on the performance of output feedback sliding mode controller. It is seen that the trajectory tracking performance is improved with respect to a conventional output feedback sliding mode control scheme having constant sliding mode observer gains.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, Sliding mode observer, Output feedback sliding mode control, Support vector machine regression, Observer gain, Bounded external disturbances

Title of the Paper:  NENA 1.0: Novel Extended Nuclear Application for the Safekeeping of Contamination-Free Environments


Authors: Michael Marszalek, Martin Eder, Andreas Tropschug, Alois Knoll, Hagen Hofer

Abstract: The accomplishment of inspection, safekeeping or cleaning tasks are essential daily routines in industrial facilities. These tasks are associated with time, personal expenses and physically demanding occupations. Various robotic systems have been introduced for the automation of these routines. The inspection and cleaning of severs or an automation of a biotechnology laboratory are successful examples for robotic systems and automation [1]. In this paper, we present a novel system for the autonomous 2D detection of radioactivity and contaminated areas. The importance of autonomous detection of radioactivity will increase in the upcoming years, due to stricter limits for contamination levels, when using radioactive materials in nuclear medicine, research or for nuclear power plants. The use of radioactive substances will also increase for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine. Another area of application is the decommissioning of nuclear installations, concerning work time and personnel expenses savings. The mobile robot is able to scan the whole floor of a building, where radioactive contamination may occur, such as floors in nuclear power plants, hospitals with nuclear medicine departments or laboratories. It marks the contaminated areas in a generated map of the building for further evaluation. The paper discusses the main requirements of a navigation system for 2D detection of radioactivity and is based on [2]. It presents the hardware and software set-up and some real-world experiments with our mobile robot.

Keywords: Industrial Application, Automation in Medicine, Automation, Robotics, SLAM, Path planning

Issue 3, Volume 5, March 2010

Title of the Paper:  Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Continuous Casting


Authors: Gelu Ovidiu Tirian, Camelia Bretotean Pinca, Daniela Cristea, Marcel Topor

Abstract: In the process of continuous casting, the melted steel from the melting pot is passed, through the intermediary of the distributor, in the water-cooled crystallizer tank. In this way, a crust forms here which is solidified at the exterior, and one of the great problems is its cracking or even it’s tearing, due to several factors. Our paper describes a new control method we should use during the continuous casting. This method is based on the fuzzy logic, in order to avoid any crack inside the crystallizing apparatus. This method contains two fuzzy controllers which, based on a set of rules established with the help of the mathematical model to the crust solidification process of the semi-product inside the crystallizing apparatus and uses the experience of human experts, requires changes of the casting speed value and the primary cooling water flow.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, base of rules, membership functions, control system, continuous casting

Title of the Paper:  Changing Control Rules Dynamically in Embedded Digital Control Systems


Authors: Javier Vasquez, Jose L. Vasquez, Carlos M. Travieso

Abstract: This paper details a model developed at the University of Costa Rica to upgrade an Internet-based distributed measurement and control (DMC) system. In this paper we present a model that enables us to separate the control rules from the embedded systems, besides assigning to each of it an IP address that allows interconnections and collaboration between them. The model takes the NIST-DMC model and assigns over it a Business Layer, which is responsible to handle the interface with authorized users, who manage a set of control rules both dynamically as remotely. When a user modifies a rule, the Business Manager informs all the digital system involved that they must start to do some things in a different way. By separating the control of the devices, the proposed model provides a broad longevity to the components of digital systems that implement it, provides greater flexibility to adapt the response of the devices with changing administrative interests, and promises a decrease in costs maintenance, since it reduces the need to modify the software embedded in the control device.

Keywords: Dynamics rules, distributed control, embedded systems, NIST-DMC, greenhouse automation

Title of the Paper:  Flood Level Indicator and Risk Warning System for Remote Location Monitoring using Flood Observatory System


Authors: Siva Kumar Subramaniam, Vigneswara Rao Gannapathy, Sivarao Subramonian, Abdul Hamid Hamidon

Abstract: Flooding is a great treat towards mankind as it is also considered one of the most devastating natural disasters in the world. Flooding is not any abnormal scenario worldwide, since flooding results in great damages to agriculture land, residential area and even cities with high cost in lives and towards the economy of the country. The government has to spend tons of money in flood mitigation plans in afford to help the victims and also to reduce the number in the long run. Most of the flood mitigating plans has high cost and only can be implemented base on priority. Baring the cost and safety measures, this paper highlights the Flood Observatory System (FOS) as a warning and alert system to efficiently monitor the critical flood prone areas in real time basis. FOS can be deployed in flood prone areas in afford to create a well-used standard for remote flood observation systems. The ability to receive real time information on flood level empowers both government and private organizations to react to imminent danger in an effective manner. With the real time flood information, allows public safety organizations and other emergency managers to effectively plan their resource deployment within the limited time of alert. Warning as flood rises could be used to save life’s and properties in many ways can help such organization and government to spend sufficient amount of money in restoration process. The simple and practicality of a system should be useful in all means towards mankind.

Keywords: Flood Observatory System, flood mitigation plans, wireless sensor, programmable logic controller

Title of the Paper:  Evolutive Neural Fuzzy Filtering: An Approach


Authors: J. C. Garcia Infante, J. J. Medel Juarez, J. C. Sanchez Garcia

Abstract: The paper, is a description of the evolutive neural fuzzy filtering with real time conditions, giving the basics of its operation based on a back propagation fuzzy neural net, which adaptively choose and emit a decision according with the reference signal changes in order to loop the correct new conditions for a process. This work is an approach about the operation of the evolutive neural fuzzy digital filters (ENFDF). Using the neural fuzzy mechanism select the best parameter values into the knowledge base (KB), updating the filter weights to give a good answers with respect to the desired signal in natural linguistic sense. Additionally, the filtering architecture includes a decision making stage using an inference into its structure to deduce the filter decisions in accordance with the previous and actual filter answer in order to updates the new decision with respect to the new reference system conditions. The process requires that all of its states bound into ENFDF time limit as a real time system. In this paper, the characterization of the membership functions building the knowledge base in a probabilistic way with respect to the rules set in order to describe the reference system and the inference to selects the new filter decision. Moreover, the work describes in schematic sense the neural net architecture with the decision-making stages in order to integrate the filtering stages as an evolutive system. The results expressed in formal sense using the concepts into the paper references. Finally, we present the simulation of the ENFDF operation using the Matlab© software. The paper has eight sections conformed as follows: 1. Introduction, 2. Filter description, 3. Neural net structure, 4. Decision stage, 5. Rules strategy, 6. Real time constrains, 7. Simulations, 8.Conclusion and References.

Keywords: Digital filters, neural net, evolutive systems, fuzzy logic, inference mechanism, real time

Title of the Paper:  Measurement Assisted Robotic Edge Deburring of Aero Engine Components


Authors: Nirosh Jayaweera, Phil Webb

Abstract: Aero engine components are often subjected to high stress levels and vibrations during operation. The mechanical integrity of these machined components may be compromised by the presence of burrs and sharp edges. Therefore the removal of burrs and the creation of rounded edges is necessary. To do this manually is time consuming and costly and may have potential quality issues. The application of robots to deburring has been limited by the difficulties in achieving the required degree of quality, controlling reaction forces during metal removal and the lack of tooling designed specifically for robots. The work presented in this paper introduces an efficient robotic deburring method, which is developed based on generation real-time robotic deburring path. The approach uses an in-process measurement sensor to determine the component’s exact location prior to the deburring operation. The core of the system is a set of algorithms capable of fitting and generating the required robot path relative to the feature to be profiled. Reducing the reliance on accurate dedicated part holding fixtures and uses laser guided robot ensures the developed deburring system is highly flexible and re-configurable. The paper describes the development of deburring process for a simple straight edge feature and its application to more complex ones. The algorithms were evaluated using representative test pieces made from Titanium, RR1000 and super CMV alloys using a spindle attached to an industrial robot.

Keywords: Aero-engine components, ‘best-fit’ algorithms, measurement assisted deburring, robotics, sensor

Title of the Paper:  Improvement of the Machine Tools Performance


Authors: Marin Doina

Abstract: Machine tools performance from the point of view of compliance to tolerance, surface definition etc, is determined essentially by the dynamic and static accuracy of machine movement. This paper presents the dynamic behavior analyses for a vertical milling machine during milling process or without load. The experimental research shows vibrations transmission to the mechanical components of machine tool and theirs influence upon cutting process. In the same time, there are analyzed the evaluative factors of feed drive systems: geometrical errors, contour errors, stability of the cutting process, resonance frequency and structural deformation error, performances of the control system.

