WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 7, 2011
Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496








Issue 1, Volume 7, January 2011

Title of the Paper: Research Stage of the La Tene and Thracian Scheme Fibulae in Romania - Dynamics and Exclusion. Critical General Approach


Authors: Vlad Vintila Zirra

Abstract: In this presentation, the author brings some general comments concerning the archaeological finds containing La Tene and Thracian scheme fibulae from Romania. The critical approach refers to the research stage, discovery circumstances, state and interpretation of the items and to the publication conditions. Globally, the author considers that these artifacts, present over the nowadays Romanian territory between the 4th century BC to first century AD, through their important number (still growing each year) represent a good beginning for considerations of chronological, typological, social status, trade and cultural relations point of view.

Keywords: La Tene scheme fibulae, Thracian scheme fibulae, statistics, material conditions, research stage, geographical distribution, typology, chronology

Title of the Paper: Natural Dimension of Sustainable Development and Economic and Ecological Integration in the Evaluation of Social Welfare


Authors: Toba Daniel, Simion Dalia, Vochita Luminita, Toba Elena

Abstract: The evolution of the report needs - resources emphasises the contradiction between the more and more social needs and the natural resources, relatively limited, between the frame and the given planetary space. The dynamics of the contradiction depends on the level of the production factors drawn, level capable to ensure the more or less optimal satisfaction of the consumption needs. The needs for natural resources and for the maintenance of a healthy natural environment must be correlated with the exploitable known reserves, and as a perspective with the probable ones. Starting from the five factors that influence each other in the process of development - the population, the natural resources, the natural environment, the agricultural production, the industrial production and the pollution - the new strategies of the sustainable development aim at finding the adequate criteria to optimise the resources - needs report, as well as the necessary means to achieve this purpose. The economic environment of the future, through the inputs and outputs, must be in a dynamic compatibility with the rural environment, but also with the present and future needs and interests of the generations that evolve and succeed.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Natural Environment, Ecological Economy, Sustainability Rules, Substitution of the Natural Capital, Environmental Assessment

Title of the Paper: Economic Assessment of a Two-Stage Heat Pump with Heat Exchanger to Exploit Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy


Authors: Sven H. De Cleyn, Amaryllis Audenaert

Abstract: Within the context of sustainable housing, considerable research attention has been on different devices and techniques to lower energy consumption and alternative, environmental-friendly alternatives to generate energy. Recently, scholars engage increasingly in the economic aspects of these devices and techniques. This study elaborates on the study of Kulcar et al. [1], which have investigated the economy of exploiting a two-stage heat pump with heat exchanger using low-temperature geothermal sources for building heating purposes. The results of the analysis suggest that under the circumstances defined in [1], the system is an interesting investment from a financial viewpoint. However, the results turn out to be strongly dependent on the evolution of the electricity and heat prices. It turns out that the net present value of the investment is more sensitive to changes in heat prices than it is to variations in electricity prices.

Keywords: Economic analysis; Payback time; Geothermal energy; Heat pump

Issue 2, Volume 7, February 2011

Title of the Paper: Effective Solution to Improve Citizenship Education as a Part of Culture Identity, Citizenship, Sustainability


Authors: Fattaneh Daneshmand Malayeri

Abstract: One of the factors of growth and prosperity of cities in developed countries leading role "of citizens in determining their fate. Move towards achieving the community-developed societies depends on movement toward "citizen orientation" and people's adherence to the principles of citizenship. The word "citizen" during various historical (from ancient to date) according to the environment and the concept of geographic space . By studying the historical concept of citizenship in our country which does We can Citizenship in there and it is so light that one can get is not a plan. Circuit City citizens need access to citizenship education and creating civil society and development NGOs as between government agencies and Retaining citizens and to achieve such a situation the first step to increase awareness and knowledge of rights and citizenship laws and creating areas for citizen participation Governance is in the cities. will try in this article refers briefly to the purpose of this research is understanding the concept of "citizenship" and "citizen orientation" and its position in the country and the culture of citizenship education as an effort to develop is stable. Research methods and types of documents and library research and check with regard to understanding the problem and respond to questions of the type of research is applied.

Keywords: Citizen, Citizenship, citizenship role, Urban Planning, Sustainable Development

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Development and the Need to Manage Taxes on Pollution


Authors: Marius Bulearca, Marina Badileanu, Catalin Popescu, Mihai Sabin Muscalu, Constantin Ghiga

Abstract: The extractive industry is unanimously acknowledged as being a vital sector of any country which owns workable natural resources. The experts claim that this industry is a source of foreign income, of direct foreign investments and it is also the main and sometimes the only energy provider of a country. The activities carried out within the extractive industry of any country provide employment to population and contribute to the public budget by taxes and dues, while the incomes resulted from these activities can be directed towards charity; however, at the same time, there is a certain environmental risk related to each initiative that is being carried out in this industry.Given that ecological research has begun to study environmental phenomena and interpret data and information on economic and social relations taking into account environmental restrictions, as to draw conclusions about the effects that such restrictions have on economic and social life, this paper intends to determine the extent to which costs provide maximum benefits for quality of life in general and human in particular.

