WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 6, 2010
Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496








Issue 1, Volume 6, January 2010

Title of the Paper: Urban Air Dispersion Model of a Mid-Sized City. Validation Methodology


Authors: Ligia T. Silva, Jose F. G. Mendes, Rui A. R. Ramos

Abstract: Viana do Castelo is a mid-sized city located on the northwest Portuguese seaside, which undertook the challenge of developing an environmental program leading to the integration in the Healthy Cities European Network. Within this program includes prediction of pollutant concentration for NO2, CO, PM10, O3 and C6H6. This paper presents the methodology developed to validate the modelled results. Predicted concentrations were compared against measured concentrations of a chosen pollutant: Carbon Monoxide, CO. The methodology adopted was based in BOOT statistical approach. Five comparison statistics were calculated for three test points in order to find out the quality of the modelled results. Additionally, a hourly profile of predicted versus measured concentrations was developed.

Keywords: Air pollution modelling, Validation

Title of the Paper: Industrial Contribution to the Air Quality of One Mid-Sized Portuguese City


Authors: Ligia T. Silva, Jose F. G. Mendes

Abstract: Urban air pollution became one of the main factors of degradation of the quality of life in cities. This problem tends to worsen due to the unbalanced development of urban spaces and the incompatibilities of uses. In urban environment the typical anthropogenic sources are mainly the road traffic and, when existing, the industrial activity. The present work was performed to attain the following objectives: to quantify the atmospheric emissions from the major industrial sources located in the city and its vicinity and to evaluate the influence of these industrial sources to the air quality of the city. A range of numerical models were used to produce the concentration maps: the ADMS-Urban model for the pollutants dispersion; the Hills model to calculate air flow and turbulence over complex terrain and the European Pollutant Emission Register to estimate the emission factors.

Keywords: Urban air pollution, Air pollution modelling, Kraft pulp and paper mill

Title of the Paper: Interception, Throughfall and Stemflow of Maquis Vegetation in Greece


Authors: George Baloutsos, Athanassios Bourletsikas, Evangelos Baltas

Abstract: Gross rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and interception losses were determined and studied for seven years (1996 – 2002) in an evergreen schlyrophylous species (maquis) stand of eastern Mediterranean region and specifically of southern – western Greece. The data were collected on a weekly basis and are presented and analysed on annual time scale. The seven years mean annual values of throughfall, stemflow and interception losses were 61.2%, 6.8% and 32% of the corresponding gross rainfall (1134 mm), respectively. The annual values were compared and discussed with those of studies carried out in the western Mediterranean region and partially in southern California.

Keywords: Schlyrophylous species, annual scale analysis, hydrological measurements

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Space-Time Dynamics in Extreme Precipitation Frequency using Geostatistical Cosimulation with Elevation


Authors: Ana Cristina Costa, Amilcar Soares, Maria Joao Pereira, Rita Durao

Abstract: This study evaluates local dynamics in extreme precipitation frequency from 1940 to 1999 in the South of Portugal. The analysis is based on a climate index defined by the annual count of days with precipitation above the 30 mm threshold (R30mm). The space-time scenarios of this index, and their uncertainty evaluation, were produced through direct sequential cosimulation (coDSS) with elevation. The methodology incorporates space-time models that follow the premises that elevation and precipitation extremes may interact differently both in time and space. The results indicate that the relationship between elevation and the R30mm index has decreased through time over the study region, especially in the southeast area. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of the extreme precipitation index have become more homogenous during the last decades of the twentieth century. The more frequent heavy rainfall events occur in the mountainous areas of the South, which are desertification prone areas at risk of water erosion and floods. As expected, the space-time scenarios have greater spatial variability at regions less densely sampled. However, the uncertainty in mountainous regions is noticeably small given that elevation was used as secondary exhaustive information. The coDSS proved to be a valuable tool to deepen the knowledge on the local dynamics of the extreme precipitation frequency.

Keywords: Climate dynamics, direct sequential cosimulation, geostatistics, precipitation indices, space-time patterns, stochastic simulation, uncertainty, local trends.

Title of the Paper: Domestic Hot Water Consumption in Educational Premises, Apartment and Office Buildings


Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Hendrik Voll, Allan Haniv

Abstract: Investigations of domestic hot water (DHW) consumption and the consumption profiles have been carried out in many countries. Over-dimensioning of systems and equipment has been observed in the US. The last 15–20 years have seen drastic changes in people’s DHW consumption in Estonia. Great changes have also taken place in top consumption. In Estonia it is customary to determine DHW design flow rates for schools and children’s institutions, residential and office buildings proceeding from the sum of the standard flow rates. The design flow rate calculated by standard EVS 835:2003 for residential and office buildings, ordinary schools and children’s institutions are considerably bigger than the actually measured ones. For determining the design flow rates for the determination of the water heating devices for schools, children’s institutions, office and residential buildings calculation formulas are recommended. By the recommended formulas the design flow rates for ordinary schools are approximately 1…1.2 times smaller than those calculated by the EVS standard, 1.1…2.1 times smaller for children’s institutions and 2 times smaller for office and residential buildings. Recommended calculation formulas reduce over-dimensioning both the DHW instantaneous heat exchangers and the flow rates of the district heating network.

Keywords: DHW consumption, determining the design flow rates, schools, kindergartens, office and residential buildings.

Title of the Paper: Preservation and Transformation of Historic Urban Cores in Iran, the Case of Kerman


Authors: Azadeh Arjomand Kermani, Eric Luiten

Abstract: Historical urban centers in Iran are significant because of their population density and location, but also because of the major functions of the central buildings that are very often historical monuments and valuable urban ensembles. Historical urban quarters are special places not only because of the cultural heritage they house, but also because of their urban pattern. The tourist preferred to visit a comfortable city, but of course did so because of its old monuments. Heritage is highly valued, because it allows the traveler to experience historic density differently in each city. It belongs, is at home in the shaping of the identity of the city - for its inhabitants as well as visitors. The study of urban history reveals that a variety of factors has influenced the development of ancient cities, with one of the most important factors being the economy. In fact, the very survival of a city was highly dependent on its economic power. As the most significant pedestrian network and backbone of a city, the bazaar plays an important role in the development and livability of traditional Iranian cities. This paper analyzes two examples of where modern construction and the old urban bazaar intersect, and discusses how the old urban texture is being lost.

Keywords: Bazaar, Traditional cities, Modernization, Street, Iran, Cultural heritage, Kerman, Transformation, Neighborhood centers, Preservation

Title of the Paper: The Challenge of Climate Change in the Classroom


Authors: Richard Snow, Mary Snow

Abstract: A comprehensive approach to climate change education is necessary to address numerous environmental issues. Such an all-encompassing ecological pedagogy is multifaceted providing an overview of the science behind major global environmental issues within the context of the physical environment of Earth including global climate change, resource extraction, water and air quality, urbanization, geohazards, and pollution. The main goal of the curricula is to engage students in rigorous analyses of data that can be compared with global trends. This research discusses the development of an upper-level college course on Climate Change created as part of an interdisciplinary Honors Seminar Series. The course makes use of multimedia instructional techniques to examine the physical, economic, and political dynamics of climate change. The curriculum includes an appraisal of assorted global warming websites as well as computer-based simulations and analysis of relevant climate data using current technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Among the most powerful tools of a GIS are its modeling capabilities, which allow simulation of various climate change classroom scenarios such as storm surge and sea level rise. Relevant aspects include changes in coastal land use, wetlands, and shoreline configuration. Students also examine the role of music as a means of raising awareness of issues such as global warming. The topic of climate change is extremely complex and the challenge for educators is to enlighten students through ways and means that that are truthful, understandable, and comprehensive.

Keywords: Climate change, Global warming, Environmental education, College curricula, GIS

Issue 2, Volume 6, February 2010

Title of the Paper: Environmental Impact of Landslides in Sub-Carpathian Area between the Valleys of the Rivers Dambovita and Prahova (Romania)


Authors: Ovidiu-Marcel Murarescu, Gica Pehoiu

Abstract: Characteristic shifts for the Subcarpathians is that they are distinguished by their combination and development within the source area. The slopes, mostly cleared, are used for pasture and crops apple growing. The response induced by its negative influences on the process of preparation and triggering landslides (deforestation, overgrazing, cutting of slopes exploata in quarries or underground). The peculiarities of geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological are identified as unfavorable for years to rainfall. The excessive amounts of water given by the heavy rains and long duration of previous years and the rapid melting of snow due to high temperatures, determined the change in the balance on slopes which are of localities, socioeconomic institutions, channels of communication, and apple growing agricultural crops, forest areas. Landslides, next generation natural factors, are determined by processes antropogenes (fund holdings irrational forest exploitation works construction materials situated on the banks of the waters that lay on the long downhill portion of the trough few meters), intense process of shoreline erosion, associated with geomorphological conditions favoring the occurrence of landslides.

Keywords: Landslides, Sub-carpathians, Dambovita river, Ialomita river, Prahova river, natural factors, anthropogenic factors, slope, stability factor

Title of the Paper: Bird Nest Construction - Lessons for Building with Earth


Authors: B. Silva, J. Correia, F. Nunes, P. Tavares, H. Varum, J. Pinto

Abstract: The climate changes issue is probable the top priority concern of the governments of the most countries of the world. Rigid and drastic measures have to be taken by all nations in order to reduce the noxious gases emission to the atmosphere. This ambitious goal can be achieved by ruling the energy production, by having a much more sustainable industry and adopting a much more sustainable way of living by all of us. The building industry has also to adapt to these circumstances to make its contribution to achieve the above goal. Focusing on traditional building techniques which require simple technology and use natural and local building materials and, eventually, to adapt them for the present required quality standards may be a step to solve this problem. Half of the world`s population, 3 billion people approximately, on six continents, live or work in buildings constructed by earth based building materials. The fact that earth is natural, abundant and local result in an unexpressive amount of energy spending and noxious gases emission when it is used as a building material and, consequently, makes it undoubtedly much more ecological and economic when compared to the others building materials such as reinforced concrete or steel. In this context, the main objective of this research work is to give a contribution on the earth based building material properties and, in particular, for the development of adequate rehabilitation and strengthening techniques, based upon a biomimetic study focused on the andorinha-dos-beirais nest. A structural numerical model of a nest using a finite element computer analysis program was done in order to understand the structural behavior of this kind of natural structures. In order to identify a possible occurrence of a certain agglutination phenomenon during the building process of the nest by the birds, an experimental identification/characterization study of nest’s material using samples taken in Vila Real area was carried out. The identification of the elementary chemical and the mineralogical compositions of the material were done by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and by the X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. The identification/characterization of the organic composition was done using the colorimetric method, being the protein components detected by the biuret method and the polysaccharides/sugars components by the total sugar method. The identification of the type of polysaccharides/sugars and their amount was done by the anion-exchange chromatography method. In order to verify if the addition of polysaccharides/sugars into the nest’s material results in an improvement of the mechanical properties, in particular, of its compressive strength, mechanical tests were carried out on cubic specimens, The results show that there is a strong possibility of the bird andorinha-dosbeirais adds a certain amount of glucose into the clay material during the building process of the nest, which may increase the quality of this raw material. This result may be easily extrapolated for the building industry by mixing up a certain percentage of glucose obtained by an abundant plant or fruit with the earth resulting in this way in a better performance earth based building material.

