WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 7, 2010
Print ISSN: 1790-0832
E-ISSN: 2224-3402








Issue 1, Volume 7, January 2010

Title of the Paper: A Safe Antifraud System for Art: Safeart


Authors: Giovanni Neri, Matteo Artuso

Abstract: It is well known that the world of art (paintings, sculptures, graphics etc) is plagued by the virus of counterfeits and this issue is particularly sensible in a country like Italy where art has flourished for centuries and where in the XX century too many pieces of art of great painters were copied and/or counterfeited and sold for authentic. Counterfeiting is a crime which involve great amounts of money and is perpetrated at all levels, with no exclusion of the greatest art dealers. Once a style or painter has had success it is even too simple to find a epigone which either can copy a single painting or paints according to one particular style. Great examples in Italy are Morandi, De Chirico, Vedova etc. artists with a well defined (and therefore easy to copy) style. In our university we have developed and implemented a digital system which can prove without any doubt the authenticity of a piece of art and which is tamper-proof at all levels.

Keywords: Art authenticity, digital signature, wireless devices

Title of the Paper: A Time-Frequency Adaptation Based on Quantum Neural Networks for Speech Enhancement


Authors: Kun-Ching Wang, Chiun-Li Chin

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel wavelet coefficient threshold (WCT) depended on both time and frequency information for providing robustness to non-stationary and correlated noisy environments. A perceptual wavelet filter-bank (PWFB) is firstly used to decompose the noisy speech signal into critical bands according to critical bands of psycho-acoustic model of human auditory system. The estimation of wavelet coefficient threshold (WCT) is then adjusted with the posterior SNR, which is determined by estimated noise power, through the well-known “Quantum Neural Networks (QNN)”. In order to suppress the appearance of musical residual noise produced by thresholding process, we consider masking properties of human auditory system to reduce the effect of musical residual noise. Simulation results showed that the proposed system is capable of reducing noise with little speech degradation and the overall performance is superior to several competitive methods.

Keywords: Speech enhancement; perceptual wavelet packet transformation; adaptive wavelet coefficient threshold; musical residual noise

Title of the Paper: Research and Development of Application of Mobile Barcode to Mobile Sightseeing Guide on Mobile Phone


Authors: Chih Ming Chen, Tingsheng Weng

Abstract: With rapid developments in the combined technologies of tourism and mobile communications, Internet access is readily available, anytime and anywhere. The mobile data service industry has gradually replaced voice services, and become the target market of mobile telecommunication system operators. In the mobile commerce field, the characteristics of Location Based Services (LBS) vary widely according to the users' current environment, service demands, and variations in positions. Therefore, how to know the current position of a user and respond to requests to provide different services is an important challenge of the future. This study proposes corresponding solutions to overcome the above problems. Using the tour guide map as an example, to complete a "mobile tourist guide map information service", a user can employ the camera function of a mobile phone to sense and capture a mobile barcode, and then connect it to the backend database of the server, through a wireless network for e-map information and voice guides, and make on-line inquiries regarding e-maps. The most convenient route of nearby communications can be obtained through the tourist guide map, allowing users an audio guide service to find their way.

Keywords: Mobile barcode, wireless network, LBS, mobile tourist guide map, GIS

Title of the Paper: Design and Implementation of Monitoring and Management System for Tank Truck Transportation


Authors: Wei Chen, Yan Chen, Donghui Guo

Abstract: In order to reduce the wastage and loss of petroleum products in transit, a monitoring and management system is proposed for tank truck transportation. In this system, a vehicle transport recorder is developed to record the operations of inputs and outputs of a tank truck via a kind of Hall Effect switch sensors. Wireless data transceivers are designed to start and stop monitoring in the starting stations and destinations automatically. The information recorded by the vehicle transport recorder is collected by a smart card and then it is transferred to the host management software which is developed to manage the transportation data, alarm messages, devices, archives, etc. The integrated and intelligent system has been implemented and applied to practice, and it reduces the loss of petroleum products during the transportation efficiently.

Keywords: Monitoring, management, tank truck, transportation, smart card, CC1100 chip, wireless data communication

Title of the Paper: Decoupled -Layer Optimal Stabilizer Design


Authors: T. Y. Hwang, C. H. Chang, C. C. Huang, Y. N. Lien, T. L. Huang, C. T. Wang, J. S. Sheu

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to address the design of decoupled-level large system controllers using an optimal reduced order model whose state variables are all output states. The reduced-order model retains their physical meaning and is used to design a decoupled-level linear feedback controller that takes into account the realities and constraints of the large systems. The decoupled-level control strategy is used and a global control signal is generated from the output variables to minimize the effect of interactions. As a result, the effectiveness of this controller is evaluated and considerable savings in computer memory are achieved. In conclusion, the controllers determined at the subsystem level depend only on local information operating to the particular machine. Example is given to illustrate the advantages of the proposed method. Responses of the system with decoupled-level scheme and optimal reduced order scheme are included for comparative analyses. It is recommended that the proposed method can be applied to supper large system.