Keywords: Ball-screw, high speed machining, motion accuracy, contour errors, feed drive system, trajectory measurement, machine structure

Issue 4, Volume 5, April 2010

Title of the Paper:  Possibilities of Implementing a Monitoring System for Road Transport using a Dimensions Basis Approach


Authors: Stela Dinescu, Anamaria Giurgiulescu

Abstract: In nowadays, the development of production force and the sharpening of labour division, the development of production and the movement of goods, have conducted to the enhancement of resources and ways of transportation, which have become internal elements of a global transportation system. Romania, due to its geographical position, is situated at the intersection of communication ways that links north and south, and east to the west of Europe. This means an important benefit related to the transportation. However, in order to ensure an adequate transportation system, Romania has to create a proper infrastructure for all transportation ways. Because roads represent one of the most important transportation ways that has recorded a signified enhancement during the past 100 years, a modern infrastructure, at European standards, is needed. The study proposes a solution with a punctual approach (refers to a transportation way) for watching the traffic flow on the main national roads using a monitoring system, which can be extended through telecommunications systems and becoming a system with a global traffic flow image. Gathering traffic flow information leads to fundamental decisions to improve Romanian auto transportation condition.

Keywords: Vehicle, ultrasound transducers, transfer characteristic, monitoring, auto traffic, and traffic flow

Title of the Paper:  A New Approach in Mobile Robot Fault Tolerant Control. Minimizing Costs and Extending Functionality


Authors: Cristian Axenie

Abstract: Today’s trends in control engineering and robotics are blending gradually into a slightly challenging area, the development of fault tolerant real-time applications. Hence, applications should timely deliver synchronized data-sets, minimize latency in their response and meet their performance specifications in the presence of disturbances and faults. The fault tolerant behavior in mobile robots refers to the possibility to autonomously detect and identify faults as well as the capability to continue operating after a fault occurred. This paper introduces a real-time distributed control application with fault tolerance capabilities for differential wheeled mobile robots. ARTEMIC combines the power and flexibility of real-time open-source software, the robustness of nonlinear control schemes, the efficiency of Kalman filtering and the extensibility of high-level programming languages for hardware interfacing. Specific design, development and implementation details will be provided in this paper.

Keywords: Mobile Robotics, Fault Tolerant Control, Sliding Mode Control, Extended Kalman Filter, Real Time Linux, Distributed Control, Grafcet

Title of the Paper:  Study Regarding the Possibilities of Improving the Parameters of a Petroleum Products Main Pipe Transport System


Authors: Andrei Magyari, Marin Silviu Nan, Florin Dumitru Popescu, Nicolae Buda

Abstract: Main pipe flow control of petroleum products transport systems represent an important problem on which the efficient operation of the system depends considering the process imposed requirements respectively the final consumer. As more precise flow control is, realized with a sufficient reaction speed, as more enhanced the energetic parameters and economic performance get. Considering an automated control the problem of optimal process operation may appear having either the minimum specific energy consumption or minimum expenses per unit of transported product related to the distance as a performance indicator. Either the resistive method (regulation valve) or changing the speed of the speed of the centrifugal pump (if used) may be used to control the flow of the transported fluid though main pipes. The development of new petroleum products main pipe transport installations, in order to find the optimum choice concerning their architecture and structure, supposes the modeling and simulation of the considered system. Simulation allows the generation, evaluation of instances and establishes the best solution based on performance indicators which most of the times identify with the definitive indicators of the simulated system. Simulation may be applied as well to studying petroleum products main pipe transport systems already in operation. The results of the simulation for this case emphasizes the objectives to be met within the modernization processes and the weak spots of the system ensuring the solving of problems if investments are implied for their modernization or if it is more efficient to increase expenditures for their maintenance.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump, mathematical model, flow regulating process, main pipe

Title of the Paper:  Development Objects and Algorithms Required to Implement a New Method of Access Control to Physical Resources, based on Qualifications


Authors: Daniela Cristea, Octavian Prostean, Thomas Muschalik, Ovidiu Tirian

Abstract: This paperwork presents a distributed system to be used for implementing a new method for the access control to physical resources, along with the mode to implement various development objects required, and the algorithms used for encoding and decoding the access right. This access control method, described through the QBAC pattern, is going to be used by the employees of a company to access the inputs of any machines, based on the qualifications (abilities) they dispose of.

Keywords: Distributed system, authorization, access control, security, SAP NetWeaver platform, qualification

Title of the Paper:  Developing IEC61499 in Industrial Processes, Measurement and Control Systems (IPMCS)


Authors: Maryam Sadeghi

Abstract: Increasing marketing competition with globalization force companies to expand diversity of the production lines which in turn improve the ability of choosing customizable products, improve the flexibility of system design and maintenance costs lead to a strong trend towards automation and distributed control systems. The plant is constantly adapted to the differences of products to achieve the highest production quality in a shortest possible time and so the automatic control have to be adapted, developed and upgraded based on changes in the plant conditions. Traditional production has typically relied upon a PLC as a Centralized hierarchy of Programmable Logic Controllers which is usually fixed or “hard-wired”. For developing the system it should be shut-down and completely rewired which leads to a high cost and time consumption may last at least several weeks in often cases in production process. A new design methodology with open architecture for modeling industrial control systems has been developed. New international standard “IEC 61499”, defines event driven functional modules called function blocks which can be distributed to field devices and interconnected across multiple controllers. It used for intelligent and agile control with more Portability, interoperability and configurability adds the system flexibility by adaption and reconfiguration basing on environment changes. It can be used for reducing the cost and complexity of industrial automation process. In this approach IEC61499 Function Blocks concept, Function Block Development Kit (FBDK), Function Block Run Time Environment (FBRT), Netmaster and Automatic Iron Cutting Device using IEC61499 FBs Editor will be discussed.

Keywords: IPMCS , DCS, PLC, IEC 61499, Function Block, FBDK, FBRT, Netmaster, JVM, SIFB

Title of the Paper:  Economic Load Dispatch Using Improved Harmony Search


Authors: T. Ratniyomchai, A. Oonsivilai, P. Pao-La-Or, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper presents the use of the improved harmony search method for solving economic load dispatch problems. The harmony search method mimics a jazz improvisation process by musicians in order to seek a fantastic state of harmony. To assess the searching performance of the proposed method, a six-unit thermal generating system acquired from the standard IEEE 30-bus test system was challenged. Satisfactory results obtained from the proposed method were compared to those obtained by genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, adaptive tabu search and particle swarm. Also, effects of valve-point loading units were included and discussed.

Keywords: Economic dispatch, genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, adaptive tabu search, particle swarm optimization

Issue 5, Volume 5, May 2010

Title of the Paper:  Automatic Regulation Time Series for Sampled-data Feedback Control Systems with Limited Control Inputs


Authors: Tain-Sou Tsay

Abstract: In this literature, a new nonlinear digital controller is proposed for analyses and designs of sampleddata feedback control systems. The controller is derived from the converging characteristic of a specified numerical series. The ratios of neighbourhoods of the series are formulated as a function of the output of the plant and the reference input command, and will be converged to be unities after the output has tracked the reference input command. Limitation of the series can be applied to get better performance. Two kinds of servo system, a time-delay system, one very high order system and a 2x2 multivariable aircraft gas turbine engine are used to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear digital controller. Comparisons with other conventional methods are also made.

Keywords: Time series, Nonlinear control, Sampled data feedback control system

Title of the Paper:  Experimental Verification of Design Methods for Conventional PI/PID Controllers


Authors: Radek Matusu, Roman Prokop

Abstract: The paper presents an experimental verification of conventional PI and PID controller design methods. Nine different synthesis techniques were used to control of airflow speed in laboratory model of hotair tunnel, most of them for both PI and PID version. In the first instance the controlled plant was identified in order to obtain a linear mathematical model and then the controllers were designed using studied methods. The controllers were tested in simulations and subsequently implemented under real conditions. The obtained control results have been compared and analyzed.

Keywords: Control Design Methods, PID Control, Linear Control, Hot-Air Tunnel, Identification

Title of the Paper:  Acoustic Positioning System for Compact Underwater Vehicle


Authors: Kosei Shimoo, Yutaka Nagashima, Takakazu Ishimatsu

Abstract: Currently a platform to investigate the underwater environment is required. In this paper, we propose an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with an accurate positioning system. The positioning system is developed to be accurate enough to utilize the superior navigation ability of our AUV feature. The navigation ability is acquired by the variable vector propeller mechanism. The accurate positioning became possible by introducing two acoustic signals with different frequencies. The range data were obtained satisfactorily with maximum error less than 0.006m. Using the positioning system, the navigation trajectory of the AUV could be measured.