Keywords: Environment, extractive industry, impact, marginal cost and benefit, models, taxes on pollution, non-renewable resources, sustainable energetic development

Title of the Paper: Determination of Carbon Sequestration Rate in Soil of a Mangrove Forest in Campeche, Mexico


Authors: J. G. Ceron-Breton, R. M. Ceron-Breton, M. Rangel-Marron, M. Murielgarcia, A. V. Cordova-Quiroz, A. Estrella-Cahuich

Abstract: It was determined carbon sequestration rate, total nitrogen content and several important physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity, gravimetric moisture, salinity, pH and soil texture) in mangrove forest soil located within the natural protected area named “Terminos Lagoon” in Carmen Island, Campeche-Mexico. Six sampling zones were considered within a mangrove forest located in the Botanical Garden of the Autonomous University of Carmen City. Samplings were carried out from February to August during 2009 considering three climatic periods (“Norths” season, dry season and rainy season). The electrical conductivity was within the range of 1.38 to 26.2 dS m-1 and the highest values were found during the rainy season when the study sites were flooded most of the time. The seasonal influence on carbon storage was evident (from 1.2 to 22.2 kg C / m-2), with the highest rate of carbon sequestration in the dry season, in flooded soils with greater predominance of red mangrove, and is lower in those soils rarely flooded with a higher prevalence of buttonwood mangrove individuals. The organic matter content and organic carbon was greater at 30 cm depth for flooded areas, where long periods of flood tides and low rates of decomposition maintain anoxic conditions. Due to soils are sandy in the study areas and have high pH values with red mangrove associations, we can suggests that they have a high potential for carbon sequestration and it could be increased in future years.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration potential, carbon sinks, mangrove forest, Terminos Lagoon, wetlands, Campeche, Mexico

Issue 3, Volume 7, March 2011

Title of the Paper: The Influence of Photovoltaic Systems on Low-Voltage Grids


Authors: Traian Daniel Ivanovici, Marcel Ionel, Valentin Dogaru-Ulieru, Simona Mihaescu

Abstract: The public support in photovoltaic (PV) technologies and increasing markets have resulted in extensive applications of grid-connected PV, in particular in the consumer side and electricity distribution grid. In this paper, the effects of a high level of grid connected PV in the low voltage distribution network have been analyzed with a case study. In the European Research Program ICOP DEMO 4080-98 there was installed a photovoltaic system of 10kWp made of 66 photovoltaic modules model OPTISOL SFM 72 Bx made by Pilkington Solar International and 24 ST 40 modules made by SIEMENS at the University of Valahia in Targoviste. The DC energy producted by the modules is inverted through the 8 SWR Sunny Boy inverter and directed to the network; in case the solar energy isn’t enough the deficit is compensated by the network to ensure functionability of all the connected devices. The analysis of the connection to the system of an electric solar based source it’s made in the purpose of analyzing the quality of the energy used to power up the consumers, to decrease the negative influences of perturbations over the parameters of the energy distributed and to see in what manner the consumers connected to the source measure in the allocated perturbance.

Keywords: Renewable energy, photovoltaic system, low-voltage grids, harmonic analysis, distributed power generation, quality parameters, LabVIEW

Title of the Paper: Iranian Mothers Role to Dissatisfied with Health Services by Statistical and Approval Experiments


Authors: Mohsen Rasoulian, Marzieh Kazemipour

Abstract: In organizations providing health services based activities should be given the needs and opinions are based comrade and how health services to be evaluated continuously. Health Center health services received from the Social Security Organization and dependent care Health Center Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2010 is the year. This study is a descriptive study. In this study, 300 randomly referred from clients to health centers affiliated with both organizations were selected. Information based on Likert scale and using interviews and questionnaires were collected. Analyze the data using descriptive statistical methods were performed.

Keywords: Satisfaction, clients, health, social security, medical sciences

Title of the Paper: A Parallel Energy-Sharing Control for the Fuel cell-Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrid Vehicles


Authors: Jennhwa Wong, N. R. N. Idris

Abstract: This paper proposes a parallel energy-sharing control for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) application. The hybrid source consists of a fuel cells (FCs) generator, battery packs and Ultracapacitor (UC) modules. In the proposed parallel energy-sharing control, each source is connected to the direct current (DC) bus via power electronics converters. A total of six control loops are applied in the supervisory system in order to regulate the DC bus voltage, control of current flow and at the same time to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of each energy storage device. Simulations as well as experimental test bench are carried out to verify on the proposed energy control system.

Keywords: Fuel cell, battery, Ultracapacitor, Hybrid source, Fuel cell hybrid vehicle, Energy management control and Parallel energy-sharing control

Issue 4, Volume 7, April 2011

Title of the Paper: Key Conservation Principles of Old Traditional Mosque in Malaysia


Authors: S. Johar, A. I. Che-Ani, N. M. Tawil, M. M. Tahir, N. A. G. Abdullah, A. G. Ahmad

Abstract: This paper reviews the conservation activities, particularly on traditional old mosque in Malaysia. It comprise the definition, concept and importance of conservation in general, the present of conservation activities on historic buildings and mosque in Malaysia, and the approaches used for conserving to preserve Muslim’s house of worship. The finding of this paper highlights the four key conservation principles namely minimal intervention, conducting scientific research and laboratories testing, documentation of conservation work and applying effective methods and techniques for conservation. Meanwhile for conservation program, the seven approaches are preservation, reproduction, restoration, maintenance, redevelopment, rehabilitation and consolidation. Several approaches are normally adopted for one building conservation project. What most important is the justification in adopting the approaches so that it comply to one of the key conservation principle, namely minimal intervention.