Keywords: Optimal reduced order model, Decoupled controller

Title of the Paper: A Visitor Counter System Using Fuzzy Measure Theory and Boosting Method


Authors: M. Rahmat Widyanto, Ferdi Ferandi, Martin Leonard Tangel

Abstract: This paper proposes a visitor counter system which is capable of counting single & multiple object visitors using fuzzy measure theory for tracking and Boosting method for classification. Besides fuzzy measure theory, the paper also uses Euclidean distance to track a visitor based on his movement between each frame, while fuzzy measure theory tracks a visitor based on trust degree. Both system performances are compared for their visitor tracking accuracy and their computational speed. Experimental results show that Euclidean distance and Fuzzy measure have similar accuracy for tracking visitor. However, Euclidean distance is faster than those of fuzzy measure theory in the computational speed. The proposed visitor counter system can be further developed for real-time visitor counting in shopping mall, station, and other places.

Keywords: Boosting classifier, object detection, fuzzy measure, euclidean distance, tracking, counting

Title of the Paper: Design and Implementation of an Ontology-Based Psychiatric Disorder Detection System


Authors: Y. C. Lin

Abstract: In this paper, we combine a decision tree algorithm with Protege, to construct an ontology-based meridian method that serves as an example psychiatric disorder inference and a knowledge-sharing platform. This method may effectively detect a psychiatric disorder by pinpointing an association between the meridian system and modern medicine; it may also help to build a fuller picture of expert knowledge by constructing domain and task ontologies. This system provides the general public an understanding of the issues involved, while allowing experts to participate and be totally aware of satisfying the requirements therein. Moreover, the system will help eliminate information disparity between patients and physicians.

Keywords: Ontology, Psychiatric disorder, Domain ontology, Task ontology, Ontology-based system

Title of the Paper: Application of Half-Life Theory and Fuzzy Theory to a Selection And Recommendation System for Web Advertisement Delivery In Consideration of the Time Effect


Authors: Tung-Yen Lai, Gwo-Haur Hwang

Abstract: With the rapid development of the Internet, Web marketing has become more and more popular among businesses. However, excessive advertisement information is not only a burden to consumers but also a waste of marketing efforts. In this study, a personalized Web advertisement selection and recommendation system is proposed through a membership-based advertisement marketing website whose advertisement content is determined by consumer preference. As consumer preference declines with time, which is called the time effect, the proposed system applies the half-life theory and the fuzzy theory to members’ browsing behaviors and automatically analyzes browsers’ time-affected preference levels associated with the advertised products. Then, the target markets of the advertisement suppliers’ products are matched with customer preference so as to filter out a portfolio of candidate advertisements for delivery. Finally, advertisement delivery is arranged via a commercial advertisement delivery scheduling and recommendation model so that browsers obtain exactly the advertisements they need, the benefits of target marketing are increased, and Web advertising service providers’ market competitiveness is strengthened. Thus, a win-win-win scenario for the consumers, the advertisement suppliers, and the Web advertising service providers is realized.

Keywords: Fuzzy theory, Half-life theory, Personalized service, Web advertisement selection, E-commerce

Title of the Paper: Nonparametric Procedures in ICTs-Based Agricultural Market Information Network Pattern Analysis in Western African Regions


Authors: Wen-I Chang, Chao-Lin Tuan, Seydou Traore

Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an important and essential decision support tool in agricultural products marketability. The high production cost of farms and the increasing demand for food have pushed ICT to the forefront of the food supply chain. In developing world such as Sub-Saharan African (SSA) regions where the farm profitability is generally low, efforts have been focused on agronomy and production technologies for enhancing farm productivity. In today’s competitive global and regional marketplaces, however, producing a sound product is not enough to ensure agricultural farm viability. Market information is considered as a prerequisite of farm business to enable the management of the products flow and substantially increase the benefit. Furthermore, ICT can reduce poverty by improving poor people’s access to the market information to have better managerial decisions for maximizing their farms profits. Nevertheless, the realistic availability and effectiveness of ICT in current market information network to farm management in Africa have not yet been much explored. Therefore, this study aims to (i) analyse the ICT contribution in agricultural products market information system (MIS) through nonparametric procedures and (ii) identify the main problems for seeking an effective market-oriented information network pattern. For this study, important data for horticultural marketing have been collected in Saint-Louis and Dakar regions located in Senegal, Western Africa. From the results of this study, it is mainly found that there are different market information network patterns in the survey areas. These market information network patterns mostly rely on weak personal social contacts of producers and one-way media. Statistically, it is observed that some widely available ICTs have not been used effectively for market information dissemination in the survey areas. Basically, the major constraints of ICTs application for MIS in Senegal are the poverty of information contents, disadvantages of the remote communities, language incapability and out-of-date information. Therefore, this study proposes an information network scheme as an effective strategy to enhance the existing market information system in Senegal.