Keywords: Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Acoustic positioning system (APS), Ultrasonic, VARIVEC propeller, PLD, Marine investigation

Title of the Paper:  Optimal Switching Function Discrete Sliding-mode Control Based on Unmatched Uncertainties States Observer


Authors: Shen Yu, Ma Bo-Yuan, Du Jin-Xin, Duan Xue-Chao

Abstract: For a class of discrete unmatched uncertain systems with incompletely measured states, a stable closed-loop sliding-mode control method based on the unmatched uncertain states observer is proposed. The output error feedback matrix is obtained by transformation of uncertainties state equation and solving the linear matrix inequalities(LMI). The stability of the states observer is proved. A reaching-law sliding-mode controller is presented for this discrete system by employing the results of the observer. To enhance the stability of the reaching-law sliding-mode controller, the stability margin is defined by using the min-max eigenvalue ration method. By deducing the min-max Lyapunov difference function, solving linear programming and optimizing the switching function, the closed-loop sliding-mode controller can get the maximum stability margin. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

Keywords: Discrete system, unmatched uncertainties states observer, reaching-law slide mode controller, stability margin

Title of the Paper:  Control of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Model Reference Dynamic Inversion


Authors: Zhang Yaou, Zhao Wansheng, Kang Xiaoming

Abstract: Worldwide energy-saving emission has stimulated extensive application of permanent magnet synchronous motor in industry. This work is a contribution to velocity control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The model of the permanent magnet synchronous motor has multi-variable, highly nonlinear, strong coupling character with external load; in order to control this complicated nonlinear model, the hierarchy model reference dynamic inversion control method has been developed. Based on the band of the different variables of the system, the control system can be divided into long period control loop and short period control loop. The model reference dynamic inversion method is proposed as the kernel controller in different loops. Based on the desired closed loop reference model, the open loop controller can be designed for the long period loop and short period loop respectively, and this open loop controller can make the response of the system the same as that of the reference model. Comparing with the traditional control method, this model reference dynamic inversion control method combine the virtues of the model reference controller with that of the dynamic inversion controller, and this method is a fully nonlinear control method in essence, which can avoid linearization error when using the approximate linearization controller and the problem of the parameter tuning when utilizing the traditional PI hierarchy controller. Finally, the simulation experiments have been set up and the simulation results have illustrated that this control method can control the permanent magnet synchronous motor stably and successfully.

Keywords: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), Dynamic Inversion (DI), Velocity Tracking Control, model reference, hierarchy controller

Title of the Paper:  Design of Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizers in Multimachine Power System using Genetic Algorithm


Authors: Manisha Dubey, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizers using genetic algorithms. In the proposed fuzzy expert system, speed deviation and its derivative have been selected as fuzzy inputs. In this approach the parameters of the fuzzy logic controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithm. Incorporation of GA in the design of fuzzy logic power system stabilizer will add an intelligent dimension to the stabilizer and significantly reduces computational time in the design process. It is shown in this paper that the system dynamic performance can be improved significantly by incorporating a genetic-based searching mechanism. To demonstrate the robustness of the genetic based fuzzy logic power system stabilizer (GFLPSS), simulation studies on multimachine system subjected to small perturbation and three-phase fault have been carried out. Simulation results show the superiority and robustness of GA based power system stabilizer as compare to conventionally tuned controller to enhance system dynamic performance over a wide range of operating conditions.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer, Genetic Algorithms, Genetic based power system stabilizer, Power system stabilizer

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Disturbances Compensating Dynamic Positioning of Dredgers Based on Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control


Authors: Yuhua Zhang, Jianguo Jiang

Abstract: In order to deal with the control difficulties of the dredger’s dynamic positioning system under large disturbances and severe sea conditions, an adaptive dynamic surface control method is proposed to be used in the dredger’s dynamic positioning system. Disturbances can be estimated and compensated by adaptive arithmetic. The addition of low pass filters in backstepping design process allows the dynamic surface control technique to be implemented without differentiating any model nonlinearities, which could simplify the design significantly. The proposed adaptive robust controller guarantees the semi-globally asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system, and output asymptotic track to desired trajectory. Besides, the final tracking accuracy could be adjusted via certain controller parameters. This scheme is verified by the comprehensive simulation results in typical operation scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed controller has desired position tracking transient performance and robustness to the uncertain disturbances.

Keywords: Dynamic positioning (DP), Adaptive dynamic surface control(ADSC), Nonlinear controller design, Backstepping, Dredger, Disturbances compensating

Title of the Paper:  A Study on Electromagnetic Driven Bi-Disc Compensator for Rotor Auto-Balancing and its Movement Control


Authors: Chen Li-Fang, Cao Xi, Gao Jin-Ji

Abstract: A high-speed rotor system can be very sensitive to rotating mass unbalance which is harmful to rotating machinery. Therefore, many kinds of balancing device were created to reduce vibration in high-speed rotor system. In an electromagnetic driven balancing system, rotor unbalance is online identified and calculated by electromagnetic compensator, and then the balancing discs will be moved to the best compensating positions and the unbalance can be suppressed or eliminated. Unfortunately, industrial application using auto-balancing technology is limited by its long transition time and transient vibration enhancement. To solve these deficiencies on compensator movement control, a bi-disc freely rotation strategy was established and the solutions of two special cases were also given out. A test rig of electromagnetic driven bi-disc free rotation rotor auto-balancing system was established. Experiments using the new control strategy on this rig showed that the compensator could be moved faster and more accurate. At the meantime, the balancing time was reduced, and more important, enhancement on transient vibration was avoided.

Keywords: Electromagnetic driven compensator; Balancing disc; Movement control; Rotor auto-balancing system

Title of the Paper:  Exploration with Two Cooperating Mobile Robots


Authors: Mohammad Al Khawaldah, Salvatore Livatino, Lily Meng

Abstract: In this paper a new exploration algorithm using two cooperating robots is introduced. The new technique is a combination of wall-following exploration algorithm and frontier-based exploration algorithm. Furthermore, robots sweep the line-of-sight between them continuously; if they can see each other then the area between them is assigned as free. The aim is to decrease the exploration time and energy consumption. The proposed algorithm is divided into two stages: Firstly, one of the robots follows (detects) the entire of the environment walls. And secondly, they employ frontier-based algorithm to complete exploring the remained unexplored areas. During these two stages, the robots sweep the line-of-sight between them in each step to maximize the exploration efficiency.

Keywords: Cooperating robots, Exploration, Line-of-Sight, Wall following, frontiers, Map building

Title of the Paper:  Combining a Recurrent Neural Network and a PID Controller for Prognostic Purpose: A Way to Improve the Accuracy of Predictions


Authors: Ryad Zemouri, Rafael Gouriveau, Paul Ciprian Patic

Abstract: In maintenance field, prognostic is recognized as a key feature as the prediction of the remaining useful life of a system which allows avoiding inopportune maintenance spending. Assuming that it can be difficult to provide models for that purpose, artificial neural networks appear to be well suited. In this paper, an approach combining a Recurrent Radial Basis Function network (RRBF) and a proportional integral derivative controller (PID) is proposed in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. The PID controller attempts to correct the error between the real process variable and the neural network predictions.

Keywords: Maintenance, prognostic, error of prediction, neural network, RRBF, PID

Title of the Paper:  Integration of Information Technology and Automation: Facilitators and Barriers


Authors: Claudia Tomie Yukishima Zuge, Sergio Luiz Pereira, Eduardo Mario Dias

Abstract: Information Technology (IT) should effectively assist business strategies of companies, being a crucial factor for success. The difficulty of integration has brought software providers to develop integrated solutions to provide a common user interface and data management system. These Systems are referred as Manufacturing Execution System (MES). Automation Technology (AT) includes all hardware and software of an automated industrial plant, which includes Programmable Logic Controllers, Industrial Networks, Supervisory Systems, and all software licenses necessary to run the system. The integration of IT with AT provides data from the ground-floor to the management level of enterprises. Owing to the advance of technology, hardware and software architecture, automation systems enable the acquisition of a huge quantity of information that can assist in decision-making of companies. ntegration models are presented, along with the main facilitators and barriers of the integration between IT and AT and suggestions for future work in this area.

Keywords: Information technology, automation technology, MES, automation and enterprise integration

Issue 6, Volume 5, June 2010

Title of the Paper:  AVL System Integration with RFID for the Optimization of Cargo Transportation


Authors: Decio Tomasulo De Vicente, Marcelo Jose Maluf Garcia, Silvio Giuseppe Di Santo, Eduardo Mario Dias

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the integration of different technologies such as RFID, in order to improve road transport and distribution of cargo, resulting in a decrease or even mitigation of damages involved in current logistics processes. The advantage of using AVL integrated with RFID technology is shown by comparing with the current model of the logistics process for supply of goods, which can be seen the greatly simplify and security achieved.