Keywords: Architectural heritage, Building conservation, Building maintenance, Building repair, Building survey, Cultural significance, Historic building, Malaysia, Place of worship, Traditional mosque

Title of the Paper: Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water and Quantification of Health Risks


Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Milos Bozek, Jiri Dvorak

Abstract: The paper deals with the quantification of health risks resulting from the disinfection of drinking water and covers both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risks. The monitoring and calculations were focused on four types of trihalogenmethanes as the main products of such disinfection having potential health risks for the exposed population. Gas chromatography with mass detector was used for the determination of the trihalogenmethanes concentrations in the drinking water. The measured concentrations of individual pollutants with probable human hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and embryotoxic effects were used for the risk assessment. The risk assessment was carried out in compliance with the national methodology, respecting the standard operational procedure of U.S. EPA. The analysis was carried out in a selected region of the Czech Republic and three age groups of population were considered. It was discovered on the basis of appropriate developed exposure scenarios and the determined concentrations of contaminants that the summary non-carcinogenic risks are acceptable and genotoxic risks are tolerable.

Keywords: Dermal contact, Disinfection, Drinking water, Exposure, Genotoxic risk, Ingestion, Inhalation, Non carcinogenic risk, Risk, Trihalogenmethanes

Title of the Paper: The Issue of Nitrates in Drinking Water and their Removal


Authors: Jaromira Chylkova, Ilona Obrsalova, Renata Selesovska, Tomas Brunclik, Kwasi Asare Baffour Danquah

Abstract: The aim of this work was to monitor the quality of drinking water taken from wells in the region of Eastern Bohemia. The parameter monitored was the nitrate content in water. The samples were repeatedly collected from 33 wells, and the nitrate content was determined by the method of simultaneous photometric neutralisation micro-titration. The results obtained show that the drinking water standard of nitrate content is met by only 60 % of the samples analysed. The relation between the nitrate content in water and the effect of surrounding agricultural activities, the position and, as the case may be, the depth of the wells was proved. Also observed were changes in the nitrate concentrations during various plant growing seasons. When there is excess concentration of nitrate, there are existing technologies that could be used to clean drinking water these are ion exchange and reverse osmosis.

Keywords: Analysis, Nitrates, Drinking water, Wells, Neutralization titration, Spectrophotometric detection

Issue 5, Volume 7, May 2011

Title of the Paper: The Influence of Urban Form on Facades Noise Levels


Authors: Marta F. Oliveira, Ligia T. Silva

Abstract: The urban form affects directly the natural habitats, ecosystems and the different species. Indirectly the urban form influences the behavior of the trajectory, which in turn affects the air quality, the global climate and of course the noise propagation. This paper seeks to address the problems of the urban environment as an area of interaction between urban forms and urban noise. This interaction is intended to be monitored by urban indicators, comparing the effects of noise propagation in model of urban forms. The model of noise prediction (NMPB96), allowed to develop studies about noise in facades (Ld, level of noise during the day), resulting in colors associated to noise categories. The study will allow the creation of different scenarios and foresee still in the draft fase, the facades exposed to a higher noise level. The effects of noise in facades can be then minimized in advance, by adjusting the layout of their typology.

Keywords: Urban noise, Urban form, Urban indicators, Noise indicators

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Passive Architectural Roof Cooling Potential to Decrease the Cooling Demand for Northern European Office Buildings Based on Energy Modelling and Laboratory Tests


Authors: Hendrik Voll, Erkki Seinre, Mati Soot

Abstract: Passive architectural roof cooling or vegetated roofs, also called green roofs, have been shown to reduce rooftop heat transfer, offering enhancement to a building’s thermal resistance or R-value in warm climate zones. However a comprehensive study of the magnitude of that effect has not been conducted previously, nor on the impact of green roof design variables and climatic effects in Northern European conditions at latitudes of 55° and higher. The objective of the research was to investigate the cooling potential of green roofs through building energy modelling and laboratory tests for Northern European conditions. The findings in this study show that unlike previous studies carried out in warmer climates, the main role in cooling the building is played by night-time cooling of the building enclosure. All measures, including green roofs, that decrease the thermal conductivity of the roof construction cause heat accumulation inside the building. In conclusion, green roofs do not have a significant cooling potential for office buildings in Nordic conditions.

Keywords: Green roofs, Energy efficiency, Energy simulation, Cooling Load

Title of the Paper: Bicyclists’ Braking Profile on Typical Urban Road Pavements


Authors: Athanasios Galanis, Nikolaos Eliou

Abstract: This study examines the bicyclists’ braking profile on four typical pavement types in the urban road environment: asphalt, concrete plate, concrete bricks and thermoplastic material. The experiment took place in the city of Volos, Greece, in a pedestrian area provided with a bikeway across the port, under good weather conditions. Five volunteer bicyclists, men and women of different physical weight took part in the experiment, riding a brand new city bike. The experiment was conducted with the use of state of the art equipment: VBOX (Racelogic, UK) that could trace the bicyclists’ movement and collect data of position, speed etc using GPS signal. Each participant accelerated the bike on 15km/hr or 20km/hr, kept the speed steady riding the bike in straight line and then applied the brakes with maximum force until the bike stops. This test was revised for each pavement type. After the data analysis, we estimated the braking time and distance for each pavement type for the two speed levels according to the bicyclists’ weight. Finally, we concluded that the shortest braking distance was noticed on the pavement made from asphalt. Furthermore, we concluded that a 5km/hr rise of bicyclists’ speed resulted to a much longer braking distance.