Keywords: ICT, MIS, horticultural marketing, information network pattern, farm profit, effective strategy, Western African regions

Title of the Paper: eDocument in eGovernment


Authors: Stanislava Simonova, Hana Kopackova

Abstract: This article focuses on the electronic documents in Czech eGovernment. The utilization of so called data boxes for communication between public administration and third parties (citizens, juristic persons) means significant step of the complex project. Aim of this project is – the pure electronic performance of Czech public administration. The prepared and realized technological changes in Czech public administration are huge; they affect state local and municipality authorities, legal entities and also citizens. On the one side are new possibilities of friendly public administration; on the other side are preparedness and informedness of future users.

Keywords: Data box, smart government, Czech POINT, eGON, e-document

Title of the Paper: Generalized Entropy Optimization Distributions Dependent on Parameter in Time Series


Authors: Aladdin Shamilov, Cigdem Giriftinoglu

Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed Generalized Entropy Optimization Problems (GEOP) concerned with parameters which consist of maximizing Entropy Functional subject to constraints dependent on parameters. Therefore, MinMaxEnt and MaxMaxEnt distributions are obtained as solutions of these problems. On bases of MinMaxEnt distribution we have developed a new estimation method of obtaining missing values in time series. Mentioned estimation method is applied to the data generated from autoregressive model for one missing value. The performance of the developed method is evaluated by mean square errors (MSE) calculated from simulation studies and the validity of this method is shown.

Keywords: MinMaxEnt Distribution, MaxEnt Distribution, Time Series with Missing Value, Estimation of Missing value, Autoregressive Modelling

Title of the Paper: Informative Global Community Development Index of Intelligent City


Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek

Abstract: Informative Global Community Development Index (IGC) is an analysis method that looks at the development of the community currently residing in a intelligent city. From the understanding method, the development of intelligent cities based on a deontological ethics, the process of developing an intelligent city has to return maximum interest to the majority of the residing community in terms of hardware and software. The enhancement of IGC has become vital as the mile mark in developing Malaysia into a developed nation by the year 2020. In conjunction to that the method of cumulative index analysis IGC development has been used in this research as the main method in measuring the development of IGC. About 127 middle class families in Subang Jaya Smart City were chosen as research respondents in order to measure the IGC development index in Subang Jaya. All the variables are covered under ability component (humanware), management component and information supervision (infoware), components of ownership and communication and information technology usage (technoware), as well as the usage value of ICT and cyber ethics (valueware). The IGC development Index which was used utilized the Rogers scale which looked at levels of innovation, pre-acceptance, pre-majority, final majority and final scale. The analysis showed that most of the residents in Subang Jaya only achieved IGC development in the pre-acceptance, pre-majority and final majority scale. This meant that there weren’t any of the residents in Subang Jaya which achieved the final scale.

Keywords: Informative Global Community Development Index and Intelligent City

Title of the Paper: Spatial Analyses Help to Find Movement Barriers for Physically Impaired People in the City Environment - Case Study of Pardubice, Czech Republic


Authors: Pavel Sedlak, Jitka Komarkova, Adriana Piverkova

Abstract: One of the main aims of the contemporary society is to provide barrier-free environment so all physically impaired people can move safely and without any discomfort. Utilization of GIS and spatial analyses to identify barriers for physically impaired people in the city of Pardubice (Czech Republic) is described in the paper. At first, data had to be collected. Then, database queries, proximity analyses and network analyses were used to analyze them, find barriers and evaluate friendliness of the city environment for people with physical impairment. Proposal for the future work are presented in the paper too.