Keywords: AVL, RFID, logistic process, fractioned cargo

Title of the Paper:  A Study on the Available Biometric Technologies Used in Order to Control Security in Physical Access


Authors: Ricardo Janes, Augusto F. Brandao Jr, Eduardo M. Dias

Abstract: The control of the physical access in automated security systems, like banks, ports, airports and military areas, is essential to guarantee the financial security of the institutions and to prevent to the possibility of accomplishment of terrorist acts. To this, a lot of technologies used in security systems can be used, but the choice of a technology depends on some factors, as the level of security related with the financial value to be protected, the entailed cost to the technology implementation related to the level of offered security, and the physical characteristics to the proper installation. This work aims to present the main characteristics of the biometric technologies used currently in the control of physical access, therefore the biometry is known as the measurement technique more insurance currently in the identification of a person. The susceptibility to fraud, involved costs to implementation and installation of the biometric devices, advantages and disadvantages of each technology will be presented in this work. Some technologies have low costs for the implantation, but its use has low acceptance in some countries. Others have high trustworthiness but the cost becomes the prohibitive equipment. This work presents a relation cost-benefit, so that the choice of the technology can be made taking in account the involved cost and the degree of security of the technology to be used.

Keywords: Biometric technology. Biometry. Access Control. Smart buildings. Security systems

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Well Conditions Analysis Method through SFPI Algorithm


Authors: Zhenhua Sun, Xuemin Tian

Abstract: Through reviewing the popular time-frequency analysis methods of signals, this paper proposed a novel method with specific frequency polar images (SFPI) to process the electrical signals from beam-pumping unit motor due to the weakness of phase analyzing ability of the general time-frequency analysis methods. And the fundamental concept of the SFPI was defined. This method acquires the time-frequency distribution and phase information of signals by projecting them to a specific frequency polar. And through the dynamic tracks in the polar cycle, the time-frequency information was showed clearly. The SFPI was used to analyze the well conditions through motor electric signals. Finally, the characteristics of this method were concluded. And the direction of future works was assigned.

Keywords: Well conditions, Beam-puming unit, Dynamometer, Time-frequency, Specific frequency polar images

Title of the Paper:  Using Data Mining Techniques for Development Expert Systems Equipped with Learning Capabilities for Use in Automated Industrial Plants


Authors: Alexandre Acacio De Andrade, Sergio Luiz Pereira, Eduardo Mario Dias, Caio Fernando Fontana

Abstract: The use of expert systems gained importance with the growing amount of data that the current plants generate automated, in this paper, the development and tests of a specialist system based on data mining and that possesses the learning capacity is presented. The referred system was termed as NESISES (Neural System of Integration for Supervisory and Expert Systems). It operates in real time with industrial automation supervisory systems and whose aim is to minimize the frequent knowledge engineering procedures for constantly updating the base of knowledge of an Expert System (ES). NESISES was validated in both the laboratory as well as in an automation plant.

Keywords: Data Mining, Machine learning, Industrial Automation, Supervisory and Specialist Systems - Interconnection

Title of the Paper:  Proposal of a Information System Guided To Administration of Hydric Supply Systems


Authors: Fabricio Ramos Da Fonseca, Eduardo Mario Dias, Sergio Luiz Pereira, Caio Fernando Fontana

Abstract: This work offers a practical vision about the application of automation technologies in systems of sanitation and has as objective to expose solutions guided to the management of hydric supply systems. These automated systems are characterized mainly by the necessity of acquisition and information sending of one or more operational control centers to remote stations located in the most several locations as: densely urbanized centers, non urban areas, restricted access places, coastal areas, port areas, underground places and high topography places. This diversity of characteristics demands a group of automation, supervision and administration of information solutions to the control and the administration of the supply system in an integrated and efficient way.

Keywords: Management systems, enterprise resource planning, hydric supply systems

Title of the Paper:  Security Logistic Chain Process - Methodology for the Implementation


Authors: Eduardo Mario Dias, Caio Fernando Fontana, Sergio Luiz Pereira

Abstract: The development of the Methodology for the Implantation of the Processes of the Safe Logistic Chain aims at to establish parameters and methodology for application of the diverse concepts and programs of security for the foreign commerce being aimed at the load control that come being implemented for agencies of government and international organisms. The implementation of this model will provide to an increase of productivity of the sector therefore the adoption of measures of load control demands that the planning of the logistic operations is effected, followed and corrected whenever necessary.

Keywords: CSI, Safe logistic chain, Security, Electronic seal, Tracking

Title of the Paper:  Experimental Implementation of Smart Glove Incorporating Piezoelectric Actuator for Hand Tremor Control


Authors: S. Kazi, A. As'Arry, M. Z. Md. Zain, M. Mailah, M. Hussein

Abstract: This paper examines the effectiveness of a glove specifically designed to compensate human hand tremor by incorporating a type of piezoelectric actuator. In this paper, the experimental results are divided into two parts involving actual human hand tremor and model hand-arm tremor. Both experiments were done using same measurement equipments, experimental setup and programming to evaluate the effectiveness of the glove in reducing the hand tremor. The initial experiment was done by measuring human hand tremor to determine the coherence frequency while other was performed on a hand-arm model with artificial vibration exciter to validate the response of the actual hand tremor. A number of selected sample frequencies were chosen for the experiment. Next, a piezoelectric actuator was employed as the main active element for the compensation of the tremors in both systems. The results presented both in time and frequency domains show that most tremors are readily suppressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed systems. They are considered as useful data that can be used for further investigation into the technique of effective human hand tremor suppression, particularly applicable to patients suffering from uncontrollable shaking or trembling such as in Parkinson’s disease, white hand syndrome, etc. Subsequently, the output of this investigation can be also used to assist in developing advanced control strategies that involve the generation of controlled signals as the input for the piezoelectric actuator or other similar device to suppress the hand tremor. The presented system is notable for simplicity and low cost.

Keywords: Human hand tremor, Smart glove, Piezoelectric Actuator

Title of the Paper:  Design of Fault Tolerant Flight Control System


Authors: Emre Kiyak, Fikret Caliskan

Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to present an approach to detect, isolate and accommodate the sensor or actuator faults using bank of observer and unknown input observers (UIO). Full order observers, reduced order observers, unknown input observers and Kalman Filter are widely used in state estimations [1]. After the estimation of states, fault detection and isolation can be provided by conducting residual analysis. Despite the existence of unknown inputs, fault detection and isolation is implemented for a very large, four-engined, cargo jet aircraft model. Sensor accommodation is realized via switching under redundant sensor existence assumption. Actuator accommodation is provided by gain scheduling. Hence, if a fault occurs in an actuator corresponding to the control surfaces, the remainder (n-1) actuators are used to avoid hazardous flight regime. Sensor or actuator faults are detected by using residuals. Sensor faults are effective on the outputs while actuator faults are effective on the state equations. Fault isolation is implemented by taking into account that each residual is sensitive to all of the other faults but one fault. Fault detection, isolation and accommodation are shown to be functional through the simulations.

Keywords: Fault detection, isolation, accommodation, fault tolerant flight control, observer and unknown input observers

Title of the Paper:  Optimal Size of Kanban Board in a Single Stage Multi Product System


Authors: T. Murino, G. Naviglio, E. Romano

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to define a methodology for determining the optimal size of the supermarket (between two workstations) through the optimization of the number of kanban in a kanban board. It also identifies some production parameters that greatly influence the optimal size of a kanban board. The approach chosen is the building of a simulation model of a single stage multi-product system with Arena, while OptQuest has been used for the next optimization phase.

Keywords: Supermarket pull system, kanban board, DES, simulation and optimization, data analysis

Title of the Paper:  PI-Type Fuzzy Controllers for Mobile Satellite Antenna Control System Design with Tracking Loop Gain Parameter Variations


Authors: Jium-Ming Lin, Po-Kuang Chang

Abstract: This research applied Proportion and Integration (PI) type fuzzy methods for mobile satellite antenna control system design. The detailed block diagram of a satellite antenna tracking system is very lousy; it is very difficult to obtain the key parameters for analyses and simulation. Thus a simplified model of antenna pitching or yawing control system is applied to speed up the design and obtain the key parameters. Firstly, the antenna tracking and the stabilization loops were designed according to the traditional bandwidth and phase margin requirements. However, the performances would be degraded if the tacking loop gain is reduced due to parameter variations. On the other hand a PI-type fuzzy controller was also applied for tracking loop design. It can be seen that the system performances obtained by the fuzzy controller were better for both lower and higher antenna tracking loop gains, and the tracking loop gain parameter variations effect can be reduced.