Keywords: Raw materials, Earth construction, Biomimetics, Nest bird, Characterization, Finite element analysis

Title of the Paper: Characterization of Traditional Tabique Constructions in Douro North Valley Region


Authors: J. Pinto, H. Varum, D. Cruz, D. Sousa, P. Morais, P. Tavares, J. Lousada, P. Silva, J. Vieira

Abstract: Generally, the traditional building techniques uses natural and local building materials such as stone, woodand earth and, are associated to building procedures that requires small amount of energy consumption and release an expressive noxious gases to atmosphere. The development of green building techniques that help the building industry contributing to a much more sustainable world may be inspired on these traditional building techniques as models. Each sector of societies including ourselves should pay a bill for environmental damaging. Each construction should have as associated environmental damaging cost and the selection process of a construction design solution should also be done in a sustainable bases in which the environmental parameters should be clearly identified and quantified. The tabique is one of the main Portuguese traditional building techniques, which is based on raw materials as earth and wood. In general, a tabique wall is formed by a simple timber structure covered by an earth based material. Earth has an important role in this system because it protects the internal timber structure as well as is a finishing. The Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro is the northeast region of Portugal and it is very rich in terms of tabique heritage construction. Meanwhile, the existing tabique constructions show a generalized advanced stage of deterioration. This aspect associated to the fact that there is still a lack of scientific studies done in this field motivated this research work, which its main objectives are to identify the building process of tabique elements and to identify/characterize the applied materials. It is intended to stimulate and to give guidance for future rehabilitation works in this field. Taking into account that this region has a large area, it was necessary to divide this work in six stages related to the six council associations, which are Alto Tamega; Terra Quente Transmontana; Terra Fria do Nordeste Transmontano; Vale do Douro Norte; Vale do Douro Sul and Douro Superior. This work is focused on the council association of Vale do Douro Norte (Douro North Valley), and uses twelve constructions as study cases. This research work also intends to contribute for a better sustainable world by stimulating the applications of natural building materials and the reutilization of traditional building techniques which are environmental friendly.

Keywords: Tabique, timber structures, raw materials, urban rehabilitation, materials characterization, traditional construction techniques, sustainability

Title of the Paper: Climate Change Impact on Urban Ecosystems and Sustainable Development of Cities in Romania


Authors: Gabriela Teodorescu

Abstract: The urban development, the urban green spaces and the public transportation system must be linked directly in the current context of climate change. We have to take into the consideration that urban ecosystems are dynamic ecosystems that have similar interactions and behaviors as natural ecosystems. Urbanization causes several forms of disturbance, such as alteration, fragmentation and isolation of indigenous habitats, changes of temperature, moisture and edaphic conditions and pollution. As environmental conditions have changed in the last decades, many species have become extinct and new ones have formed. The result of these changes is biological diversity or, biodiversity The urban real state development determines the reduction of parks and green areas and, with this, the rising of pollution. In Romania there is a national plan to improve the quality of the environment by protecting and creating green spaces in urban areas. We consider that a large number of measures could be used for sustainable development of the cities and conserve the urban ecosystems.

Keywords: Climate change, urbanization, biodiversity, cities, sustainability

Title of the Paper: The Use of Bacteria Attached to Lewatit M600 for Denitrification of the Cetina Surface Water


Authors: Lucija Foglar, Ana-Marija Babic, Mario Siljeg

Abstract: The selected mixed bacterial culture was attached to the nitrate selective ion exchange resin - Lewatit M600 (NSI) and used for investigation of nitrate removal from the surface Cetina water (SCW). The investigated system enables bonding of nitrate ions and simultaneously, the degradation of bonded nitrate. The nitrate adsorption on NSI was studied and described with the Freundlich isotherm. With the use of bacterial cells attached on NSI, the nitrate (50 - 200 mg NO3-N/L) was completely removed from the SCW, at a methanol to nitrate-N mass (C/N) ratio of 4.5:1, during 4-7 hours at pH = 7.2 and 25 °C under static anoxic conditions. The influence of initially present methanol on the denitrification process was investigated and the required C/N ratio of 2.5:1 was determined, although the denitrification process was faster in the presence of increased C/N ratios. The applicability of the bacteria attached to the NSI for fast and efficient nitrate removal from the surface Cetina water at different temperatures was further investigated. The denitrification rates were calculated according to the zero -order reaction model. The activation energy, EA and Arrenius factor, Ar for denitrification were 11.40 kJ/mol and 1790.05 mg NO3-N/Lh, respectively.

Keywords: Bacteria, Immobilization, Ion exchanger, Nitrate, Nitrite, Denitrification

Title of the Paper: Utilization of Minimum Temperature Prediction


Authors: Vladimir Repal, Karel Dejmal

Abstract: Techniques for forecasting the minimum temperature are mostly empirically based, using collections of statistics over a long period of time for a range of weather situations. The very popular method is McKenzie’s method, which uses the maximum temperature and the dew-point at the time of maximum temperature, together with a set of correction factors for cloud and wind. Main aim is to adjust the corrections to aerodromes currently used by Czech air force. Adjustment of McKenzie technique to the territory of Czech Republic could be very useful tool in particular forecast, especially in forecast of dangerous weather phenomena that are linked with minimal temperature prediction, e.g. forecasting of road surface conditions etc. “The Road meteorology” is a branch of an applied meteorology, which deals with the meteorological elements and phenomena in the light of their influence over running of communication, namely the major roads and motorways on a given territory inclusive of bridges and tunnels constructions. Road meteorology tries to solve the theoretic problems pair with the meteorological support of the road maintenance.

Keywords: Minimum temperature, forecasting technique, meteorological data, correction factor, verification, ice formation on roads

Title of the Paper: Effects of Simulated Tropospheric Ozone on Nutrients Levels and Photosynthetic Pigments Concentrations of Three Mangrove Species


Authors: Ceron-Breton, J. G, Ceron-Breton, R. M, Guerra-Santos, J. J, Aguilar-Ucan, C, Montalvo-Romero, Vargas-Caliz, C, Cordova-Quiroz, V., Jimenez-Corzo, R.

Abstract: Three months old seedlings of three mangrove species (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, and Conocarpus erectus) were fumigated during 6 weeks at three different concentrations of ozone (50, 110 and 250 ppb) using charcoal filtered air within an open-top chamber from june to july in 2009. Visible damages were identified, effects on phtosynthetic pigment levels (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total charotenoids), soluble proteins content and nutrients concentrations (Ca2+, Mn2+, Mg2+ and K+) were determined. All mangrove species studied showed sensitiveness to ozone exposure levels, being Red mangrove the most sensitive specie to tropospheric ozone.

Keywords: Mangrove., Foliar damage., Open Top Chambers., Tropospheric ozone., Coastal vegetation., Campeche, Mexico., Macronutrients

Title of the Paper: Interpolation Methods of Weather Phenomena


Authors: Karel Dejmal, Vlastimil Kratochvil

Abstract: The military operations and activities are affected by weather conditions. Relevant information from area of interest is necessary. Because of irregularly distributed information the interpolation must be used. Two methods of interpolation were developed and they are introduced in this article. The methods have considered not only horizontal dependence but also vertical dependence of values. Their fruitfulness for interpolation of SYNOP observations in Central Europe was tested by cross-validation and backward interpolation. The usage of the methods for interpolation of climate data is also discussed.

Keywords: Interpolation, kriging, inverse distance weighting, verification, SYNOP report, least-square method

Issue 3, Volume 6, March 2010

Title of the Paper: Monitoring of Selected Sources of Heat-Trapping Gases


Authors: Jaromira Chylkova, Jaroslava Machalikova, Ilona Obrsalova, Tomas Brunclik, Robert Bata

Abstract: Some greenhouse emissions – methane and CO2 – were tracked in four locations in the Czech Republic and one of these is the deactivated coal mine in the region of Ostrava Karvina, the landfill in Nasavrky , the composting plant in the surroundings of Pardubice in Drazkovice and area of Doubravice village near Pardubice. A mobile analyser unit ECOPROBE 5 was used for the measurements. It was realized that in case some technical measures were implemented for the methane recovery and subsequent processing, there is neither danger of contamination in the surroundings, nor risk of explosion. Composting plant is a long-term source of CO2. Its emission concentration at the surface level reaches tenths of volume percentage. Methane is produced in minimal concentration. Another significant source of CO2 includes the local furnaces, transport and farms.

Keywords: Methane, Carbon dioxide, Landfill gas, Firedamp

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Sustainable Environment Indicators Aggregation Possibilities by Means of Chosen Petri Nets Species


Authors: Robert Bata, Ilona Obrsalova, Ticiano Costa-Jordao

Abstract: There are dozens of sets of indicators that try to solve the problem of sustainable environmental development at local, regional, national and global levels. Currently, there are two approaches under development: policy-based and capital approach. This article is focused in the evaluation of sustainable environment on regional level, where the number of indicators had to be, for purposes of strategic decisionmaking, limited only to the most important ones. It is possible to solve the problem by Petri nets. The result shows an example of aggregation for a group of indicators that provides useful information, which support decision-making for regional development management.

Keywords: Modells comparison, sustainable development, indicators, prediction, aggregation, Petri nets, regional development

Title of the Paper: The Development and Use Supporting of Renewable Energy Sources in Terms of Czech Companies


Authors: Renata Myskova

Abstract: Renewable energy sources are used only partially in the Czech Republic; the Czech energy mix still consists mostly of primary sources of energy. Better use and expansion of renewable energy is linked to their financial demand, at the time of purchase and at the time of their use. The aim of this article is to specify the activities in the field of renewable resources which are economically interesting for entrepreneurial subjects, to describe the situation in the field of renewable energy in the Czech Republic, and analyze the possibility of financial support for their development and the reasons why these funds are utilized.

Keywords: Renewable energy resources, sustainable development, project financing for the support of renewable energy resources

Title of the Paper: Genotoxic Risks for Population in Vicinity of Traffic Communication Caused by PAHs Emissions


Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Vladimir Adamec, Josef Navratil, Josef Kellner, Alena Bumbova, Jiri Dvorak

Abstract: The paper deals with the assessment of risk to the population being exposed to the air contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The attention is paid to the population living in the vicinity of roads in a town agglomeration with heavy traffic. The concentrations of 17 types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been detected in the air of selected areas with high frequencies of traffic. Gas chromatography with mass detector was used for the determination. The measured concentrations of individual pollutants with probable human carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects were used for the assessment of a summary genotoxic risk. The risk assessment was carried out in compliance with the national methodology, respecting the standard operational procedure of U.S. EPA. It was discovered on the basis of developed appropriate exposure scenarios and the determined concentrations of contaminants that the summary genotoxic risk is getting near the unacceptable level especially in case of children to the age of six, people with the weakened immune system, asthmatics, and those with heart conditions. The outcomes acquired by the risk assessment within the contribution of individual pollutants correspond with the outcomes acquired with the help of toxicity equivalent.