Keywords: Physically impaired, GIS, barriers, spatial analyses

Title of the Paper: Visualization of the Packet Flows using Self Organizing Maps


Authors: Hiroshi Dozono, Takeru Kabashima, Masanori Nakakuni, Shigeomi Hara

Abstract: Recently, the spread of the Internet makes familiar to the incident concerning the Internet, such as a DoS attack and a DDoS attack. Some methods which detect the abnormal traffics in the network using the information from headers and payloads of IP-packets transmitted in the networks are proposed. In this research, the method for the analysis of the flow of IP packet based on SOM (Self-Organizing Map) using the occurrence rate of the elements in IP-packets as input vectors is proposed. The flow of the packets can be visualized on the map and it will be available for detecting the abnormal flows of packets.

Keywords: Packet Traffic Analysis, Self Organizing Map, IDS, Network incident, TCP/IP

Title of the Paper: A GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Exposure to Direct Sun Light on Rural Highways


Authors: Christos Chalkias, Antigoni Faka

Abstract: Geographical Information System (GIS) technology integrates hardware, software and spatial data for capturing, storing, updating, managing, analyzing and displaying geographical data and phenomena. Spatiotemporal analysis of such phenomena is one of the major tasks of a GIS. In this paper, we use GIS for the modeling of the exposure to direct sun light in a rural road network. When a vehicle is moving towards the direction of the sun, drivers may experience temporary loss of vision. The main target is to build a system able to identify road sections at risk due to direct sun-light for a specific time period. The proposed methodology is based on the road network geometry, the relief of the study area under investigation (Digital Elevation Model – DEM) and the sun position. The hillshade creation function and various filtering techniques have been adopted. These techniques are based on the geometry of road segments in comparison to the sun position. The output of this analysis is the identification of road network parts that appeared at risk for a specific time period. The proposed method is implemented in Santorini Island during summertime period. The results in this case study shows that a significant part (5% of the total road network length) of the road network is highly exposed to the risk under investigation during the summer. Additionally, the implementation of the proposed method for a long time period allows a dynamic modeling of the conditions under investigation, and the adoption of various preventing actions.

Keywords: GIS, spatiotemporal modeling, direct sun-light exposure, DEM, road network risk analysis

Issue 2, Volume 7, February 2010

Title of the Paper: An Ontology-Based Architecture for Consumer Support Systems


Authors: Jyhjong Lin, Jenperng Yu, Changling Hsu

Abstract: For enterprises, customer relationships have been commonly recognized as a critical factor to succeed their business. Effective customer relationships could help enterprises deliver services to customers based on their needs, preferences, or past transactions. This model however emphasizes on the use of customer information for benefiting enterprises; customers in contrast receive less information from enterprises. To address this issue, a new paradigm, namely Consumer Support Systems (CSS) is initiated to support effective information provision for customers to help on their decision making. In this paper, we present an ontology-based architecture for such a new CSS paradigm. The architecture starts from the identification of CSS characteristics, through the recognition of architectural components that support the realization of these issues, and finally ends with the specification of collaborations among architectural components to realize these issues. In particular, for those inherent integration issues in CSS, it imposes semantic ontologies on the specifications to facilitate integration among customers and enterprises. The architecture is modeled by UML and illustrated by a CSS for travel arrangement.

Keywords: Customer relationship management, consumer support system, ontology-based, architecture, UML

Title of the Paper: A Study of Interactive Qualitative at Online Shopping Behavior


Authors: Chien-Yuan Lai, Dong-Her Shih, Hsiu-Sen Chiang, Ching-Chiang Chen

Abstract: As the information age arrives and the internet network has very popular day by day. Internet network has already become quite important activity in people's daily life. The research shows that there are more than 650 million non- repeating users shop on line, including shopping center websites and sub channel. According to network auction and relevant literature of network marketing, the behavior that consumers adopted the network platform and e-shopping has been common in recent years. This paper focuses on the interactive qualitative at online shopping behaviours, and in this study, the research purposes are as follows: First, by the transaction costs theory to probes into users’ attitude of online shopping behaviors to influence users’ using wills. Second, with IQA, focus group deeply interview, probes into the real demands of e-shoppers. Third, carrying on the different ethnicities users and probing into its different attitude and using aspiration. This research finds out the common experience in group's interview, and through affinity and theoretical coding. Finally, we find that the behavior of purchasing on line, there was a huge different between men and women. Girls think interface designing and security are important reasons to influence other factors. Men, then, think interfaces designing and after-sale service are more important. Based on the considered relation, women obviously have priority relation. Besides interface designing, groups have no connection. It is obviously men and women have loud difference to influence e-shopping behaviors.