Keywords: Antenna tracking loop, stabilization loop, PI-type fuzzy controller, PI compensator

Title of the Paper:  Integration both PI and PD Type Fuzzy Controllers for a Scanning Probe Microscope System Design


Authors: Jium-Ming Lin, Po-Kuang Chang

Abstract: This research is to use a Proportion and Integration (PI) as well as a Proportion and Derivative (PD) type of fuzzy controllers to reduce the hysteresis effect of a force actuator for a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). This improvement has been verified by MATLAB simulation and practical implementation to reduce the hysteresis effect of the force actuator. Comparisons with the previous designs with and without Linear Velocity Transducer (LVT) for inner-loop feedback compensation are also made. Thus the new design is cheaper and valuable.

Keywords: PI type fuzzy controller, PD type fuzzy controller, SPM, Force actuator, Hysteresis effect

Issue 7, Volume 5, July 2010

Title of the Paper:  A Study for Destination of Solid Wastes from Vessels


Authors: Carla M. Maccagnan Fontana, Maria Lidia Dias, Eduardo Mario Dias, Sergio Luiz Pereira

Abstract: Everyday humans around the globe perform a series of activities that, in addition to the final product concerned, results in a significant number of solid waste, commonly called "junk." These solid wastes not treated to an appropriate final destination will be fatefully converted into pollutants causing a variety of environmental, economic and social problems. Particularly, the Brazilian legislation, in accordance with international treaties, adopted as one of the methods to prevent the realization of the potential damage of the waste generated on board the ship’s obligation to deliver its solid waste to the administration of the local port. However, managing solid waste is still a challenge for Brazilian ports as most of them lack the means to make the classification, collection, treatment and final disposal of waste generated. It is therefore extremely necessary to invest in measures to manage the negative effects and prevent the realization of their potential environmental damage as well as combating illegal practices, such as smuggling and trafficking drugs. Though this can not involve undue delay to ships making use of their facilities.

Keywords: Solid waste management; Scanning; Tracking; Monitoring; Oceanic pollution

Title of the Paper:  A Direct Linear Solution With Jacobian Optimization to AX=XB for Hand-Eye Calibration


Authors: Mao Jianfei, Tian Qing, Liang Ronghua

Abstract: A linear closed-form solution followed by Jacobian optimization is proposed to solve AX=XB for hand-eye calibration. Our approach does not require A,B satisfying rigid transformation rather than the classic ones based on quaternion algebra or screw rule. We firstly give the detailed proof of the optimal orthonormal estimation for an arbitrary scale matrix. With the theorem, a linear closed solution based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and the rule of optimal rotation estimation, is presented, followed by the nonlinear optimization with the proposed Jacobian recursive formula. Detailed deduction and demonstration are given based on matrix theory. Since our approach is applicable for non-rigid transformation rather than the classic ones, our technique is more flexible. Plenty of computer simulation and real data implementation indicate that: (1) In computation of initial value, our technique has higher precision and more robustness. (2) As more equations are added, initial value will converge to final value gradually, which shows it credible to regard initial value as final solution when many equations are supplied.

Keywords: Closed-form solution, Jacobian optimization, Hand-eye calibration, Orthonormal estimation, SVD

Title of the Paper:  The Modernization of the Public Service Using Information Technology


Authors: Valter Luiz Vendramin, Eduardo Mario Dias

Abstract: The use of information technology with modern tools is absolutely necessary in the new scenario of administration. Modern administration requires efficient tools to perform information management that allows for speed in its collection, tabulation, and analysis and that enables the manager to make decisions to solve problems or even prepare government programs. The association between modernization and traditional concepts of information technology and other areas of science are increasingly required for the conduction of the public manager’s works to reach the set goals.

Keywords: Automation, Education, Public Service, IT, Modern Tools, Public Management

Title of the Paper:  Modelling and Simulation of Traffic Lights on Road Intersections


Authors: Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Jean-Octavian Popescu

Abstract: This paper aims to achieve a program that operates the traffic light of intersections with TwidoSoft programming language. The order of priority between traffic rules is implemented in machine specific language TwidoSoft. At the end of this paper is a simulated traffic congestion situation.

Keywords: Modeling and Simulation, PLC Twido, Programming, Ladder

Title of the Paper:  A Convex Optimization Approach to GPS Receiver Tracking Loop Design


Authors: He-Sheng Wang

Abstract: In this paper, the application of convex optimization theory to GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver tracking loops is investigated. We design an H? controller for the receiver tracking loop based on an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) approach. The H? controller is particularly attractive because it is a robust design in the sense that small disturbances lead to small tracking errors. Furthermore, it easily accommodates the inclusion of plant uncertainties as part of the plant model. By adding unstructured or structured perturbations to the plant model, it is possible to design controller that ensure stability robustness and performance robustness of the closed-loop system. In order to apply the H? optimal design, we first rewrite the GPS receiver tracking loop into a two-input two-output generalized plant model, and then the H? controller is design by using an LMI approach. The LMI is a convex optimization problem in which a local solution is guaranteed to be a global minimizer. By using a software-based GPS L5 signal generator, various levels of disturbances are derived as test inputs to evaluate the performance of the resulting tracking loop.

Keywords: GPS, Linear Matrix Inequality, Convex Optimization, H? Control, Delayed-Lock Loop

Title of the Paper:  Planning and Control of a Hybrid Vacuum-Forming System Based on Screw-pin Tooling


Authors: Zhijian Wang, Yan Wang, Nabil Gindy

Abstract: This paper introduced planning and control of a hybrid vacuum-forming machine system (HAVES). The HAVES was developed to integrate CAD/CAM, screw-pin tooling, CNC, vacuum forming and optical measurement device together to produce vacuum forming components. The screw-pin tooling was employed to replace traditional dedicated solid tooling and its reconfigurability provided the HAVES with advantages in rapid producing small batch and mass customization products. The whole control system of the HAVES is divided into two parts: one for screw-pin tooling adjustment and machining by using CNC control, and the other for vacuum forming by using PLC control. The detail design of the control system was discussed.

Keywords: Vacuum forming, Control system, Reconfigurable tooling, Screw-pin tooling, Hybrid, HAVES

Title of the Paper:  Synchronous Motor Observability Study and a New Robust MRAS Speed Observer with an Improved Zero-speed Position Estimation Design for Surface PMSM


Authors: Dalila Zaltni, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract: This paper deals with the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) observability problems and proposes a simple and effective solution to improve the rotor speed and position estimation for Surface PMSM (SPMSM). In fact, the problem of loss of observability at low frequency range is always recognized in experimental settings. Nevertheless, there are no sufficient theoretical observability analyses for the PMSM. In the literature, only the sufficient observability condition has been presented. Therefore, the current work is aimed specially to the necessary observability condition analysis. In order to improve the rotor speed and position estimation in the case of SPMSM, a special attention is given to Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS). MRAS based techniques are one of the best methods to estimate the rotor speed and position due to its performances and straight forward stability approach. In this paper, we propose a new robust MRAS scheme based on sliding mode techniques to estimate the rotor speed of a SPMSM. Furthermore, an Estimator/Observer swapping system is designed to overcome position observability problems at zero speed which is an unobservable state point. The stability of the proposed MRAS observer is also presented and discussed. Various tests are carried out in simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

Keywords: Permanent magnet synchronous motor, Observability analysis, Model reference adaptive system, Observer, Sliding mode

Title of the Paper:  Pitch Rate Damping of an Aircraft by Fuzzy and Classical PD Controller


Authors: Yasemin Isik

Abstract: Aircraft dynamics are in general nonlinear, time varying, and uncertain. A control system (classical control systems) designed for a flight condition, may not provide the desired stability and performance characteristics in case of deviation from the equilibrium point. There are numerous studies regarding flight control in the literature. One of them is fuzzy flight control system. Fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) from their inception have demonstrated a vast range of applicability to processes where the plant transfer function is not defined but the control action can be described in terms of linguistic variables. FLC's are also being used with improved performance instead of “classical" controllers where the plant transfer function is known. Most of the applications about the design of fuzzy flight control are in simulation level. In this study, the design of fuzzy and classical PD controller for the pitch rate damping system is analyzed and the results for a two-engined jet fighter aircraft are evaluated in a MATLAB coded program.