Keywords: Bicycle, Pavement, Braking profile, Time, Distance, VBOX

Issue 6, Volume 7, June 2011

Title of the Paper: Grading Methodology of the Pedestrian Urban Road Environment


Authors: Athanasios Galanis, Nikolaos Eliou

Abstract: The improvement of pedestrian safety, mobility and convenience is an important step for the promotion of sustainable mobility in urban areas. This study presents the grading process and walkability score of the pedestrian urban environment of six selected roads in the city of Volos, Greece. The roads were characterized as main, collector or local urban arterials, located inside or close to the center of the city. Four suitably trained auditors walked across the streets and using a questionnaire graded independently the pedestrian urban road environment features in each road segment and crosswalk. The auditors’ team included three undergraduate students as the team members and a PhD candidate as the team leader. The questionnaire included 9 questions for the road segments and 6 questions for the crosswalks. The rating scale varied between 1 (awful) and 5 (very good) score. We calculated the average score of each question for the road segments and crosswalks across each street. Furthermore, we calculated the walkability score for each road segment and crosswalk and as an average the total walkability score of each street. The innovation of our study was that we graded separately the walkability features of each road segment and crosswalk, concluding to a total walkability score of a street as a synthesis of the auditors’ grades.

Keywords: Walkability score, Pedestrian, Auditor, Road segment, Crosswalk, Sustainability

Title of the Paper: Turfgrass Plant Quality Response to Different Water Regimes


Authors: Manuel Costa, Jose Beltrao, Joao Carrasco De Brito, Carlos Guerrero

Abstract: This scientific work aims to contribute to the sustainable management of water resources in golf courses of arid and drought-prone regions of Mediterranean, through the evaluation of water demands, regarding to different ways of environmental and socio-economic development and water resources, and through examining the possibilities to reuse treated effluent as an alternative source for potable water. Its main objective is to reach the response of fairway turfgrass of golf courses to several levels of sprinkle irrigation water. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) was selected as the most common turfgrass used in the many golf courses of the Algarve (southern Portugal), where this water consumption is responsible, for the decreasing of the level of aquifers and of their salinity elevation. Sprinkle point source experimental design was used to simulate several water regimes, expressed by the crop coefficients. Irrigation water sources were well potable water and two treated wastewater origins. Standard crop coefficient Kc values were evaluated between 0.92 and 0.99, being non standard crop coefficient Ks values for good appearance (GA) of lawn grass, very similar and computed between 0.52 and 0.55. Thus, significant economy of water could be achieved, in golf courses, if Ks values are used related to GA, instead of the usual standard Kc. The yield of the three experimental lawns was determined for several values of the crop coefficient under non standard conditions, due to the management of the sprinkler point source experimental design Ka, between 0.2 and 1.6. On the other hand, it was shown that the quality of turfgrass was independent of salinity of irrigation water for levels of ECw lower than 2.1 dS m-1 to the studied turfgrass. As concluding remarks, as the principal objective is the quality of the turfgrass of the golf courses and not the yield, it was shown that it is possible to consider treated final effluents as an alternative disposal to potable water, to be applied in golf courses. The application of wastewater in golf courses is important in terms of water and fertilization savings and represents a more correct environmental alternative to the dumping of this waste in the rivers, lakes and seaside, since all cares are taken.

Keywords: Crop coefficient, evapotranspiration, fertilisers, golf courses, good visual appearance, sprinkler point source

Title of the Paper: The Role of Farm Advisors in Reducing Wastes in Wheat Production (Case Study, Qazvin Province, Iran)


Authors: Vahideh Birjandi

Abstract: Wheat was one of the first domesticated food crops and for 8000 years has been the basic staple food of the major civilizations of Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Today, wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop and continues to be the most important food grain source for humans. Agricultural waste was considered as an irrational behaviour of agricultural man power, i.e., producers, processors and consumers. Due to the role of reducing wheat waste in increasing production of wheat, Iran's Ministry of Agriculture commenced a program to reduce the waste and increase production of wheat and hired university graduated students in field of agriculture to work as advisors to train farmers the methods to increase production and reduce wastes in the Wheat Self Sufficiency Plan (WSP). The major purpose of this study was investigating of the role's farm advisors in reducing wastes in wheat production in Qazvin Province. The population for the study was 112 advisors in Qazvin Province and data collected by using a questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using statistical methods in SPSS. The results of the study showed there was a meaningful and positive relation between farm advisors' role in reducing wastes in wheat production as dependent variable and number of farm advisors' contacts with extension experts in Ministry of Agriculture in cultivation, rate of attending of farm advisors in ducational courses on reducing wastes, adaptability of farm advisors' educational courses on reducing wastes with their needs, applying farm advisors' advices by farmers to reduce waste in plantation period, awareness of farm advisors about methods of reducing wastes in plantation period, using educational tools by farm advisors in farmers' education on reducing wheat wastes as independent variables.