Keywords: Air, contamination, excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), exposure scenarios, genotoxic risk, health, lifetime average daily dose (LADD), particulate matters (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), traffic.

Title of the Paper: Study of Charged Particles Transport Across Model and Real Phospholipid Bilayers


Authors: Tomas Navratil, Ivana Sestakova, Jana Jaklova Dytrtova, Michal Jakl, Vladimir Marecek

Abstract: Air, waters and soils has being in increased levels contaminated with various metals, inorganic or organic compounds (partly products of human activity). To secure the normal processes in the living (plant or animal) cells, it is necessary to realize transport of various inorganic and organic compounds (nutrients, etc.), across the cell membrane into or out of the cells or various sub-cellular structures. Not only the useful and usual metabolic compounds are transported into the cells, across the membranes; however, the above mentioned undesired ions, compounds and particles, which are connected with pollution of human environment, are participated in the transporting processes. They are based on many principles, which we intend to study using electrochemical methods (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, voltammetry, conductometry, patch-clamp techniques etc.). In this contribution, there are described the results of experiments realized on model of supported membranes and some ways of preparation of protoplasts, which would be suitable for patch clamp studies of the charged particles transport. The anodic stripping voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry and related methods were successfully applied for determination and characterization of heavy metal complexes with low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in soil solutions sampled from rhizosphere and bulk soil. All these experiments help us to explain the transporting processes of heavy metals across the real membranes of protoplasts.

Keywords: Environment, Heavy metals, Charged particles, Phospholipid bilayers, Cell membrane, Electrochemistry, Voltammetry, Protoplasts, Ion channels, Ionophores

Title of the Paper: A System for Monitoring Environmental Quality of Urban Road Network and for Supporting Decision Makers


Authors: A. Tsouchlaraki, G. Achilleos, Z. Nasioula, A. Nikolidakis

Abstract: This paper presents the attempt to design and create a database system for monitoring the environmental quality of urban road network and for supporting the decision making process of local authorities. The factors that determine and affect the environmental quality of urban roads are researched and indices are designed to quantify these factors. These factors are categorized into 20 sub-categories and grouped into 8 main categories such as urban planning and architectural factors, traffic patterns, recorded roadside land uses, recorded road equipment, or even financial ones. On the whole, 124 indices are designed, and examined on a pre-selected part of the town of Chania, which is found to be characteristic for the urban complex. A geodatabase is created, which is based on the data that was collected for every index, and this geodatabase is directly connected with a Geographical Information System (GIS). Within this GIS the potential for processing, analyzing and presenting quantitative data, is examined. The aim of this geodatabase is to constitute a useful tool for the local authorities for a continual monitoring of the environmental quality of urban roads and in their decision making on issues concerning the management of the urban environment.

Keywords: Urban roads, environmental quality, database, GIS, urban planning, decision making

Title of the Paper: Geotourism Attractions in the Bare Nature of Yazd Province


Authors: Kamal Omidvar, Younes Khosravi

Abstract: Climatic conditions governing over Yazd province have caused a situation in which the most areas covered by bare and barren lands. Relief in this province is rooted in the ancient geology history of Iran and the world. From the most ancient structures of the geology in the world (Precambrian) to the newest ones (Holocene) are seen at a distance which is less than 100 km in this province. We can rarely see very various ecotourism attractions such as deserts, salt playas, sand dunes, Qantas, glacial circuses, spring, karstic caves and kalouts in the other areas of the world in a small distance away from each other. Therefore this province can have special status in ecotourism industry because of its attractions and developing this industry will result in socio-economic advancement and an increase in the employment rate in Yazd province.This research attempts to consider ecotourism attractions briefly in Yazd province and introduce available potential abilities in this field.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Sand Dune, Playa, Qanat; Desert, Glacial Circus, Kalout, Yazd Province

Issue 4, Volume 6, April 2010

Title of the Paper: Indoor Climate and Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings in Estonian Climatic Conditions


Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Hendrik Voll, Alo Mikola, Kalle Kuusk, Mikk Maivel

Abstract: Investigation shows that in apartment buildings with passive stack ventilation the indoor air quality (IAQ) changes greatly. In the investigated apartment building the relative humidity level in bedrooms of different apartments varied greatly, from 20 to 72% in the autumn period. In the winter period the RH maximum reduces to 55%. High relative humidity is accompanied by problems of mould and a very low relative humidity level causes an unpleasant feeling when people get up in the morning. Greatly varying was also the morning CO2 level in bedrooms of different apartments, from 1000 ppm to 4200 ppm, the latter being quite critical. Higher levels of CO2 concentrations were first of all in bedrooms with renovated windows and with doors closed. By simulation the smallest is the energy consumption in the case of supply-exhaust ventilation. The results of the simulation of indoor climate are close to the results of the data recorded. The indoor climate of residential buildings is greatly affected by the arrangement of air change which in its turn is influenced by the external climate of the country.

Keywords: IAQ, Energy conservation, Carbon dioxide, RH, Air change determination

Title of the Paper: Green Innovation Trends and Systems Thinking


Authors: Davorin Kralj

Abstract: Systems thinking and multi view approaches, which are a must for a successful establishment of a sustainable business and modern green trends, are of great importance. The idea that business has a responsibility other than producing goods and services is not new. In 1919, Henry L.Gantt stated his belief that the community would attempt to take over business if the business system neglected its social responsibilities. Everybody speaks of technological development only, although it is causing increasing unemployment around the world and other problems such as motivation and environmental degradation, including a dangerous climate change. Congenial and stimulating atmosphere, promoting relaxed free and unimpeded activities, work satisfaction and satisfaction with co-operation with others, are all elements distinguishing excellent performance. When implementing changes, employees should be motivated adequately. Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Assessment(LCA) are essential, worldwide, to front-running businesses and public authorities. In their drive towards sustainable consumption and production, the life cycle perspective helps decision makers in business and government to take into account all the resources consumed and environmental impacts associated with the supply, use, and end-of-life of goods and services (products).

Keywords: Environment, green trends, management, sustainable business, systems thinking

Title of the Paper: Facility Management Indicators for High-Rise Residential Property in Malaysia


Authors: A. I. Che-Ani, N. M. Tawil, A. Sairi, N. A. G. Abdullah, M. M. Tahir, M. Surat

Abstract: Living in a residential high-rise is now becoming a lifestyle trend among the urban professional community in Malaysia. As opposed to a landed property, in a residential high-rise, residents must set up a Management Corporation (MC) to regulate and manage all the amenities provided by the developer, as stipulated in the Strata Title Act of 1985. To a certain extent, the idea seems to work successfully for about a few years after the housing schemes are granted with the final title. However, as time goes by and management becomes more ineffective, a gap grows between the residents and the council members of the MC, which is made up of a select group of residents. This research focuses on the indicators for sustainable facility management. We used residents’ satisfaction levels as the primary measurement criteria used to identify and measure the gap between the residents and the Management Corporation, and we analyzed our data using ANOVA and MANOVA. Further analysis is conducted using the Bonferonni test to determine differences among groups of respondents. The findings of this research revealed that there were significant differences in terms of satisfaction between the Management Corporation and the residents, as the Management Corporation reported a higher level of satisfaction compared to the residents in every criterion.

Keywords: Building management, Facility management, Management corporation, Residential high-rise, Property management, Sustainable indicators, Resident satisfaction, Strata title

Title of the Paper: Aspects Regarding the Use of Renewable Energy in EU Countries


Authors: Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: This paper examines aspects of renewable energy use in European Union generally, and in Romania in particular, starting on existing energy resources are divided into two categories: energy resources and energy reserves. Energy reserves are known energy sources, which can be exploited in terms of economic profitability, using existing technologies. Energy resources are known energy sources, but that can be exploited in terms of economic profitability, but that could be recovered in the future if appropriate technologies are used, or if they become profitable because increase of the energy prices. At the end of the work it develops a Labview interface that allows viewing parameters of a solar panel, their evolution in time and saving the values into an Excel file.

Keywords: Air conditioned houses, Solar energy, Solar panels, Data acquisition, Labview interface

Title of the Paper: Efficiency and Economy Solutions Regarding the Industrial Buildings Heating


Authors: Negoitescu Arina, Tokar Adriana

Abstract: One of the Romanian energy policy priorities is to increase energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is crucial when a heating system is selected. Compared with other systems, heating by radiation can save up to 40% energy, while maintaining a pleasant indoor climate. For these heating systems are presented solutions in terms of efficiency and economy. There was analyzed the operation of heating radiant tubes with three types of fuels (methane, LPG, gasoline) in terms of cost and consumption in order to achieve the same comfort conditions. For the installation operating with methane, there were accomplished emission measurements with Testo 350 S gas analyzer. As a future solution it is proposed the use of bio fuels in heating system combustors (pellets from biomass), given that Romania exports in EU 95% of its annual production.

Keywords: Radiant tube, heating, efficiency, economy, fuel, pollutant emission, pellet, gas analyzer

Title of the Paper: Bi2MTaO7 (M = Al, Fe, Ga, In) Photocatalyst for Organic Compounds Degradation under UV and Visible Light


Authors: Leticia M. Torres-Martinez, Isaias Juarez-Ramirez, Juan S. Ramos-Garza, Francisco Vazquez-Acosta, Soo Wohn Lee

Abstract: Pyrochlore-type structure compounds, Bi2MTaO7 (M = Al, Fe, Ga, In), were synthesized by both the sol-gel and solid state method. In order to evaluate their photocatalytic activity, these compounds were tested on the degradation reaction of alizarin red S, methyl orange and phenol in aqueous solution. The characterization of the compounds included: XRD, SEM/EDS, SBET area, Eg value, DTA/TGA and FTIR. Pyrochlore-type structure compounds were obtained at lower temperatures (600-800°C) when they were prepared by the sol-gel method. The morphology of these compounds revealed the presence of nanoparticles. These materials also presented better SBET values (from 58 to 11 m2.g-1) than those obtained by the solid state method (<5 m2.g-1). All the materials showed Eg values within the visible light region (2.2-1.3 eV). Iron-containing pyrochlore prepared by the sol-gel method had the best performance as photocatalyst under visible light conditions for alizarin red S degradation, and under UV-light for phenol degradation. The photocatalytic results suggested this tendency: Fe > In > Al > Ga for alizarin red s, and Fe > Ga > Al > In, for phenol degradation. In addition, the photocatalytic tests on alizarin red s and methyl orange under UV light showed the following tendency: In > Fe > Al > Ga. Best half time life (t1/2) was obtained for alizarin red S degradation, ~30 min., using Bi2InTaO7 as photocatalyst, which was prepared by both the sol-gel method (at 600°C) and the solid state method (at 950°C). It seems that crystal structure has more influence than specific surface area for the organic compounds degradation carried out in this work.