Keywords: Aircraft, flight control, pitch rate, classical PD control, fuzzy and fuzzy PD control

Title of the Paper:  Stabilization of an Inertia Wheel Pendulum using an Implicit Controller Design


Authors: Nadeem Qaiser, Saleh Bin Tariq, Naveed Haq, Tariq Aziz

Abstract: Control design for an underactuated system is complicated, as feedback linearization cannot be applied directly. This issue can be addressed by using partial feedback linearization with appropriate coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this often results in leaving the core system non-affine. Design of a control law for a non-affine system is quiet difficult due to lack of mathematical tools needed. The Inertia Wheel Pendulum is a benchmark example of such non-affine systems. The under actuation property, posing problems in exact feedback linearization makes design of the control law for this a challenging task. Although Partial feedback linearization reduces a part of the system to linear but leaves the core system non-affine in nature. A novel nonlinear controller design fusing recently introduced Sliding Surface Control technique with Implicit Control of the nonlinear core is presented to tackle the issue. The task of the nonlinear controller is not only to stop the wheel but also to stabilize the pendulum at its unstable upright equilibrium in such a way that the inertial wheel stops rotating. The design procedure is simpler and more intuitive than currently available sliding surfaces, integrator backstepping or energy shaping designs. Stability is analyzed by decomposing the system into a cascade of linear and nonlinear sub-systems. Stability and advantages over existing controller designs are analyzed theoretically and verified using numerical simulations.

Keywords: Inertia Wheel Pendulum, Implicit control, Multiple Sliding Surfaces, Underactuated Mechanical Systems, Backstepping

Title of the Paper:  A Generalised Minimum Variance Controller for Time-Varying MIMO Linear Systems with Multiple Delays


Authors: Zheng Li, Christian Schmid

Abstract: In this paper we study optimal control of time-varying multi-input multi-output stochastic systems and develop a generalised minimum variance controller. The system to be controlled is described using a multiinput multi-output time-varying autoregressive moving average model that has multiple delays between the output and input. The controller minimises the sum of output tracking error variances and squared current control variables.

Keywords: MIMO systems, minimum variance control; multiple delays, time-varying systems

Issue 8, Volume 5, August 2010

Title of the Paper:  SCADA Architecture with Mobile Remote Components


Authors: Tai-Hoon Kim

Abstract: With the advent of new technologies, the demand of connecting IT systems to the Internet is increasing. This is also the case for Control systems specifically SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems. Traditional SCADA systems are connected only in a limited private network. Because SCADA is considered a critical infrastructure, some operators hold back on connecting it to the Internet. Connection SCADA systems to the internet can also provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. Along with these advantages, are security issues regarding web SCADA, operators are pushed to connect SCADA systems through the Internet. Because of this, many issues regarding security surfaced. Mobility is also in demand in many IT systems. In this paper, the architecture of SCADA in the web with remote sensors is discussed. We believe that having mobile components can improve the performance and it can provide larger operational coverage for SCADA systems.

Keywords: SCADA, Mobility, Remote Components, Control Systems

Title of the Paper:  Weather Condition Double Checking in Internet SCADA Environment


Authors: Tai-Hoon Kim

Abstract: The function of SCADA is collecting of the information, transferring it back to the central site, carrying out any necessary analysis and control and then displaying that information on a number of operator screens. Systems automatically control the actions and control the process of automation. Internet SCADA was developed to widen the coverage span of the SCADA system. In this paper, we design a double checking scheme for Weather Condition in Internet SCADA Environment. This is to improve the accuracy of data and to improve the performance of SCADA systems.

Keywords: SCADA, TeleControl, API, Control Systems

Title of the Paper:  Research Trend on Secure SCADA Network Technology and Methods


Authors: Farkhod Alsiherov, Taihoon Kim

Abstract: The overall security concern facing the designers and operators of SCADA and, more generally, of industrial control systems typically originates either from malicious threat agents attempting to disrupt the control system operation, e.g. to create a power outage, or it originates from inadvertent actions, equipment failure, or similar. Electric utilities require secure network and control system. This paper illustrates solutions for control networks and equipment, SCADA data and communications.

Keywords: SCADA security, Secure SCADA networks, SCADA systems

Title of the Paper:  Synthesis of an Approximate Feedback Nonlinear Control based on Optimization Methods


Authors: Wiem Jebri Jemai, Houssem Jerbi, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract: In the present work, we propose a novel polynomial approach to approximate the Input-State feedback linearization control. The aim of this new method is to simplify the implementation complexity of the exact Input- State feedback linearization. Indeed, the present approach leads to an analytical control law via analytical nonlinear transformations without need to resolve a set of partial differential equations. In fact, the analytical control law, determined via the proposed work, is dependent to an arbitrary choice of some parameters. So and in order to ensure a satisfactory evolution of the control input, we resort to optimization methods to have the optimal values of parameters. A study simulation is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Nonlinear system control, Input-State feedback linearization, Analytical representations, probabilistic algorithms, Monte Carlo optimization

Title of the Paper:  Wired and Wireless Remote Control of PV System


Authors: Mohamed Zahran, Yousry Atia, Abdullah Alhosseen, Ihab El-Sayed

Abstract: This paper describes a recent work developed for the real-time diagnostic monitoring system of photovoltaic (PV) power plant. It aims to create a stand-alone photovoltaic generator that can be easily relocated in remote areas to evaluate the feasibility of photovoltaic energy applications. For research and development purposes, the main goal of this work is to develop a cost effective and modern technique for monitoring and control the variable of the PV system. A set of sensors were installed to monitor the electric current and voltage of the energy generated, the energy stored and the energy used by the loads that may be connected to the system. Other parameters like solar radiations and temperatures of the photovoltaic module were monitored. In order to reduce off-site analysis effort, reports on PV plant performance are generated on request for user defined time period. User interface provides information on PV plant operation, displayed as digital values, slide bars and graphs. A proposed wireless system configuration is presented also in this paper using NI WSN 3202 nods and WSN-9791 module and NI WAP3711 Industrial Access Point. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver the operation performance data for the end user location. Finally, a measurement and communication hardware was installed to interface the system developed with a conventional computer. A PC -microcontroller interface based software and hardware is implemented as a wired monitor and control of PV system. In this way, the performance of the overall system in real rural conditions could be evaluated efficiently. Visual software that reads, visualizes and saves the data generated by the system was also developed by means of the LabVIEW programming environment.

Keywords: Solar cell model, monitoring system, LabVIEW, PV system, sensors and actuators, wireless, remote control

Title of the Paper:  Takagi-Sugeno vs. Lyapunov-based Tracking Control for a Wheeled Mobile Robot


Authors: Saso Blazic

Abstract: In this paper a novel kinematic model is proposed where the transformation between the robot posture and the system state is bijective. Two control approaches are proposed to solve the tracking problem. One approach is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model where a parallel distributed compensation control is used. The alternative approach is to use Lyapunov stability analysis to construct a nonlinear controller that achieves asymptotic stability if reference velocities satisfy the condition of persistent excitation.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Kinematic model, Takagi-Sugeno model, PDC control, Lyapunov stability

Title of the Paper:  PSO based Single and Two Interconnected Area Predictive Automatic Generation Control


Authors: Muhammad S. Yousuf, Hussain N. Al-Duwaish, Zakariya M. Al-Hamouz

Abstract: This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme applied to Automatic Generation Control (AGC) systems. The proposed scheme formulates the MPC as an optimization problem and PSO is used to find its solution. Single area AGC model is taken incorporating Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) nonlinearities and constraints on the control input. Two interconnected area AGC system excluding nonlinearity is also studied. The simulation results draw several comparisons to preceding literature showing significant improvements and signifying the strengths of the proposed MPC scheme. Furthermore, performance of controller is also explored for varying power demands, different GRC values and parameter variations.

Keywords: Model Predictive Control, Particle Swarm Optimization, Automatic Generation Control, Load Frequency Control, Nonlinear Predictive Control, Optimization Problem

Title of the Paper:  Convex Hull Manipulation Based Control Performance Optimisation


Authors: Patricia Grof, Peter Baranyi, Peter Korondi

Abstract: This paper deals with the topic of qLPV state-space model based control design in which LMIs are used to optimize the multi-objective control performance. In this paper we investigate how the manipulation convex hull of the polytopic model influences the control performance which is derived by LMIs. We examine these influences through the control design of the two dimensional aeroelastic system’s example. First we define various TP type polytopic model representations of a wing section whose vertices define different convex hulls. In the second step we investigate how these models lead to different control performances.

Keywords: Polytopic model, TP model, LMI, convex hull

Issue 9, Volume 5, September 2010

Title of the Paper:  Extended TP Model Transformation for Polytopic Representation of Impedance Model with Feedback Delay


Authors: Peter Galambos, Peter Baranyi, Peter Korondi

Abstract: In force controlled industrial robots, haptic and telemanipulation devices stability and control performance are contradicting requirements. In distributed systems where the sensors, actuators and control logic are separated in space, due to the network delays the control process may become unstable. In our research, we consider the coupled impedance type control algorithms as common used method in telemanipulation and interaction control of robots. In this paper, an extended TP model transformation is proposed to convert the delayed system into a polytopic tensor product (TP) model considering the value of the feedback delay as a parameter. Using such model, controller design become tractable as it does not contain feedback delay. A numerical example for a single degree of freedom impedance model with feedback delay is discussed. The results are confirmed by simulation.