Keywords: Farm Advisors, Waste Reduction, Wheat, Iran, Qazvin Province

Issue 7, Volume 7, July 2011

Title of the Paper: Reinforcing Self-Controlling Among Employees, Consequence of Information Technology


Authors: Mohsen Rasoulian, Atousa Aryanpour Kashani

Abstract: Information & Communication Technology (ICT) penetration in developed countries has been for years, as the African countries also that lave poor people have used this technology and employ it well for developing human life, learning and.... Iran is one of the large developing countries of the world and regarding its strategic situation in Middle East and in the world, comparing to other countries, more than any country to be equipped with the technology and knowledge of the world. For many years, that Iranian individuals and organizations, in the form of hardware and software, use this technology. Thus, regarding information and communication technology as the development and is so important and we are estimating the way of influencing of this technology to indices of developing human resources in organization. The research is in type of understanding and the main tool for gathering data is the question Nair. For this reason, we use different statistic test like holograph Smirnoff, will Cookson test two told mono- sample, one –sided monosample Wilcoxon test, two fold mono- sample symbol test, one- sided mono – sample symbol test and freedom test. The results show that information technology has a direct effect on the indices of developing human resources.

Keywords: Technique, Technology, Information, Information Technology, Communication, ICT, Developing Human Resources (HRD)

Title of the Paper: Using Integrated Hierarchical Model to Assess Corporate Social Responsibility


Authors: Chi-Horng Liao

Abstract: To face with the environmental problems, the corporation social responsibility (CSR) is necessary to realize. However, CSR realizing exists many influences form economic, society, and environmental dimensions. This study focus on environmental aspect to draw out the way for company can consider their capability to realize CSR efficiently. This study use the interpretive structure modeling (ISM) to understand the interactive relations of criteria which help companies do environmental CSR efficiently and then set up the hierarchical structure for them to help recognize the steps and the priority criteria for efficient environment CSR realizing. Driving and dependence power also use in this study to analyze deeper about the significant role of each criterion in the hierarchical structure. This study includes seven criteria to consider.

Keywords: Corporation social responsibility (CSR), driving and dependence power (DDPA), interpretive structure modeling (ISM), efficiency, environment

Title of the Paper: Dynamic Balanced Scorecard: Model for Sustainable Regional Development


Authors: Kozena Marcela, Striteska Michaela, Svoboda Ondrej

Abstract: With the growing importance of sustainability issues many regions try to integrated environmental and social aspects into the strategic management system. However, these attempts were not always successful. The purpose of the paper is to present one way how sustainability could be incorporated into the strategic management of region development. On the base of literature review and analyses of selected case study the draft of sustainable Balanced Scorecard framework for region was developed. The main component of the proposed framework is dynamic strategic model which easily and clearly explains the whole strategy of the region as well as the links between economic, environmental and social aspects.

Keywords: Sustainable development, Balanced Scorecard, dynamic model, environmental and social aspect, performance indicators, region

Issue 8, Volume 7, August 2011

Title of the Paper: Managerial Tools to Promote Aspects of Sustainable Region Development


Authors: Striteska Michaela, Svoboda Ondrej

Abstract: In recent years, the sustainable development of regions is widely discussed topic not only in the world and the European Union, but now also within the Czech Republic. Hence, the analyses of strategic documents and budgets that primarily allow create and implement regional policics leading to sustainability are performed. The main aim of the analysis of strategic documents is to evaluate the quality of the currently existing strategic plans with regard to the policies and principles of sustainable development. On the basis of results, the analysis of the relations between selected regional budgets and aspects of sustainability was carried out. Subsequently managerial tools that have the potential to eliminate revealed questionable points are proposed.

Keywords: Sustainable development, region, strategic management, budget, performance measurement, tools

Title of the Paper: Emissions of Selected Pollutants While Applying of Specific Additive EnviroxTM


Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Jiri Huzlik, Jaromir Mares, Hana Malachova

Abstract: The value of selected emission factors was monitored in operation on older type of engine testing bench using diesel and being compared with the same parameters monitored under similar conditions with addition of additive EnviroxTM. It was found out that additive based on dispersed nanoparticles of cerium dioxide reduces emission of particulate matter, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, while emissions of carbon dioxide remained comparable or slightly lower and carbon monoxide emissions even significantly increased. Dependence of tested emission on reduced torque, engine power and revolutions was observed as well.

Keywords: Additive, atmosphere, carbon oxides, cerium dioxide, diesel fuel, emission factor, nanoparticles, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, pollutant.

Title of the Paper: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects of Renewable Energy Using for Small Sources of Heating


Authors: Renata Myskova, Ilona Obrsalova, Petr Langasek

Abstract: Decisions on the selection and promotion of various energy scenarios in the region is not just a matter of economic considerations.The situation concerning use of renewable resources in the EU and the Czech Republic is discussed, focusing on the use of biomass. Alternative resources can contribute very significantly to energy independence and financial advantages for a region. The Vysocina region in the Czech Republic, where the option of expanded assessment is illustrated, was selected for a case study. The suitability of energy sources is assessed from the economic aspect and also environmental and social aspects. As possible variants were chosen natural gas, coal and biomass. These were further evaluated using one of the multi-criteria methods techniques. Use of biomass is a very promising area, which provides opportunities and also specific risks with regard to further development.