Keywords: Pyrochlore-type structure; Sol-gel; Photocatalytic performance; Degradation reaction; Alizarin red S

Title of the Paper: Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Using Particle Swarm Optimization


Authors: P. Pao-La-Or, A. Oonsivilai, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper presents a demonstration of solving combined economic and emission dispatch problems by using one of swarm intelligences, called particle swarm optimization. The objective of the combined problem can be expressed by taking both the total production cost and total emission into account with required constraints. Among potential intelligent search methods, particle swarm optimization is well-known and widely-used in solving economic load dispatch. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization is exploited to demonstrate its use. A three-unit thermal power plant is situated for test. Sets of suitable dispatch with respect to economic or emission objectives can be efficiently found.

Keywords: Economic dispatch, emission dispatch, fuel cost function, total emission function, particle swarm optimization

Issue 5, Volume 6, May 2010

Title of the Paper: Categories of Residential Spaces by their Accessibility to Urban Parks – Indicator of Sustainability in Human Settlements
Case Study: Bucharest


Authors: Cristian Ioja, Maria Patroescu, Mihai Nita, Laurentiu Rozylowicz, Gabriel Vanau, Annemarie Ioja, Diana Onose

Abstract: Urban parks size, spatial distribution and endowments represent essential indicators used for measuring the sustainability of urban environments and the quality of life in residential spaces. The paper assesses the deficit of urban parks in Bucharest by delimitating categories of residential spaces according to their accessibility to the city parks. We have set categories of residential spaces with poor access to urban parks and considered them to be priority intervention areas for urban rehabilitation in this aspect. Deficient access to Bucharest urban parks was correlated with development of new residential areas, as these tend to further increase the high density of built space and consequent traffic congestion. Identifying critical areas that lack good access to urban parks allows city public authorities to draw adequate measures to improve or to avoid worsening of the situation in a city with numerous environmental issues and an unpredictable future evolution.

Keywords: Accessibility, housing, residential areas, urban parks, urban sustainability, Bucharest, Romania

Title of the Paper: Carob Residues as a Substrate and a Soil Organic Amendment


Authors: Ana Cabecinha, Carlos Guerrero, Jose Beltrao, Joao Brito

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the agricultural use of carob (Ceratonia siliqua, L.) seed residues as a substrate and/or a soil organic amendment. The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L., cv. Realeza) was the studied crop. Plants were grown in pot filled with carob seed residues mixed with a sandy topsoil at the following rates (t/ha): 0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50; 60; and 100 % of carob seeds. During the experiment, plant height, number of leaves, inflorescences, ripe fruits and the transversal and longitudinal diameters were measured weekly. Sandy soil, carob residues and soil and their mixtures were chemically analysed, in order to determine the following parameters: organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb contents. Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations were determined in the carob residues only just before mixing with the sandy soil. Carob seed residues alone (used as an organic substrate) treatment promoted the highest root density, plant development, as number of leaves and fruits, and the highest crop yield. Plants of the 100% carob seed residues treatment also showed the highest density of roots. The obtained results suggest that carob seed residues may be used successfully as an organic amendment and/or as a horticultural substrate, mainly to root crops.

Keywords: Crop yield, Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv. Realeza, organic substrate, soil-substrate mixtures, tomato nutrient content

Title of the Paper: Energy Resources and their Effects on Environment


Authors: Ismail Bozkurt

Abstract: The World Energy Committee states that there exists no risk free energy resource and for this reason, while choosing the energy resources, cost factors must be considered with environmental effects. Today, prevention of environment pollution and conservation of environment have a dimension exceeding national borders. The risks that result from using of fossil fuels increasingly (petroleum, coal, gas) must be decreased (air pollution, thinning of ozone layer, acid rains etc). To decrease such risks, besides to increasing of energy productivity, energy resources that emit less sera gas in the atmosphere (like Carbon-dioxide (CO2)) must be preferred. Otherwise, destruction of ecological balance and disasters in future will be inevitable. The negative effects of renewable energy resources on environment are lesser than the conventional energy resources. Costs of renewable energy resources are lesser than the fossil origin fuels. They never consume as they are renewable and in contrary to the conventional fuels, they do not exhibit a significant threat for environment and human health. In this study, effects of energy resources on environment are considered in detail. Especially, effects of renewable energy resources on environment and criteria that must be observed in energy production to prevent environment pollution are examined.

Keywords: Energy, fossil fuels, nuclear power plants, renewable energy, environment, global warming

Title of the Paper: Effects of Simulated Tropospheric Ozone on Soluble Proteins and Photosynthetic Pigments Levels of Four Woody Species Typical from The Mexican Humid Tropic


Authors: J. G. Ceron-Breton, R. M. Ceron-Breton, J. J. Guerra-Santos, A. V. Cordovaquiroz, C. Vargas-Caliz, L. G. Aguilar-Bencomo, K. Rodriguez-Heredia, E. Bedolla-Zavala, J. Perez-Alonso

Abstract: Three months old seedlings of four woody tropical species [Haematoxylum Campechianum L (Wood blood tree), Tabebuia Rosea (Pink flower tree), Cedrela odorata (Red Cedar) and Swietenia Macrophylla (Mahogany) were fumigated during 6 weeks at three different concentrations of ozone (50, 110 and 250 ppb) using charcoal filtered air within an open-top chamber from june to july in 2009. Visible damages were identified, effects on phtosynthetic pigment levels (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total charotenoids) and soluble proteins content were determined. All studied species ( Wood blood tree, Pink flower tree, Red Cedar and Mahogany) showed sensitiveness to ozone exposure levels, showing decreases in photosynthetic pigments levels and soluble proteins contents. Mahogany and Wood blood tree were the most sensitive species to tropospheric ozone showing greater visible damages.

Keywords: Woody tropical species., Foliar damage., Open Top Chambers., Tropospheric ozone., Coastal vegetation., Mexican Humid Tropic

Title of the Paper: An Application of 2D Oil Spill Model to Mersin Coast


Authors: Asu Inan, Lale Balas

Abstract: Oil tanker accidents in seas cause serious problems to marine environment, especially when these accidents occur close to coastlines. To minimize the impact of tanker accidents on marine environment some measures might be taken if oil slick movement could be predicted in advance. Oil spill trajectory and fate models have been developed since the early 1960’s to simulate oil movement on the water surface in order to take immediate action and some necessary measures after such accidents. Mediterranean Sea being among the world’s busiest waterways is many times subject to oil spill accidents. In this connection a study has been carried out by giving special attention to Mersin coastlines. In this study, a 2-D Oil Spill Model has been developed and applied to Mersin Coastlines. The model is based on the 2-D oil spreading equation and considers horizontal dispersion, advection, diffusion, evaporation and shoreline deposition. Since evaporation process is the main cause of rapid volume reduction during the fate of oil spill, a special emphasize has been given to its modeling.

Keywords: Numerical modeling, oil spill, oil slick movement, pollution, advection, diffusion

Title of the Paper: Particularities of Stoze and Lokavec Landslides - Special Laboratory Tests for Landslides Modeling


Authors: Stanislav Lenart, Karmen Fifer Bizjak

Abstract: Rainfall, earthquakes and human activities are the most relevant factors, which cause triggering of large landslides in mountain regions. Two severe landslides occurred in November 2000 in Slovenia. They attracted the attention of the entire country and also opened some new technical questions. Both landslides were initiated by a period of heavy rainfall. The Stoze landslide occurred between 15 and 17 November, 2000 close to Mt. Mangart in the Julian Alps of western Slovenia. It destroyed about 25 ha of forest as well as a considerable section of the road leading over the Predel Pass. The landslide turned to a debris flow and reached the village of Log pod Mangartom more than 4 km downstream, where it took seven lives. Approximately 1 million m3 of material was displaced. The Slano blato landslide appeared between 18 and 19 November, 2000 near Ajdovscina. Its area was estimated to 20 ha, mostly forest and meadow. Sliding masses were composed from clayey gravel and weathered flysch cover. It was classified as an earth flow. The landslide has not reached the village downstream yet, but it threats it. The paper describes both landslides and their particularities. Special laboratory equipment, large scale shearbox, has been constructed to test the landslide material. From the test results it was observed the landslides were of different type and behavior. Results from both landslide materials were quite different, especially in the shear properties.

Keywords: Landslides, debris flow, shear-box, shear strength

Title of the Paper: A Lagrangian Identification of the Main Moisture Sources and Sinks Affecting the Mediterranean Area


Authors: R. Nieto, L. Gimeno, A. Drumond, E. Hernandez

Abstract: In this work the Lagrangian diagnosis method used by Stohl and James [1, 2] was applied to identify the main moisture sources and sinks affecting the Mediterranean area, as well as the contribution of this basin in the atmospheric moisture of adjacent and remote regions. The transport of particles is calculated with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which uses data from the ECMWF operational analysis. In this framework a large number of air particles were moved freely using 3D wind data. The flow is described by the position of the particles and the time. To identify the contribution to the moisture budget over a target region the specific humidity (q) was retrieved also from the ECMWF analysis. The increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in q with time (being recorded every 6 hours). Adding these changes for all the air particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we can obtain a measure of the surface freshwater flux E-P (the evaporation minus the precipitation rate). We traced (E-P) forwards trajectories over 3 areas over the Mediterranean Sea and backwards trajectories over 8 regions surrounding the basin during 2000–2004, all these areas selected based on the climatological atmospheric moisture flux divergence. The method supports a very high precise tool to determine how the Mediterranean Sea can affect the surrounding areas and also remote regions as the Sahel, as well as to reveal the importance of remote moisture sources as the Tropical-Subtropical North Atlantic to the studied region.

Keywords: Moisture sources and sinks, Lagrangian approaches, precipitation, Mediterranean basin, FLEXPART, moisture flux divergence

Title of the Paper: Kinetic Modelling of Surface Water Biodenitrification


Authors: Lucija Foglar, Nenad Bolf, Marija Lukic

Abstract: The nitrate removal from surface water of the Cetina river (SW) with the use of natural powdered Croatian clinoptilolite as a carrier of bacterial cells was studied in the batch bioreactor. The removal of 50-250 mg NO3-N/L from the SW with the bacteria attached to the natural powdered clinoptilolite (Bio-NPC) was monitored. The influence of initial nitrate as well as the temperature impact on the batch biodenitrification process was investigated and modelled. According to parameters obtained in Monod model, the biodenitrification process revealed as zero order reaction. The nitrate removal from the SW (C0 = 100 mg NO3-N/L) was monitored in the temperature range of 15-35 oC and the denitrification rates increased with the increase of temperature. According to the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy and Arrenius factor were 48.25 kJ/mol and 1.056?1010 mg NO3-N/Lh, respectively. Furthermore, optimal amount of methanol was determined. The model of biological denitrification was developed in accordance with the experimental data and literature. Finally by the use of an alternated differential method (ID algorithm) biological denitrification was determined as the zero order reaction.