Keywords: Delayed systems, Feedback systems, Interaction control, Telemanipulation, Haptics, TP Model Transformation, qLPV model, Polytopic linear models

Title of the Paper:  Design of a Neuro-Controller for Multivariable Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems


Authors: H. Al-Duwaish, S. Z. Rizvi

Abstract: This paper presents a controller design method for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear timevarying systems using Radial Basis Funtion (RBF) neural network. The developed neuro-controller generates optimal control signals abiding by constraints, if any, on the control signal or on the system output. The proposed controller does not require an explicit knowledge of the states of the system or any apriori knowledge of the structure of nonlinearity of the system. Time based variations in system parameters as well as system nonlinearities are successfully compensated by the neural network. Simulation results for nonlinear time-varying systems are included at the end and controller performance is analyzed.

Keywords: Neural Network, Radial Basis Functions, Optimization, Multivariable, Constraints

Title of the Paper:  Mobile Robot Behavior Based Navigation Architecture using a Linear Graph of Passages as Landmarks for Path Definition


Authors: Lubnen Name Moussi, Marconi Kolm Madrid

Abstract: In this work the authors present a mobile robot architecture design for real time autonomous navigation considering minimum requirements of hardware and computation. These requirements determine the use of simple sensors and minimum representation of the environment. The approach chosen was Behavior-Based for the design of the architecture and the behaviors. It is implemented under simulation of a differential wheels robot inside a 2D environment with a layout very close to a real situation for laboratories, offices and classrooms. The solution takes into consideration local and long run navigation. A first approach utilizes only reactive behaviors, solving very well local navigation. It also gives a partial solution to long run navigation in a simple environment, with only two rooms, doing it without path definition. A complete solution for an environment with many rooms is developed adding to the previous approach more behaviors that will take care of path definition and control. A linear graph, having the passages as landmarks, structures the environment representation and is the basis for the algorithm of path definition that gives an efficient solution. The architecture has not a central planner and controller as in traditional deliberative architectures; planning and control arises from the independent parallel functioning of all the behaviors. The results demonstrate that the design achieved its objectives and some important points to improve it are shown.

Keywords: Autonomous navigation, mobile robotics, behavior-based robotics, emergent behaviors, path definition and control, target seek

Title of the Paper:  A Practical Solution for the Classification in Interval-Valued Information Systems


Authors: Amaury Caballero, Kang Yen, Yechang Fang

Abstract: Complex information systems have to manage enormous quantity of data, representing different measurements or attributes from various sources. Classification of this set of data is a difficult task that frequently requires special methods for being solved. The problem of classification in information systems has been studied by many authors, and different methods have been developed. The use of rough sets, fuzzy logic, neural networks, entropy, or the combination of these methods has been used widely. When information is diffuse and the number of obtained values for each attribute is large, so is the number of rules obtained for the classification. Even worst is hidden information in the data that makes the process complicated. Due to this fact, an interval of values is defined for each attribute, moving from the minimum to the maximum obtained values in the collected database. This is what is defined as interval-valued information systems. Differently from other works, the concept of information measure is used in this paper, together with a fuzzy logic discrimination tool. Using these concepts, initially an attribute reduction is obtained and then fuzzy logic is applied for discriminating among the possible solutions. This method is simpler than others, and provides accuracy not less than the usually employed methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Information Systems, Classification, Databases, Diffuse Information

Title of the Paper:  Complex Structure Workspace Sweeping Using Semiautonomous Vacuum Cleaners


Authors: Krzysztof Skrzypczyk, Agnieszka Pieronczyk

Abstract: The paper presents the study of design and synthesis of the system dedicated for sweeping large and complex spaces using a team of cleaning robots. The problems of coordination of activities of individual robotic-unit is discussed. Application of the Game Theory for creation of coordination algorithms is proposed. The paper deals also with design and implementation of algorithms of movement of autonomous (or semiautonomous) vacuum cleaner, that would be able to work inside of a flat, but not free of obstacles workspaces. In the paper several proposed algorithms of surface covering are discussed. The two algorithms were selected as the most appropriate and presented in this work. Experimental validation of efficiency of the proposed approach were done and the results of the validation are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Mobile robotics, game theory, multi-robot, semiautonomous systems, vacuum cleaners, surface covering

Title of the Paper:  Twin Motor Drives in Weapon Systems


Authors: Jiri Balla

Abstract: The paper deals with the use of the twin motor drives in loading systems of guns and in small arms. The mechanical parts are described as systems with three degrees of freedom connected with flexible coupling. The electrical and hydraulic parts enable to determine the main power characteristics as are the torque and the angular velocity driving the ramming device and the chain gun mechanism.

Keywords: Twin motor, Chain gun, Gatling gun, Electric DC drive, Loading system, Ramming device, Motion equation

Title of the Paper:  Control System of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle used for Endurance Autonomous Monitoring


Authors: Teodor-Viorel Chelaru, Vasile Nicolae Constantinescu, Adrian Chelaru

Abstract: The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyze the stability of autonomous UAV flight .A robust guidance system, based on Kalman filter will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analyzed. The paper is inspired by national project SAMO (Autonomous Aerial Monitoring System for Interest Areas of Great Endurance).

Keywords: UAV, Simulation, Control, Guidance, Endurance, Surveillance, Monitoring, Kalman filter

Issue 10, Volume 5, October 2010

Title of the Paper:  Modeling of Raw Material Mixing Process in Raw Meal Grinding Installations


Authors: Dimitris Tsamatsoulis

Abstract: The objective of the present study is to build a reliable model of the dynamics among the chemical modules in the outlet of raw meal grinding systems and the proportion of the raw materials. The process model is constituted from three transfer functions, each one containing five independent parameters. The computations are performed using a full year industrial data by constructing a specific algorithm. The results indicate high parameters uncertainty due to the large number of disturbances during the raw mill operation. The model developed can feed with inputs advanced automatic control implementations, in order a robust controller to be achieved, able to attenuate the disturbances affecting the raw meal quality.

Keywords: Dynamics, Raw meal, Quality, Mill, Grinding, Model, Uncertainty

Title of the Paper:  Aircrafts' Control and Command Using Hierarchical Dynamic Inversion


Authors: Mihai Lungu

Abstract: The paper presents a methodology for the flight control law’s design for the trajectory pursuit using hierarchical dynamic inversion; this is based on separation of multi-time-scale and multi-loop closing method. The attitude angles are taken as slow variable while angular velocities as fast variables. The slow variables are controlled by the fast ones, which, in turn, are controlled by aerodynamic command surfaces. It greatly simplifies the flight control design compared with PID conventional approaches. The used dynamic equations are classified into 4 groups according to the stairs of time measuring from the physical point of view [1]; each group of variables is controlled by the group of faster neighboring variables. The authors made the analysis of the longitudinal and lateral movements of the aircrafts, have obtained two original block diagrams and, using complex Matlab/Simulink models, have obtained graphic characteristics which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Aircraft, hierarchical dynamic inversion, control law

Title of the Paper:  Self – Tuning Control of Continuous – Time Systems


Authors: Marek Kubalcik, Vladimir Bobal

Abstract: One approach to a recursive identification of continuous – time systems was implemented in self – tuning control of a system of interconnected tanks. Since derivatives of input and output variables of continuous – time systems can not be directly measured, differential filters and filtered variables are established to substitute primary variables. The filtered variables are then used in a recursive identification procedure where the classical recursive least squares method is used to identify the system. Results of real – time experiments are compared to results obtained with an analogical discrete controller. The method was also verified by simulation on a multivariable system in order to verify the algorithm on a system with more complex and complicated structure, where one output is influenced by more inputs.

Keywords: Self – tuning control, adaptive control, recursive estimation, nonlinear systems, polynomial methods, real – time control

Title of the Paper:  On-Line Simulator for Decision Support in Distribution Control Centers in a Smart Grid Context


Authors: A. Espinosa-Reza, A. Quintero-Reyes, R.Garcia-Mendoza, J. F. Borjas-Diaz, T. M. Calleros-Torres, B. Sierra-Rodriguez, R. Torres-Abrego

Abstract: This paper shows the physical, logical and functional architecture designed for integrating an On-Line Simulator of Electrical Distribution Networks (SED by its acronyms in Spanish) for decision support in Distribution Control Centers in Mexico. The main objective is the integration of engineering functions for distribution networks (power flow, short circuit, optimal reconfiguration, reliability, among others) and an Expert System (Case Based Reasoning) in order to support the processes of information analysis, decision making and training on the job at Regional Control Centers of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE by its acronyms in Spanish). The On-Line Simulator is installed, updated and in operation in a Distribution Control Center (Zona Tampico) and in a Regional Center for analysis and monitoring (Division Golfo Centro). Currently the On-Line Simulator is in use to establish the Semantic Model (CIM based) in order to integrate the CIM interoperability architecture for systems supporting Operations for Distribution Networks in Mexico.