Keywords: Sustainable development, energy intensity, renewable energy, household heating, biomass, decision method, multi-criteria methods, energy self-sufficiency

Issue 9, Volume 7, September 2011

Title of the Paper: Environmental Vibration Monitoring & Assessment At Sencitive Receptors During Metro Construction In Urban Centre Of Thessaloniki, Greece


Authors: Konstantinos Vogiatzis

Abstract: The construction of the Thessaloniki Metro integrates state-of-the-art technology and the most demanding standards concerning both quality and operation, rendering it, thus, the most modern Metro System in the whole of Europe and ensuring the protection of the urban environment. The network consists of 2 Depots, 13 modern center platform stations, 9.5 km of Line (with two independent single track tunnels), 18 ultra-automatic and state-of-the-art trains. The elaboration of an extensive Environmental Monitoring Programme as part of the “Required Pertinent Monitoring Designs-Programmes” of the project specifications for the “DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING OF THESSALONIKI METRO” was enforced in order to ensure the protection and minimization of annoyance from worksite operation in the network. For each construction site and in the location of the closest receptors, Vibration Acceleration in time domain (m/sec2), Vibration velocity (mm/sec) were recorded and then ppv for all recordings was calculated as well as rms weighted acceleration (m/sec2) and VDV values , following Fourier analysis for the vibration velocity recordings according to DIN 4150 (Part 3). Included in this article are the relevant assessment and evaluation results of this state of the art monitoring program with emphasis on sensitive receptors such as archaeological areas and sensitive land uses (e.g. schools and hospitals..)

Keywords: Environmental Vibration, Metro, Environmental monitoring, Vibration dose, Transportation vibration

Title of the Paper: Modeling of Environmental Impacts of Waste Paper Transport


Authors: Robert Bata

Abstract: The article focuses on issues of energy generation from municipal waste paper in context of energy use for transport. Two base model types are presented – first for the combined production of thermal and electrical energy and the other for determination of waste paper purposeful transport distance. The theoretical background and proposed models are verified for concrete calculation on the basis of waste management in the chosen city in the Czech Republic. Software based on Petri nets was used for model construction; this allows the inclusion of the most relevant material and energy flows associated with energy production from waste paper, guaranteeing the high accuracy of the calculated results. The advantage of the model proposed in this manner is the simple and precise quantification of the environmental and economic impacts of the proposed measures; these are the main reasons for its good utilization as a tool for supporting managerial decision-making.

Keywords: Waste Management, Paper, Recycling, Combustion, Modeling, Petri Nets, Environmental Protection

Title of the Paper: Integrated Design: Lifecycle Eco-Consistency


Authors: Rinaldo C. Michelini, Roberto P. Razzoli

Abstract: The XXI century engineer’s activity is deemed facing the eco-targets required by the sustainable growth mandatory requirements. The technical challenge is impressive, not less than the socio-cultural efforts. The paper presents a survey of the state of the arts, especially discussing: the development requirements at the product-service design phases, purposely dealing with the lifecycle and end-of-life key prerequisites; the integration conditions at the supply chain management phases, wittingly discussing the networking aids and related business changes. The presentation is limited to important hints. The usefulness of the discussion concerns the consideration of the lifecycle eco-consistency as total entrepreneurial challenge: it is not enough to separately tackle the design prerequisites out of the enterprise integration, with all needed functions and facilities; and vice-versa.

Keywords: Integrated Design, Lifecycle Eco-compliance, Extended Enterprise, Product-Service, Reverse Logistics

Issue 10, Volume 7, October 2011

Title of the Paper: New Approaches for Surface Water Quality Estimation in Lake Erken, Sweden, Using Remotely Sensed Hyperspectral Data


Authors: Hamed Hamid Muhammed

Abstract: This work demonstrates the efficiency of using linear statistical modelling for estimation of concentrations of various substances in lake water using remotely sensed multi- and hyperspectral images together with extensive field measurements collected over Lake Erken in Sweden. A linear relationship was assumed between image data and the corresponding field measurements, and the transformation coefficients were estimated using the least squares method. The resulting coefficients were used to transform new image data into the corresponding substance concentrations. Estimation errors were computed and concentration maps were generated for chlorophyll-a and phaeophytine-a, suspended particulate organic matter SPOM, suspended particulate inorganic matter SPIM, as well as total suspended particulate matter SPM (SPOM+SPIM). Good correlation was obtained between estimated and measured values. Backward elimination was performed to find the most useful spectral bands for the case study of this work. Descriptive spectral signatures, describing the impact of underlying processes on the spectral characteristics of water, were generated, analysed and also used to predict the corresponding water quality parameters in image data, with the same estimation accuracy as the linear statistical model. Feature vector based analysis FVBA was also employed to generate transformation coefficients that could be used to estimate water quality parameters from image data, also, with the same accuracy as the previous methods. Finally, the impact of performing atmospheric correction was investigated, in addition to applying linear statistical modelling for the purpose of combined atmospheric correction and ground reflectance estimation.