Keywords: Activation energy, Clinoptilolite, Denitrification, Nitrate, Surface water, Zero order reaction

Title of the Paper: Estimation of Basin Parameters and Precipitation Distribution of Solakli Basin, Turkey


Authors: Sezel Karayusufoglu, Ebru Eris, H. Gonca Coskun

Abstract: Solakli Basin is located Eastern Black Sea region where high mountain ranges run parallel to the coast in the north. Such a mountainous terrain, it is generally hard or impossible to reach to acquire data by terrestrial measurement. However, today, by using integration of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems even those kinds of basins can be modelled. These techniques provide to derive basin, land use and/or soil type characteristics in an accurate and quick way, particularly for water resources assessment studies. In addition to basin characteristics, spatial distribution of precipitation is also important for these types of studies. In this study, for the classification of Solakli Basin IRS P6 multispectral satellite data with 5.8 m spatial resolution are used and to derive the Digital Elevation Model IRS P5 stereo satellite data with 2.5 m spatial resolution is used. The basin characteristics are mathematically determined. Isohyetal maps to understand precipitation distribution are generated by means of different geostatistical methods such as Inverse Distance Weight, Radial Basis Function and Kriging. Among these methods, Kriging and Radial Basis Function give more satisfactory results.

Keywords: Basin characteristics, Remote Sensing, GIS, Classification, Image Processing, Geostatistical method

Issue 6, Volume 6, June 2010

Title of the Paper: Development and Application of a Human Reliability Assessment Model for Mine Dispatchers in a Romanian Hard Coal Basin


Authors: Roland-Iosif Moraru, Gabriel-Bujor Babut, Lucian-Ionel Cioca

Abstract: Employees in hazardous industries, such as mining industry, are constantly faced with judging amounts of risk and behaving in accordance with these judged amounts. The importance of human reliability assessment in system safety is considered in this paper. The factors influencing the reliability of the operator's activity are particularly analyzed and their quantification is carried out. The method of experts’ reasoning is applied in order to bring together the influences of certain reliability factors. The model developed in the paper is based on expert reasoning method applied in cases where it is not possible to assess risk factors and their characteristics by objective measurements or when initial data are insufficient for statistical processing. The model was applied in a case study conducted for the dispatchers from the coal mines in a Romanian hard coal basin.

Keywords: Risk, human reliability assessment, expert reasoning, coal mine dispatcher

Title of the Paper: Integrated Analysis of Afterburning in a Gas Turbine Cogenerative Power Plant on Gaseous Fuel


Authors: Barbu Ene, Ionescu Silviu, Vilag Valeriu, Vilcu Constantin, Popescu Jeni, Ionescu Adina, Petcu Romulus, Prisecaru Tudor, Pop Elena, Toma Tatiana

Abstract: The afterburning installation allows the increase in the cogenerative group’s flexibility according to the requirements of the technologic process and increases the steam quantity delivered by the heat recovery steam generator. The requirements concerning the development of high performance equipments with low environment impact and high flexibility have increased lately. Therefore a complex analysis is needed for obtaining the necessary data for designing the afterburning installation. The paper presents the researches carried out at Suplacu de Barcau gas turbine cogenerative power plant on the afterburning installation as well as the phase of bench experimentations for an intimate research of the processes and for the elimination of disturbing factors in the plant. The researches at the cogenerative plant were carried out in different operating conditions, in terms of stack emissions, noise, external superficial temperature profile and electric energy quality.

Keywords: Afterburning, Gas turbine, Cogeneration, Noise, Infrared, Emissions, Flue gases

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content of Soil from Areas Heavily Industrialised


Authors: Iuliana Manea, Buruleanu Lavinia, Stefania Iordache, Laur Manea

Abstract: This research is part of a broad study to monitor the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment and then the chain of traceability, animal fodder, meat and meat preparations. This study aims to identify the possible accumulation of these contaminants in the soil in surrounding areas of the city of Targoviste, which is highly industrialized. Targoviste City area and the upstream have an iron and steel industry, electro technical, petrochemical and chemical. These lands are planted with cereals which are used in animal feed. The effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the human health, inclusively through the trophy chain and on the environment as a whole are harmful through their concentrations in the ambient air and through their depositions; it should be taken into account the accumulation of these substances in soils and the protection of underground waters. Measurements were made using modern methodology, which allowed detection of even low PAH in the samples analyzed. For this purpose PAHs were dosed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of soil samples collected from areas surrounding the city. Soil samples were collected from surface a depth of 5 cm. Fourteen PAHs was determined. Several of them are known to be potential human carcinogens including benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene. PAHs identified in soil samples were benzo (b + k) fluoranten , phenanthrene and pyrene . They have recorded values below accepted European norms in force.

Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, soil, high-performance liquid chromatography, environment, traceability

Title of the Paper: A Material Used in Substructure and Road Works: Physical Characteristics of Pozzolana Fly Ash from Thermal Power Plant of Iasi, Romania


Authors: Ancuta Rotaru, Vasile Boboc

Abstract: Fly ash, a coal combustion product once treated as waste and disposed in landfills, is used today in substructure and road works. The research of fly ash properties may solve the problems of treatment and intelligent use of this residual material. Using laboratory tests specimens, in this study the physical properties of pozzolanic coal fly ash, a bituminous coal waste of Iasi thermal power station, Romania, are investigated to analyze the composition of fly ashes, sometimes in comparison with the composition of those of Suceava thermal power station, Romania. The use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement is generally limited to the bituminous coal fly ash. Fly ash improves cement performance making it stronger, more durable, and more resistant to chemical attack. The recycling of fly ash has become an increasing concern in recent years and soil stabilization involves also the addition of fly ash to improve the engineering performance of a certain soil. The paper describes some benefits of fly ash use for our environment. The use of fly ash is accepted in recent years primarily due to saving cement, consuming industrial waste and making durable materials, especially due to the improvement in the quality stabilization of fly ash.

Keywords: Pozzolanic ash, fly ash from thermal power plant, cement-like material, physical methods, fly ash environmental issues

Title of the Paper: A Material for Substructure and Road Works: Mechanical Characteristics of Pozzolana Fly Ash from Thermal Power Plant of Iasi, Romania


Authors: Vasile Boboc, Ancuta Rotaru, Andrei Boboc

Abstract: One of the most interesting scientific and environmental subject develop in the last time is the study of fly ash produced in growing quantities by burning coal in thermal power plants. In the paper the mechanical characteristics of pozzola fly ash, a massive waste of thermal power station of Iasi, Romania, is investigated. Supplementing the data referring to the correlation between mechanical strength at various ages of stabilized material simplify laboratory studies by limiting the categories of testing. The suitability of using fly ash as a cement-like material is discussed in this study. This material is typically used for a soft, clayey layer beneath a road that will experience many repeated loadings. Using the fly ash from Iasi thermal power plant that requires dry capture insurance is part of the environmental protection, infrastructure construction and road field being great potential consumers for such products.

Keywords: Pozzolanic ash, fly ash from thermal power plant, cement-like material, mechanical methods, materials stabilized with fly ash

Title of the Paper: Climatic and Ecological Aspects of Structural Design of Long Lasting Rigid Pavements – LLRP for Demonstration Projects Located in Different European Regions


Authors: Radu Andrei, Vasile Boboc, Elena Puslau

Abstract: This work was part of the EU collaborative research project EcoLanes, funded under the priority thematic area of Sustainable Surface Transport in the 6-th Framework Program of the European Community, which aims to contribute to the development of the concept of Long Lasting Rigid Pavements- LLRP. The envisaged LLRP structures have been tested on the accelerating testing facility ALT - LIRA from Technical University ”Gh. Asachi” of Iasi, at a number of 1.5 mil. passes of the equivalent standard axel load ESAL of 115 KN, during years 2008-2009. In the same time demonstration projects were envisaged to be carried out during and after completion of the project, in order to validate and to implement the research results in different European climates and economies in the following countries: Cyprus, Romania, Turkey and United Kingdom. After a succinct presentation of the ALT test including 6 experimental sectors, these paper, presents the specific climatic and ecological features of structural design of Long Lasting Rigid Pavements – LLRP for these demonstration projects, located in different European climatic regions.

Keywords: Concrete pavement, rigid-composite pavement, Accelerated Loading Test - ALT, Real Load Test – RLT, Steel Fibre Reinforce Concrete – SFRC, structural design

Title of the Paper: Flood Risk: A New Approach for Roads Vulnerability Assessment


Authors: A. Benedetto, A. Chiavari

Abstract: A new approach to assess roads vulnerability in flood events is here presented. The main results of a case study, the road networks in Tiber floodplain, are also discussed. The new analytical model is based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) that assigns a vulnerability value to each road element (embankments, viaducts,..) depending on its structural and functional characteristics. Thanks to the specific framework of the model, also vulnerability causes can be easily determined enabling decisions makers to create meaningful future scenarios and to explore different strategies for an efficient vulnerability, and so risk, mitigation. Showing the effects of strategic alternatives in the long-term, this model allows a new wider and sustainable approach in flood risk management. Here the new approach has been used to assess roads vulnerability and risk, and then, to draw out vulnerability and risk maps. These maps are fundamental in emergency planning. The study also shows how the model could represents a useful decision support tool enabling decisions makers to determine evacuation possibilities and potential shelters, as shown in the Monterodondo case here presented. Using the maps, points of weakness in the area have been pointed out: these are especially viaducts crossing the river. On the other hand, using the model as a checking tool, different vulnerability mitigation measures have been planned and checked for critical elements, as shown in the example of the SP18a ‘Via Traversa del Grillo’ viaduct.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Flood, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Sustainability, Tiber

Title of the Paper: GIS Used for Determination of the Maximum Discharge in Very Small Basins (Under 2 km2)


Authors: Matei Domnita, Augustin Ionut Craciun, Ionel Haidu, Zsolt Magyari-Saska

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to predict the maximum discharge caused by runoff on hillslopes from very small rural basins. It is known that runoff generated by torrential rainfall in very small rural basins is difficult to predict but very important to know because of the damage it causes in isolated households or even villages. This work uses a methodology of determining the surface runoff hydrograph when the storm characteristics are known. The methodology was automated in a Geographic Information System model that can be used in any study if the user can provide the necessary parameters. The model, built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS, consists of four components that address the following requirements: the runoff depth in mm, the runoff coefficient, the travel/concentration time and the discharge. The discharge calculation is carried out by applying the rational method in each cell of the watershed to determine the specific discharge for that cell. If data from the meteorological predictions is used as an input, the model can be used as a tool included in a warning system as a method to anticipate flash flood.