Keywords: Simulator, CIM, Smart Grid, Electrical Distribution Network, Real-Time data, On-Line data, SCADA, DMS, optimal restoration, Decision Support System

Title of the Paper:  An Automatic Water Management System for Large-Scale Rice Paddy Fields


Authors: Teruji Sekozawa

Abstract: An automatic water management system for large-scale paddy fields has been developed. The purposes of that are to supply the paddy fields with water or drain water from that automatically, to decrease water consumption, and to have a good harvest. To accomplish the above purpose, developed system has five functions, (1) prediction of paddy growth stages, (2) water level control corresponding to growth stages, (3) estimation of mean water level, (4) prediction of water consumption, and (5) optimal water allocation for minimizing of damage. In this paper, we especially give a detail description of functions (3) and (5). For (3), we construct estimation model based on Kalman-filter theory, and give an estimation result. For (5), we propose calculation method of the damage rate of paddy from cold weather, and give a simulation result of optimal water distribution to thirty paddy fields.

Keywords: Paddy field, Prediction of growth stages, Water level control, Estimating mean water level, Predict field consumption, Optimal water allocation

Title of the Paper:  Intelligent System Based on DSP to Monitoring and Maintain Optimum Environmental Conditions in a Fir Saplings Tree Greenhouse


Authors: Manuela Panoiu, Caius Panoiu, Loredana Ghiorghioni, Raluca Rob

Abstract: In this paper is presented an intelligent system for measure and maintain the optimum environmental conditions in a fir tree greenhouse. The proposed system used a DSP development board built TMS 320 F2812. In a fir tree greenhouse environment condition is more stringent than in a typical greenhouse in all respects. In such a greenhouse the most sensitive conditions refer to soil moisture, air humidity and air temperature. The proposed system allows acquisition of soil moisture, air humidity and air temperature. Depending on these the system sends three output commands. These commands are generated by using Fuzzy logic.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, DSP, temperature control, humidity control, environmental conditions

Title of the Paper:  Ziegler-Nichols PID Controller Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control of a SPM System Design


Authors: Jium-Ming Lin, Po-Kuang Chang

Abstract: This research is to use Ziegler-Nichols PID controller as a basement for the fuzzy controller design in the outer-loop of a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to reduce the hysteresis effect. This improvement has been verified by practical implementation. Comparing the results with a previous design for the outer-loop with PI compensator, one can see that the proposed system is more robust.

Keywords: Ziegler-Nichols PID controller, PID Fuzzy controller, SPM, Hysteresis effect, LVT

Issue 11, Volume 5, November 2010

Title of the Paper:  A Survey on the Application of the Elliptical Trigonometry in Industrial Electronic Systems using Controlled Waveforms with Modeling and Simulating of Two Functions Elliptic Mar and Elliptic Jes-x


Authors: Claude Bayeh

Abstract: In industrial electronic systems, power converters with power components are used. Each controlled component has its own control circuit. In this paper, the author proposes an original control circuit for each function in order to replace the different existing circuits. The proposed circuit is the representation of an elliptical trigonometric function as “Elliptic Mar” and “Elliptic Jes-x” that are particular cases of the elliptical trigonometry. Thus, with one function, by varying the values of its parameters, the output waveform will change and can describe more than 12 different waveforms. Finally for each function, a block diagram, a model of the circuit and a programming part are treated using Matlab/Simulink. The results of the studied circuit are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Power electronics, power converters, mathematics, trigonometry, multi form signal

Title of the Paper:  A New Hardware-Based Actuator for Driving an AC/DC Electromagnetic Contactor


Authors: Chih-Yu Hung, Chieh-Tsung Chi

Abstract: This paper focuses on developing an interchangeable electromagnetic contactor that essentially features with high power efficiency, low electromagnetic noise, and high power resource usage. The magnetic coils of this new IC-controlled method can be excited by AC or DC voltage and the range of the operating voltage is shown to be much larger than the conventional contactor. A wide range of applications for the new contactor is obtained. According to the electric performance requirement, the proposed controlling method, the pulse width modulation (PWM), provides a suitable energy for the exciting coils under the different operating condition. This is resulted in a stable operation between closing or opening process of the contactor greatly leads to the reduction of noise and energy loss for the exciting coils. Thus, the using life of the contactor can be greatly extended. In order to prove the validity of the proposed controlling method in this paper, several experiments had been performed and the results are shown the feasibility and reliability of the new design.

Keywords: Electromagnetic contactor, Electromagnetic noise, IC-controlled, Pulse Width Modulation, Energy, Using life

Title of the Paper:  A Fuzzy Controller with Various T-norms Applied in Robot Navigation


Authors: Ion Iancu , Mihaela Colhon, Mihai Dupac

Abstract: Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic are the convenient tools for handling uncertain, imprecise, or unmodeled data in intelligent decision-making systems. The utility of fuzzy logic in system controls domain is presented in the context of a mobile robot navigation control application. The Takagi-Sugeno controller is a fuzzy model capable of approximating a wide class of nonlinear systems by decomposing the input space into several partial fuzzy subspaces and representing the output space with a linear equation. The output control action is obtained from the rule-base and a set of crisp inputs. A Takagi-Sugeno type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), to work with crisp data, intervals and fuzzy sets inputs, is proposed in connection with a mobile robot navigation model. The model also works with a set of t-norms, and for any t-norm an output value is obtained. Finally, these outputs are combined to obtain the overall output of the system.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Fuzzy logic control, Zero order system, Mobile robot, Repulsive angle, T-norm

Issue 12, Volume 5, December 2010

Title of the Paper:  The Neural Network-Based Forecasting in Environmental Systems


Authors: Mihaela Oprea, Alexandra Matei

Abstract: The forecasting problem is one of the main environmental problems that need efficient software tools. More concrete, it can mean meteorological/weather forecasting, air/soil/water pollution forecasting, flood forecasting and so on. Several methods based on artificial intelligence were proposed by taken into account that they can offer more informed methods that use domain specific knowledge, and provide solutions faster than the traditional methods, those based on a mathematical formalism. In this paper we present the application of neural network-based forecasting methods, as well as their combination with fuzzy logic in air pollution forecast and flood forecast in a hydrographic basin. The neuro-fuzzy based forecasting can be integrated in a more complex real time monitoring, analysis, and control system for environmental pollution or hydrological processes.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, Air Pollution Forecast, Flood Forecast, Hydrographic Basin

Title of the Paper:  The Evolution of the Electronic Tax Documents in Latin America


Authors: Eduardo Mario Dias, Newton Oller De Mello, Marcelo Luiz Alves Fernandez

Abstract: With the advance in information technologies, the companies have modernized its way of trading their goods and relating to their customers. In view of the evolution and dynamics of the commercial relation, the tax authorities of the countries had to keep up with the progress and evolve: one of the answers adopted were the electronic documents for purposes of tax control of ommercial operations. This article aims at tracing a comparison among the several models adopted by countries in Latin America.

Keywords: Electronic tax document, digital signature, Latin America, tax modernization, comparison of models

Title of the Paper:  New Technologies for Nota Fiscal Paulista (Sao Paulo Tax Invoice): Automation of the Tax Documents Issue Process in the Retail of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil


Authors: Newton Oller De Mello, Marcelo Luiz Alves Fernandez, Vidal Augusto Zapparoli Castro Melo, Eduardo Mario Dias, Caio Fernando Fontana

Abstract: This article presents requirements and a technological proposal for improvement of the project of Nota Fiscal Paulista (Sao Paulo Tax Invoice) of the Government of the State of Sao Paulo – Brazil, aiming at the automation of the process of issuing the electronic tax documents in the retail. The work has been developed based on the analysis of the current environment of Sao Paulo Tax Invoice and other electronic document projects implemented by the Secretariat of Finance of the State of Sao Paulo and presents new operating and technology use concepts that may meet the requirements of the business. The term “technological” in this work is employed to define equipment, communication means and software engineering that permit to extend the computing support to the field, with the purpose of improving and speeding up the operations.

Keywords: Electronic Tax Documents, Sao Paulo Tax Invoice, Wireless communication, Tax inspection

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