Keywords: Remote sensing, Statistical modelling, Water quality, Descriptive spectral signatures

Title of the Paper: Strategic Environmental Noise Mapping & Action Plans in Athens Ring Road (Atiiki Odos) - Greece


Authors: Konstantinos Vogiatzis

Abstract: Attica Tollway, a modern motorway extending along 65 km, constitutes the ring road of the greater metropolitan area of Athens and the backbone of the road network of the whole Attica Prefecture. Attiki Odos during 2008-2010, in close collaboration with the University of Thessaly -Faculty of Civil Engineering (Laboratory of Transportation Environmental Acoustics (L.T.E.A.), has complete a full SNM & NAP (Strategic Noise Maps & Noise Action Plans) study for the road network which resulted in the implementation of an extensive NAP 2010 introducing an important quantity of PMMA transparent noise barriers : some 87.000 sqm of transparent noise barriers in some 138 different locations along the road network. This article presents the main results and conclusion of this research that was completed according to the Directive 2002/49/EC of 25 June 2002 adopted by the European Parliament and Council and the COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION ON AUGUST 6th 2003 (2003/613/EC). A full evaluation of the relevant Strategic Noise Maps & Noise Action Plans is also presented in this article along with comparative analysis of the population exposed to various noises according to the existing legal framework and further the criteria A & B suggested by the Ministry of the Environment for the EU noise indicators Lden & Lnight' Further future action plans which are already under consideration are also presented.

Keywords: Environmental Noise, Environmental monitoring, Road Traffic Noise, Transportation noise

Title of the Paper: Concrete Experience of Collaboration between Secondary School and University in a Sustainable Development Project: Design of a Realistic Small Scale House to Study Electronic and Thermal Aspect of Energy Management


Authors: Ph. Dondon, P. Cassagne, M. Feugas, C. A. Bulucea, D. Rosca, V. Dondon, R. Charlet De Sauvage

Abstract: A full academic year was required to complete the first phase of this innovative realistic small scale house design to introduce sustainable development concept in an electronic engineer school. A few ten young pupils from 12 to 14 years old and their secondary school professors, 5 students and researchers from ENSEIRB-MATMECA engineer school, members of University of Craiova Romania, were involved in this project with the help of the national French agency ADEME (Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maitrise de l’Energie), and MNE of Bordeaux (Maison de la Nature et de l’environnement). While the small scale genuine materials house was realised by the secondary school’s pupils, electronic and energy management system are designed at ENSEIRB-MATMECA and Craiova University, This 1/20 house model in now operational for practical lessons (renewable energy study, energy saving, infrared thermography measurement…) and for supporting electronic projects at ENSEIRB-MATMECA.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Didactical model making, Low power electronic, Renewable energy systems

Issue 11, Volume 7, November 2011

Title of the Paper: Modeling a Hierarchical Structure of Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Interpretive Structural Modeling


Authors: Ming-Lang Tseng, Yuan Hsu Lin

Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is the fundamental environmental management in urban area, the characteristic of uncontrolled burning of wastes and improper incineration contributes significantly to urban air pollution needed for citizen life. This study proposed 18 criteria on Taipei metropolitan using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) with interrelationships among the criteria, influencing MSWM activities which have been derived. However, there are few studies proposed this analytical technique in building the hierarchical structure and result in driving and dependence power, none of them are proposed in environmental management. The ISM provides a means by which order can be imposed on the complicated interrelations of criteria. The proposed criteria categorizes according to driving and dependence power into a hierarchical structure model. The insight from model would help the management in strategic planning for improving MSWM activities. The results and concluding remarks are discussed.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management; interpretive structural modeling; hierarchical structure

Title of the Paper: Changes of Wastewater Characteristic during Transport in Sewers


Authors: Omar Qteishat, Sylwia Myszograj, Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

Abstract: The main function of sewage system is disposal of wastewater. The intercepting sewer is a part of the municipal system: water supply system, sewage network and sewage treatment plant. The fact that a sewer is a biological reactor, in which biochemical processes occur, is often disregarded. They can significantly influence the physical-chemical composition of sewage, operation of the treatment plant and the receiver. Therefore, it is necessary to change the conventional thinking which perceives that sewage treatment begins at the treatment plant, because in specific conditions, these processes begin already in the sewage system.
This article presents results of research concerning changes in the physical-chemical composition of wastewater, especially COD and nitrogen compounds divided into fractions. The data relate to the main sewage collector in town of 20000 habitants in Poland. The town has a good working combined sewage system: about 30 km of gravitational collectors and about 4 km of pressure pipes. The total length of the inspected collectors was 12,13 km. On the basis of COD and BOD values in raw and treated sewage, the “f” coefficient which determine the organic nitrogen fractions, were appointed. The largest part in TKN in raw wastewater was accounted ammonia nitrogen and biodegradable, soluble (easily amonifiable) nitrogen. Part of non-biodegradable fraction of organic nitrogen in the sewage changed slightly with their inflow to the treatment plant. On the basis of the obtained results, it was also found that regardless of the value of Kjeldahl total nitrogen concentration in sewage collected at subsequent points of the collector, values of the suspension organic fraction of nitrogen – limited biodegradation was very similar in all research series.