Keywords: Flash-Flood, Hydrograph, Very Small Basins, GIS, Hydrology, Rural Areas

Title of the Paper: Correlation between Measured and Calculated Solar Radiation Data in Compiegne, France


Authors: E. Antaluca, L. Merino, B. Beckers

Abstract: Heliodon software has been developed and used as a decision tool of designing with daylight availability by architects and urban designers. The present calculation algorithm of solar radiation of Heliodon is based only on the direct component of the solar radiation corresponding to clear sky days. In order to provide realistic simulations of the energy balance in the cities, the influence of the clouds needs to be taken into consideration. This article is a preliminary work in order to obtain a robust method to correlate the experimental data with the results obtained with the program Heliodon, for the city of Compiegne, France.

Keywords: Solar radiation modeling, daylight design, sky model

Issue 7, Volume 6, July 2010

Title of the Paper: Waste Animal Fats as Renewable and Friendly Environmental Energy Resource


Authors: Popescu Francisc, Ionel Ioana, Lontis Nicolae Stelian

Abstract: The paper presents in the first part, step by step, the necessary procedures to be accomplished in order to produce the alternative fuel bio-diesel, starting from waste animal fats with high free fatty acid concentration, and applying the transesterification. Based on the experimental results, one performed further a comparative study concerning the generated impact on air quality, bio-fuel versus normal diesel, when they would be utilized as main fuel for the vehicles in real traffic. The CALROADS software was used. The simulation scenarios were conducted to 2 major crossroads in the city of Timisoara. The simulation results demonstrate clearly that air quality is improved when biofuel is used.

Keywords: RES, bio-diesel, transesterification, alternative fuels, air quality

Title of the Paper: Possibilities of Greywater Reuse in Non-Potable in Situ Urban Applications, According with its Quality and Quantity


Authors: Cristina Matos, Ana Sampaio, Isabel Bentes

Abstract: Water resources are being, over decades, intensively over explored and polluted, and it is estimated that in a few years, it is reached highly values of water stress in Europe. Portugal is already in the ranking of countries with medium water stress (10-20%). To avoid the deterioration of this situation it is imperative to consider different approaches of water management, such as water reuse strategies. Toilet flushing, pavements and car washing and garden irrigation are uses in which the quantity of greywater dispended is high and the needs in terms of quality can be lower than the potable water, and so these can represent potential reuse applications in a unfamiliar dwelling. Greywater in situ reuse can be a practice to consider since its quality and quantity is enough to consider the uses referred above. In this context, a research of the quantity and quality of greywater produced in a dwelling, allows to reuse only the water with the best characteristics and so it will require a lower level of treatment. In this paper is presented the quantitative and qualitative characterization of greywater, as well as the required quantity for its reuse in some in situ non-potable urban applications.

Keywords: Greywater, characterization, in situ, non-potable, reuse

Title of the Paper: Technical Assessment and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Prime Mover Stirling Engine in a Micro CCHP Biomass System for an Isolated Residence in South-East Region of Romania


Authors: Krisztina Uzuneanu, Dan Scarpete, Nicolae Badea

Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of energy economy are the subject of many research studies. Stirling engines have better performances for micro-CHP systems compared with other prime movers as RC, micro-turbine and fuel cell. The paper presents the problem of energy performance and efficiency evaluation of the Stirling prime mover using renewable fuels, in a micro scale combined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) trigeneration system, for a domestic residence situated in South – East region of Romania.

Keywords: Trigeneration system, Stirling engine, renewable fuels, biomass, wood - pellets

Title of the Paper: Analysis of wind power potential of a region of Aveiro, Portugal


Authors: Mario A. R. Talaia

Abstract: This work intends to characterize the wind and evaluate the wind power potential of a region in the western coast of Portugal which geographical coordinates are 40? 38’ of latitude and 8? 40’ of longitude, being 5m above sea level. An algorithm which allows obtaining data from wind and making the project of a wind turbine into a horizontal rotation axis in a perspective of optimization was built and used. The results obtained allow the knowledge of the characteristics of wind and the wind power potential in the area of study. The Weibull distribution has indicted that the winds frequently experiencing slow speeds.

Keywords: Wind characteristics; logarithmic law, power law, atmospheric stability, Weibull law, wind power

Title of the Paper: Anthropogenic Effects in a Costal Lagoon (South Portugal) Related to Tidal and Spatial Changes in Nutrients


Authors: Luca Meyers, Paulo Pedro, Jose Beltrao, Christian Gliesche, Lidia Dionisio

Abstract: The distribution of nitrogen compounds during tidal cycles was analyzed in Ria Formosa, a costal lagoon (South of Portugal) during the beginning of the summer season. Results indicate a significant enrichment in organic nitrogen up to 55 μmol L-1 in the studied areas where the anthropogenic effect was high. No significant changes were observed within tidal cycles although that may be related to low water circulation and renewal. High concentration of nitrate in pore water (up to 275 μmol L-1, high amount of ammonia (~1,8 μmol L-1 at high tide) and high concentration of total phosphorus in sediments could be linked to sewage disposal from wastewater treatment plants associated with lower water circulation and renewal in the studied area. The samples were analyzed for Kjeldahl N, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, total phosphorus.

Keywords: Nitrogen, organic nitrogen, phosphorus, lagoon, coastal, nutrients, tidal, sediments, eutrophication

Title of the Paper: Natural Immobilization of Uranium in Streams


Authors: Nelson Rodrigues, Joao Pratas, Lys Tavares, Andre Branches

Abstract: The strategies developed by plants to tolerate heavy metals dictate their survival capability in contaminated places. Sometimes they accumulate significant amounts of those elements. The accumulation ability makes them capable of retaining large amounts of metals thus avoiding the dispersion of these metals and so they become natural cleaners of the environment. This effect is sometimes referred to as natural attenuation. However this environmental control is not only due to the vegetation but also to other non-biotic agents such as chemical exchanges with waters, soils and sediments. This work intends to identify what are the principal elements in the ecosystem that are responsible for the immobilisation of uranium coming from the old mine works of Urgeirica (it was the most important uranium mine of Portugal) and which are dripping into the stream of Pantanha (near Nelas, Viseu, Centre-North of Portugal). It has been verified that the species Apium nodiflorum, Callitriche stagnalis, and Amblystegium sp accumulate large amounts of uranium, as well as the dead leafs and the finer sediments. The uranium concentration in the waters decreases from the discharge point and this concentration drops 30 times in a 3,5 km distance with no human intervention.

Keywords: Uranium, contamination, ecosystem, Urgeirica (Portugal), natural remediation, phytoremediation

Title of the Paper: Risk Management A Key Factor in Sustainable Regional Urban Planning (Case Study Hunedoara County Development Plan - Romania)


Authors: Radoslav Radu, Branea Ana-Maria, Gaman Marius Stelian, Morar Tudor

Abstract: An uncontrolled development of a region (case study – Hunedoara County development plan) can lead to crises with later on difficult to manage effects. Only through a sustainable development which includes proactive risk, both natural and manmade, management, can be achieved a holistic territorial planning strategy. This involves acquiring data referring to all types of risk, natural, social and economical, diagnosing them and forming scenarios offered to the local administration and the private initiative to slowly reduce their effects.

Keywords: Sustainable planning, urban planning, risk management, mitigation, ecologic, social, economic

Title of the Paper: Novel RES based Co-Combustion Technology


Authors: Gavrila Trif-Tordai, Ioana Ionel, Francisc Popescu

Abstract: The object of the paper focuses on a new technology of waste biomass co-firing with fossil coal that is a possibility to use existing national energy renewable resources and contribute to a clean energy production. The paper is based on experimental research and was supported by national and EU programs. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce the exhausted SO2, CO2 and particulate from flue gases, in comparison to fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. Investments are reasonable and the technology has promising possibility to be included in the future energy cocktail of the EC, as it is supporting the main development objectives for 2020, concerning RES, efficiency and environmental protection targets.

Keywords: Waste (residual) biomass, RES, Sawdust, Corncob, Pit coal, Lignite, Co-firing, Fluidized bed

Issue 8, Volume 6, August 2010

Title of the Paper: A Study Towards the Possibility of Ultra Thin CdS/CdTe High Efficiency Solar Cells from Numerical Analysis


Authors: M. A. Matin, Nowshad Amin, Azami Zaharim, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Abstract: Polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the leading material for realization of low cost and high efficiency solar cell for terrestrial use. In this work, a conventional structure of CdTe thin film solar cells [1] was investigated and conversion efficiency as high as 13.2% was achieved with the CdTe baseline structure of SnO2/CdS/CdTe. To explore the possibility of ultra thin and high efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells, the CdTe absorber layer and CdS window layer were decreased to the extreme limit and 1 µm thin CdTe layer is found to show reasonable range of efficiency with stability. Moreover, it was found that there were scopes to increase cell efficiency by reducing the cadmium sulfide (CdS) window layer thickness. The CdS window layer was reduced to 60 nm together with the insertion of zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) as the buffer layer to prevent forward leakage current. All the simulations have been done using Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS 1D) simulator. The maximum conversion efficiency of 18.3% (Voc = 1.00 V, Jsc = 26.15 mA/cm2, FF = 0.769) was achieved with 1 µm-CdTe absorber layer, 60 nm-CdS window layer and 100 nm of ZnO or Zn2SnO4 buffer layer. Furthermore, it was found that the cell normalized efficiency linearly decreased with the increasing operating temperature at the gradient of -0.4%/°C, which indicated better stability of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

Keywords: Thin film solar photovoltaics, high efficiency, CdTe, CdS, zinc oxide, zinc stannate, AMPS 1D

Title of the Paper: Fuzzy-APA: Employing Fuzzy and Neural Network Techniques in Data Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters Monitoring


Authors: Daniel Dunea, Mihaela Oprea

Abstract: A fuzzy logic based system for wastewater quality monitoring with the purpose of attenuating the environmental impact of the heavy metals loaded wastewaters is presented in this work. The design and implementation of a supervisory system in LabVIEW for data acquisition, system operation and distributed equipment control is briefly described. Fuzzy logic techniques were used to integrate nine water quality variables into a single quality index of the industrial effluent (EQI) by applying specific rules. The fuzzy rules for diagnosis were developed in MATLAB and were translated and integrated in a virtual instrument, which acted as a fuzzy rule based system, using quantitative and qualitative information, to support the decisional process in case of disturbances of the water quality status due to the effluent discharge impact. Generated EQI was used to train the artificial neural network using Quickprop algorithm, which has efficiently dealt with complex patterns, and had a great ability to build up a neural system for prediction.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy rules, Quickprop algorithm, Wastewater quality monitoring, Environmental indices

Title of the Paper: Biogas Production based on Agricultural Residues. From History to Results and Perspectives


Authors: Ioana Ionel, Adrian Eugen Cioabla

Abstract: The paper focuses on the practical behavior of different types of agricultural matter during the anaerobic fermentation process. First a historical development is highlighted in the idea that from the beginning this process was meant to serve the energy development from available natural and diverse resources. One of the main features that influence the fermentation process is the degradation of the initial material used. The final stage of the anaerobic fermentation process contains material in different stages of decomposition, as function of temperature and type of biomass residue. The potential of Romania is shortly described as well. The second part is dedicated to experimental demonstrations of the process, in brief. All the measurements were accomplished on a small – scale, simple, installation designed special for the research upon the biogas production from agricultural waste.