Keywords: wastewater characteristic, sewers, COD, nitrogen fraction

Title of the Paper: On Environmental Ground Borne Noise & Vibration Abatment by Implemeting Floating Slabs at Athens Metro Network - Measurements Campaign Results


Authors: Konstantinos Vogiatzis

Abstract: This paper describes the FS implementation , on 4 major extensions of Athens Metro lines 2 and 3, already in service: (a) extension of line 2 from Sepolia to Ag.Antonios station, (b) extension of line 2 from Dafni to Ilioupoli (Ag. Dimitrios station), (c) extension of line 3 from Ethniki Amyna to Stavros (D.Plakentias station)and, extension of line 3 from Monastiraki to Egaleo. Ground borne noise and vibration mitigation measures evaluation in normal operation conditions presented hereafter guarantees, especially in TO location along these extensions, allowable ground borne noise and vibration levels in nearby buildings & sensitive receptors. The measured Floating slab solutions measured within an extensive measurements campaign proven to achieving an overall ground borne and vibration attenuation of approx.15-16 dB(A) in soil surface. A comprehensive comparative presentation of the results is an important tool in evaluating the expected environmental protection potential of similar mitigation measures regarding noise & vibration emissions & generated annoyance from urban railway networks operation.

Keywords: environmental noise, urban LRT operation, Metro, Ground borne noise, vibration

Issue 12, Volume 7, December 2011

Title of the Paper: A Cost-Benefit Model to Evaluate Energy Saving Measures in Office Buildings


Authors: Amaryllis Audenaert, Vanessa Timmerman

Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate potential energy-saving measures in office buildings by preparing a cost-benefit model. The reach of this model includes all non-renovated office buildings in Flanders. The measures are chosen based on findings of a literature review. There is decided to include 7 energy-saving measures and 1 renewable energy system in the model. A cost-benefit analysis is a method to determine the return on investment. The mathematical model is established using the Excel software. In a cost-benefit model, the benefits of the investment are compared to its cost. The benefits are the savings that the investment realizes. The profitability of the measures is evaluated based on the results. The payback time is the output of the model. In the mathematical model, the payback period is calculated with and without financial aid. The model also allows to calculate the results for combinations of measures. To be able to test the mathematicalmodel, a case study is applied. It concerns an older office building in Antwerp, the district house. The data from this building are entered into the model to get a realistic representation of the payback periods for the applied measures. According to these results, the economical most efficient measure is the implementation of insulation in the roof. The payback period is just over one year. The least cost-effective measure is the replacement of double glazing through high efficiency glazing. The investment cost is very high and the payback time is slightly more than 47 years. However, various combinations of measures are advisable. When adjusting the building envelope by adding insulation, the current gas consumption is reduced by approximately 10%. In combination with replacement of the boiler, the payback period is approximately 6,5 years. When placing a photovoltaic system, the financial aid has much influence on the payback time. Without the contributions the payback time is about 19 years. With the contributions, it is about 7 years.

Keywords: cost-benefit model, energy, energy-saving measures, office buildings, payback time

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of the Pedestrian Infrastructure Using Walkability Indicators


Authors: Athanasios Galanis, Nikolaos Eliou

Abstract: The promotion of pedestrian safety, mobility and convenience is an important step to raise sustainable mobility in urban areas. This study presents the development and implementation of indicators that evaluate pedestrian infrastructure in urban streets. The study area was six selected roads in the city of Volos, Greece. The roads were characterized as main, collector or local urban arterials, located inside or close to the center of the city. Four suitably trained authors walked across the streets, took pictures and charted the pedestrian infrastructure for each side of the street and each road segment and crosswalk. The auditors’ team included three undergraduate students as the team members and a PhD candidate as the team leader. After this step, the auditors created a drawing of the pedestrian infrastructure and counted indicators for road segments, street corners and crosswalks. The road segment indicators were split into two categories: the infrastructure ones and the street furniture ones. The result of the study was to compare the pedestrian infrastructure of the streets in terms of walkability and evaluate the convenience of pedestrians to walk on their desire route across the streets. The outcome of this study was that these indicators could be used in a pedestrian walkability study in order to notice the main problems of pedestrian infrastructure and propose focused remedial actions.

Keywords: Pedestrian infrastructure, Indicators, Road segment, Corner, Crosswalk, Walkability, Sustainability

Title of the Paper: Forest Protection and the Legal Regime of the National Forest Organization and Management


Authors: Florin Fainisi

Abstract: The European Commission adopted in 2010 a Green Paper establishing the options for the approach on the forest protection and awareness on the forest resources and their status at the level of European Union, called „On Forest Protection and Information in the EU: Preparing forests for climate change”. The Green Paper sets the main challenges of the European forests, presenting the existing information systems in the forestry field and the instruments available for the forest protection, but also measures of sustainable management of the forests in order to protect them. In order to apply these measures, the article describes the implementation methods of the forest policy in few European countries, both from the European Union (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Romania) and from outside (Norway), countries that have significant forest surfaces.

Keywords: Forest protection, National forest, Organization of the national forest, Management of the national forest, European law, Comparative legislation

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