Keywords: Agricultural residues, anaerobic fermentation, small - scale installation, degradation process

Title of the Paper: Pollution Scenarios through Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling based on Real Measurements - Impact on Human Health


Authors: Mihaiella Cretu, Victoria Teleaba, Silviu Ionescu, Adina Ionescu

Abstract: Considering the fact that the exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with a series of adverse health effects, it is important to predict the industrial air pollution in the populated areas. An easy and an inexpensive estimation can be performed through atmospheric dispersion modelling. This paper present a case study carry out at two pollution sources located near to an airport. Measurements at source and in the atmosphere were performed. The dispersion estimation was realized on specialized software using for input measured data for emission and meteorological data. The paper presents a short overview regarding adverse effects of different air pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2, THC, PM and O3) on human health, which have been well studied worldwide. The work performed in this article aims to quantify the contribution of various pollution sources (incinerator and thermal power station), to the local air pollution from an airport area. In order to evaluate when the functioning of the sources will be considered dangerous for populations we elaborate the worst scenario regarding the CO, NOx, SO2, which can be applied by the authorities from both pollution sources. At the end of the paper conclusions and future plans will be presented.

Keywords: Air pollution, Dispersion, Emissions, Modelling, Scenario, Human Health

Title of the Paper: Professionals Awareness in Promotion of Conservation and Management of Urban Forests as Green Infrastructure of Riga, Latvia


Authors: Ilze Jankovska, Inga Straupe, Thomas Panagopoulos

Abstract: Urban forests are unique and highly valued resources. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the fact that now more than half of the world's population live in urban areas. Like many parts of Europe, Riga is urbanizing rapidly creating conflict situations between development of building areas and natural areas. The consequent loss and degradation of urban forests could adversely affect ecosystems as well as human well-being and cause negative externalities e.g. the loss of non-priced benefits. The aim of this paper is to review the present situation concerning the management and condition of naturalistic forest landscapes in urban areas and to study the attitude of professionals towards naturalistic forest landscapes in the urban area of Riga city, Latvia. The survey includes the opinions of representatives of different fields from Riga municipality and other institutions related to ecological, practical, planning and conservation activities, and also private working landscape architects. The statistical analysis and data’s empirical distribution showed significant differences in attitudes between professional groups of managers and planners to the statements about natural renewal, freedom, contact with nature, sustainable development strategy, management cost and direct participation from the local community.

Keywords: Landscape perception, urban forest, public awareness, urban planning, green infrastructure, Riga, Latvia

Issue 9, Volume 6, September 2010

Title of the Paper: Sustainability Indicators of Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands in Portuguese Small Communities


Authors: Antonio A. L. S. Duarte, Teresa Canais-Seco, Jose A. Peres, Isabel Bentes, Jorge Pinto

Abstract: The discharge of untreated domestic wastewater in the receiving waters creates a negative and environmental impact, inversely proportional to its autodepuration ability. Conventional wastewater treatment plants involve large capital investments and operating costs, and could be economically unsustainable for small-medium communities. So, constructed wetlands as natural low-cost systems can be an appropriate alternative, because they require low maintenance, give rise to good performances and provide a natural appearance. This work presents a synthesis of data obtained through an extensive survey performed in twenty Portuguese constructed wetlands utilities. Based on this information, some sustainable indicators and removal pollutant efficiencies were calculated. Besides identifying the main operational problems observed, it was also possible to detect inadequate monitoring procedures, aiming, with some proposed corrections, to improve the performance of these low-cost wastewater treatment utilities. The results obtained in this work encourage the development of future studies to increase the performance of these wastewater systems based on a better knowledge of the influence of hydraulic parameters, like flow, retention time and hydraulic application rate, in the pollutants removal efficiencies.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment; natural systems; constructed wetlands; monitoring, sustainability indicators, performance evaluation

Title of the Paper: Erosion Risk Map of a Foupana River Watershed in Algarve, Portugal


Authors: Thomas Panagopoulos, Vera Ferreira

Abstract: Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem. In south Portugal typical ecosystems locally named “montados” are subject to extensive dry periods followed by erosive rains on fragile soils subject to intensive soil management and improper practices, such as deforestation and agricultural intensification. To assess soil erosion in these areas are important to protect water resources and to prevent loss of sustainable crop production. There has been important research in the last few years, about appropriate erosion models to predict the soil loss and sediment delivery. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model has been the most widely used for estimating annual soil loss from agricultural watersheds, because it is simple and easy to use. These models are becoming progressively more suitable in combination with geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistical tools, as a solid base for decision making in soil conservation planning. The objectives of the study were to develop and validate a soil erosion-predicting model based on the revised RUSLE in a geographic information systems (GIS) environment. The maps resulting from the interpolation techniques were introduced in a GIS and their values reclassified. After that, spatial modeling was used do develop the final overlay map from all the information of the analyzed soil properties and RUSLE parameters simulating a “potential soil erosion map”. The study showed that the serious eroded area (when sediment is higher than 50 t/ha) was 20%, but contributed for 60% sediments of the watershed. This system will be used to provide site specific land use and management methods that could decrease risk of erosion in the higher risk locations of the study watershed.

Keywords: Desertification, RUSLE, Geostatistics, Vegetation management, Decision support system, Erosion risk Portugal

Title of the Paper: Achieving Energy Savings in Urban Planning by Using Direct Solar and Diffuse Daylight in Early Stage Design


Authors: Hendrik Voll

Abstract: Starting from December 10th in 2008 became into force the standard number 894 („Daylight in Apartment Buildings“) of The Republic of Estonia. The standard states, that every new apartment building has to correspond to the daylight requirement regarding direct solar radiation and diffuse daylight. In case the building does not fulfill the requirements stated in the standard, the building has to be redesigned in order to obtain the construction permission. To educate Estonian architects and engineers and explain the key-factors – the design of the single building facade and complete urban district –direct solar radiation table named heliodon and diffuse daylight test chamber the mirror-box overcast sky were established to Tallinn University of Technology. The present paper focuses onto the concept of heliodon table and mirror-box. Besides the paper presents a method how to design a building that fulfills the daylight standard requirements as well as the requirements for energy efficiency stated in regulation nr 258. In the end planned urban district is analyzed and tested for direct solar access.

Keywords: Heliodon table, Diffuse daylight test chamber, Solar radiation, Urban planning, cooling load

Title of the Paper: Preliminary Study for Implementations of Long Lasting Flexible Road Pavements in Romania


Authors: Andrei Radu, Ioan Tanasele, Elena Puslau

Abstract: The actual flexible pavements designed according the existing norms are leading usually to overdesigned structures because of the lower values for the elastic modulus of the asphalt materials, specified in the existing norms. After a short introduction, presenting the general principles of flexible pavements design, the concepts of long lasting flexible pavements is considered in detail. Then a new research program, involving Accelerating Loading Test-ALT undertaken in parallel with the experiments development on the existing road network, is proposed to the attention of the road policy decisions factors in this country. This research project, supported by specific design assumptions and calculations is taking into considerations the specific soil, climatic and traffic conditions of the road network in Romania. Finally a discussion of the results obtained with this new study is made.

Keywords: Long lasting flexible pavements, accelerating loading test - ALT, structural design, design methods, design traffic

Title of the Paper: Post-Socialist Transition and Empirical Evaluation of the Future Spatial Development of Serbia


Authors: Miodrag Vujosevic, Slavka Zekovic, Tamara Maricic

Abstract: Due to different political and economic factors during its post-socialist transition Serbia has been isolated from the mainstream trends of European integration and convergence. The country’s comparative advantages and competitiveness have worsened in two key aspects - in its structural qualities and in its territorial capital. The economic recovery after the changes in 2000 onwards has the form of “growth without development”, while the spatial development patterns have appeared to be rather unsustainable. Today, Serbia has found itself in the position of an economic, ecological and financial semi-colony of few powerful international political, economic and financial actors. In the last part, we will present results of an empiric evaluation of the three scenarios for spatial development of Serbia until 2020 based on comparative analysis of 29 indicators by applying the Spider method.

Keywords: Post-socialist transition, Serbia, territorial capital, unsustainable spatial development, institutional arrangements, spatial development scenarios, Spider method

Issue 10, Volume 6, October 2010

Title of the Paper: Social Responsibility in Tourism and Sustainable Development


Authors: Cornel Nicolae Jucan, Mihaela Sabina Jucan

Abstract: An increasing number of agents involved in tourism activities are aware of the effects of tourism development and of the impact of these activities on the population and the environment. In recent years, there has been a focus on a well-observed development of tourism according to standards that guarantee the preservation of ecological balance and avoid the overuse of resources, pollution and other negative environmental effects. A sustainable community must adopt a three-direction approach that has in view economic, environmental and cultural resources. Communities must take into account not only short-term, but also long-term needs. Sustainable tourism development requires the reconciliation of opposing interests and objectives, favoring partnership and cooperation between decision-makers, processors and consumers promoting long-term public interest. In order to achieve these goals, codes of good practice in tourism must be respected and implemented. These codes must be socially responsible at all levels (national, regional, and local) and based on already recognized international standards. This paper aims to assess the involvement of the principles of sustainable development in the sector of tourism through the implementation of the methodologies of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Keywords: Business, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Environment, Globalization, Management, Sustainable development, Tourism, Sustainability

Title of the Paper: Hierarchical IF-Inference Systems for Local Sustainable Development Management


Authors: Petr Hajek, Vladimir Olej

Abstract: The paper presents basic notions of IF-sets introduced by K.T. Atanassov and the design of new hierarchical IF-inference systems of Mamdani type for the modelling of decision processes. We propose a tree hierarchical IF-inference system which can serve as a decision support system in the management of local sustainable development. The possibility to model both the uncertainty and the relationships in the complex system of local sustainable development represent the main advantages of this system. It provides stronger possibility to accommodate imprecise information compared to fuzzy inference systems and, at the same time, the number of if-then rules is reduced by using a tree hierarchical structure. The relationships among sustainable development indicators and their weights are incorporated through the expert opinions.

Keywords: Intuitionistic sets, IF-sets, hierarchical IF-inference systems, sustainable development, indicators

Title of the Paper: Investigation upon Construction Technology, Operation and Maintenance Procedures for Slabs-on-Ground


Authors: Andreea-Terezia Mircea

Abstract: Even if concrete is able to provide a highly durable, functional and attractive surface, the concrete quality of slabs-on-ground is often affected by conditions over which the designer and contractor have little control. Some curling and cracking can be expected on every project due to the inherent characteristics of the Portland cement concrete, such as shrinkage. Nevertheless, poor design, inadequate mixture proportions and improper service conditions are key elements responsible for imperfections. By taking these causes into consideration, it is possible to reduce the inadequate results. The paper presents the main causes of imperfections established by an investigation performed at the request of the contractor of a concrete pavement made at the platform of an industrial company, located in the Transylvania Region, Romania.

Keywords: Industrial slab-on-ground, concrete quality, structural and functional performance, maintenance

Title of the Paper: SF-36 Health Survey, Indoor Environment and Housing Renovation


Authors: G. Karani, M. Bradburn, M. Evans

Abstract: The focus of the study was the effect of the renovation of the housing within the study area . The study population were all privately owned households within the Riverside Renewal Area in Cardiff, Wales, that had been planned for renovation within the period of the study. Subjects were all occupants of households recruited to the study, with detailed SF-36 data being collected on household members. The objective was to recruit and monitor a cohort of households every winter approximately a year before renovation was due as the control group, and then monitor them again prior to renovation as the pre-renovation group, and finally a minimum of six months following renovation as the post-renovation group. The SF-36 enables people to describe their health status from their own perspective. The SF-36 was used to compare the health status of the different residents pre-renovation and post-renovation. The SF-36 questionnaire was divided into a series of health and wellbeing categories and the answers were plotted on a 100-point scale. High scores were associated with good health, and low scores with poor health. The indoor environment analysis was centred on the change in 7 parameters. Paired data was available for 37 households for pre-renovation and post-renovation environmental monitoring. The analysis of the paired t-test data determined that there was a significant change in 5 of the 8 SF-36 parameters post renovation. Correlations were drawn between environmental data variables including temperature and humidity with measures of indoor air pollutants and dampness. Paired sample t-tests were conducted for pre-renovation and post- renovation variables, and a significant improvement in both the indoor environment and householder health was determined. The benefits derived from setting up a multi-disciplinary project team drawn upon from different backgrounds, was from the outset a significant value to the implementation and outcome of such a health gain study. Evaluation of the data that was collected has lead to the conclusion that enrolment of a larger group of paired pre- and post renovation households would have been highly beneficial. The lack of published data within this field means that the small number of houses on which data is available from the Riverside study represents one of the principal datasets of this kind currently available.

Keywords: SF36, Indoor parameters, Health, Renewal area

Issue 11, Volume 6, November 2010

Title of the Paper: The Sludge and Manure Effects on the Growth of Citrus Trees


Authors: Manuel Costa, Jose Beltrao, Joao Carrasco De Brito, Maria Alcinda Neves, Carlos Guerrero

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the agricultural use of organic solid wastes. Hence two types of wastes were selected to be applied in a citrus orchard: the sewage sludge (the most common on the urban world) and the manure (the most common on the agricultural fields). The sewage sludge is a residue originated from the wastewater treatment – the solid phase. Its application as an organic fertilizer may represent an alternative to the pollution consequences in nature. The effect of sludge and manure application on the growth of orange trees (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb.), established on a Fluvisol, was evaluated in relation to the biometric parameters – number of leaves per tree, diameter of the trunk, leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf chlorophyll (estimated by using SPAD values). In general, the citrus plants response to the application of sewage sludge and of manure was positive, compared to the control trees. The application of the manure and especially the sewage sludge (once this fertilizer/soil amendment is available in larger amounts) may be a profitable alternative application to the use of mineral fertilizers and to other organic soil amendments. Moreover, as the other possible destinations of sewage sludge (landfill or incineration) are associated to potential environmental problems, its agricultural use when correctly applied, represents a better alternative. The application of this solid wastes, as a clean and safe technique to preserve the environment contamination, can also be successfully used as an organic amendment of citrus orchards.

Keywords: Citrus leaves, manure, plant development, sewage sludge, soil organic amendments

Title of the Paper: Effects of Simulated Tropospheric Ozone on Foliar Nutrients Levels (Ca2+, Mn2+, Mg2+ and K+) of Three Woody Species of High Commercial Value Typical from Campeche, Mexico


Authors: J. G. Ceron-Breton, R. M. Ceron-Breton, M. Rangel-Marron, C. Vargas-Caliz, L. G. Aguilar-Bencomo, M. Muriel-Garcia

Abstract: Three months old seedlings of three woody species of high commercial value typical from Campeche, Mexico [Haematoxylum Campechianum L (Wood blood tree), Tabebuia Rosea (Pink flower tree) and Swietenia Macrophylla (Mahogany)] were fumigated during 6 weeks at three different concentrations of simulated tropospheric ozone (at 50, 110 and 250 ppb) using charcoal filtered air within an open-top chamber from june to july in 2009. Visible damages and changes on phtosynthetic pigments levels were identified and nutrients concentrations (Ca2+, Mn2+, Mg2+ and K+) were determined. All studied species ( Wood blood tree, Pink flower tree and Mahogany) showed sensitiveness to ozone exposure levels, showing decreases in photosynthetic pigments levels as well as changes in nutrients contents. Mahogany and Wood blood tree were the most sensitive species to tropospheric ozone showing greater visible damages.

Keywords: Woody species., Foliar damage., Open Top Chambers., Tropospheric ozone., Atmospheric pollution., Campeche, Mexico, Nutrients

Title of the Paper: DTC and Non Linear Vector Control Strategies Applied to the DFIG Operated at Variable Speed


Authors: Jihene Ben Alaya, Adel Khedher, Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni

Abstract: We present in this paper the modeling and control designs for a variable-speed constant-frequency wind energy conversion system using double fed induction generator. The aim of this paper is to design and compare two distinct control strategies to control the rotor side power converter. Firstly, a nonlinear vector control strategy using the second Lyapunov approach is developed. Secondly, a direct torque control strategy, constructed around two hysteresis controllers that allow flux and torque regulation, is presented. Simulation results have shown good performances of the system under these proposed control strategies. Compared to nonlinear vector control strategy, the direct torque control approach presents best performances.

Keywords: Wind drive - Double fed induction generator - Direct torque control - Nonlinear vector control - Lyapunov approach

Title of the Paper: The Link between Urbanization and Climatic Factors: A Concept on Formation of Urban Heat Island


Authors: P. Shahmohamadi, A. I. Che-Ani, N. A. G. Abdullah, M. M. Tahir, K. N. A. Maulud, M. F. I. Mohd-Nor

Abstract: Increasing the number of population, pollutions, urban expansion and many other kinds of urbanization factors in metropolitan areas are affected climatic factors and vice versa. In fact, there is a correlation between these two factors in general. This paper put forward the conceptual model and two hypotheses. In order to test the model, UHI mapping has been carried out in Tehran as a case study. The investigation has been done at macro-level to get surface temperature. The methodology employed is to use satellite image with a thermal band (obtained on 18 July 2000). To map out the UHI, mapping of LST and NDVI were necessary and then overlaid them and extracted maximum temperature value for both urban and rural areas. The results show that the maximum urban and rural temperature values are 39°C and 27°C respectively. Therefore, daytime Tehran surface UHI shows 12?C of difference between urban and rural areas which is quite strong. Analyzing the data specified that the urbanization factors have direct impact on increasing the UHI intensity in Tehran metropolitan area.

Keywords: Climatic Factors, Environmental Challenge, Tehran, Urban, Urban Heat Island, Urbanization

Title of the Paper: Applying an Interpretive Model to assess Cultural Landscape Dynamics in a Highway of Portugal


Authors: Elena Berte, Thomas Panagopoulos

Abstract: The relationships between the development of the A22 Via do Infante de Sagres highway in the Portuguese region of the Algarve, and the development of a contemporary landscape by using the Cultural Landscape Dynamics Interpretative Model are studied. The model evaluates the kind of development followed by contemporary landscapes based on transportation infrastructures in relation to contemporary cultural landscapes, which according to the theoretical approach of the work are based on the sustainable development principles. The presented model provides guidelines for future transportation infrastructure projects towards the development of contemporary cultural landscapes. In the Portuguese case study, the model is used to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the contemporary landscape formed after the construction of the A22 highway.

Keywords: Linear infrastructure, Contemporary Cultural Landscapes, Dynamics, Interpretative Model, Portugal

Issue 12, Volume 6, November 2010

Title of the Paper: Conceptual Precedent: Seven Landscape Architectural Historic Sites Revisited


Authors: Jon Burley, Luis Loures

Abstract: Designers are interested in the generation of form to guide the development of a particular design. With the advent of the modern design era in the 20th Century, the design "concept" became a driving force for most architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design schools, teaching students how to employ the design concept to guide the generation of form and details. Although, the design concept was employed in some designs before the 20th century, discussions concerning the design concept for historic landscapes has been limited. To illustrate examples of historic landscapes with design concepts, we chose seven projects to be revisited: Bom Jesus do Monte (Portugal), Xiaoling Tomb (China), Vaux le Vicomte (France), Villa Lante (Italy), Stourhead (United Kingdom), Stowe (United Kingdom), and Tapada das Necessidades (Portugal).

Keywords: Design process; design theory, design pedagogy, normative theory

Title of the Paper: The Research on Eco-campus Evaluation Index System and Weight


Authors: Xinpei Jiang, Bao Zheng, Haifeng Wang

Abstract: At present so many universities in China are working hard on eco-campus construction. This paper reviewed the research on eco-campus in china and established the eco-campus evaluation index system on the basis of summarizing ecological building, green building, sustainable building and energy-saving building and consulting data of a conference. Then Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to design questionnaires, check the questionnaire consistency and calculate the weight of eco-campus evaluation index system. This research used AHP expert decision-making software Expert Choice 11.5 to make the consistency check and calculate the weight, which avoids complex calculations and saves a lot of time. The main goal of this thesis is to list the priorities that affect planning and construction of eco-campus to provide basis and reference for eco-campus construction and eco-campus sustainable development.

Keywords: Sustainable development, Eco-campus, index system, weight, AHP

Title of the Paper: Energy Efficiency and Indoor Climate of Apartment and Educational Buildings in Estonia


Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Kalle Kuusk, Mikk Maivel, Alo Mikola

Abstract: The years 1960-1990 saw an extensive construction of apartment buildings in Estonia. In 1970s the specific heat consumption of apartment buildings made up about 350 kWh/m2 per year. The 1990s saw the beginning of the renovation of heat substations, heating and ventilation systems and building envelopes. The renovation of windows in old apartment buildings was accompanied by problems in the indoor climate. The problem of indoor climate seriously concerns educational buildings without mechanical ventilation and partly renovated old apartment buildings. With the help of simulation programs energy conservation achievable with renovation has been analysed in apartment buildings as well as in educational buildings. Characterised is the influence of the new domestic hot water (DHW) calculation method on the determination on the equipment of heat substations and district heating network. The increase of energy efficiency of buildings by heat recovery of heat of exhaust air by heat pump is analyzed. In old apartment buildings one of the possible solutions is the air change arrangement by room heat recovery units and programmable exhaust ventilators in toilets, bathrooms and kitchens.

Keywords: Indoor climate, CO2 concentration, Apartment buildings, Educational buildings, DHW flow rates, Energy efficiency, Ventilation systems, Renovation


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