Keywords: Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA), On-line shopping, transaction cost, Interactive qualitative research

Title of the Paper: Three Efficient Algorithms for Implementing the Preferential Attachment Mechanism in Yule-Simon Stochastic Process


Authors: Roberto Tonelli, Giulio Concas, Mario Locci

Abstract: We describe how different optimized algorithms may be effective in implementing the preferential attachment mechanism in different cases. We analyze performances with respect to different values of some parameters related to the Yule process associated to the preferential attachment. We examine how performance scales with system size and provide extensive simulations to support our theoretical findings.

Keywords: Complex Systems, Software Process Simulation, Algorithms, Modeling, Stochastic Processes

Title of the Paper: Relation between Successfulness of Birthday Attack on Digital Signature and Hash Function Irregularity


Authors: Milan Tuba, Nadezda Stanarevic

Abstract: In many network communications it is crucial to be able to authenticate both the contents and the origin of a message. Digital signatures based on public key schemas are used for such authentication. In order to provide message authentication the signature must depend on the contents of the message being signed. Since the public key-based signature schemes take too much time to compute, hash functions that map messages to short digests h(M) are used. Among other desirable properties of hash functions, an interesting one is that it should be collision-resistant, that is it should be difficult to find two messages with the same hash value. To find a collision the birthday attack is used, which shows that attacker may not need to examine too many messages before he finds a collision. Even worse, in estimates of attack successfulness it is always assumed that the hash function is regular, meaning that all points in the range have the same number of pre-images under h. If h is not regular, fewer trials are required to find a collision. In this paper we first compute tighter upper and lower bounds for the number of birthday attack trials when the hash function is regular. Then we examine different types of irregularity of the hash function and the quantitative changes in the required number of trials to find a collision which then compromises the digital signature system.

Keywords: Digital signature, Birthday attack, Irregular hash function, Hash collision

Title of the Paper: A Structure-Break Option Framework for Bank Margin Valuation When Foreign-Denominated Loans Squeezing a Country


Authors: Jyh-Horng Lin, Ching-Hui Chang, Rosemary Jou

Abstract: The banking industry is recently experiencing a renewed focus on retail banking, a trend often attributed to the stability and profitability of retail activities (Hirtle and Stiroh, 2007). This paper examines operations management in bank interest margin when foreign-denominated loans are squeezing a country as its currency falters. In a call-option model with fat-tail distribution framework where structural changes from exchange rate depreciated dramatically are the source of uncertainty (we call such changes bad events), exchange rates or bad events have direct effects on the bank’s optimal interest margin. A depreciation in the domestic currency results in an increased interest margin. We conclude that retail banking may be a relatively shrinking lending activity but it is a high return one when an observed bad event from the domestic-currency depreciation is becoming worse.

Keywords: Bank Interest Margin, Retail Banking, Exchange Rate, Structural Change

Title of the Paper: Creating the Classroom Environment for Asynchronous E-learning


Authors: Ade G. Ola, Abiodun O. Bada, Emmanuel Omojokun, Adeyemi A. Adekoya

Abstract: In higher education, the trend continues to shift from traditional teaching methods to student-centered strategies that are known to promote learning. At the same time, the integration of online education into the mainstream of higher education is intensifying. This paper addresses the problem of adapting classroom strategies for asynchronous online learning, so as to derive a learning model that combines the flexibility of online education with effective classroom-based strategies. The paper prescribes methods for putting into practice, for online education, active learning strategies that have been proven to be effective in the traditional classroom environment. First, the paper presents an overview of various active learning strategies and common classroom activities. Next, it introduces an array of open technologies and standards relating to learning resources, collaboration and learning experience management, and media markup languages. Then, it describes methods, which are based on the open technologies and standards, for effecting the learning strategies and common classroom activities in asynchronous online learning. This line of research (devising methods to augment the flexibility and other advantages of asynchronous online learning with classroom strategies that are known to enhance learning) has the potential for changing the face of online education.

Keywords: Classroom strategies, Open technologies, Asynchronous online education, Active learning strategies

Title of the Paper: Complex Scheduling Problems Using An Optimization Methodology


Authors: Jorge Magalhaes-Mendes

Abstract: Scheduling operations problems arise in diverse areas such as flexible manufacturing, production planning and scheduling, logistics, supply chain problem, etc. A common feature of many of these problems is that no efficient solution algorithms are known that solve each instance to optimality in a time bounded polynomially in the size of the problem, Dorndorf and Pesch [22]. Discrete optimization can help to overcome these difficulties. This paper presents an optimization approach to solve the complex scheduling problem in a job shop environment. This problem is also known as the Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). The JSSP is a difficult problem in combinatorial optimization for which extensive investigation has been devoted to the development of efficient algorithms. The proposed approach is based on a genetic algorithm technique. Genetic algorithms are an optimization methodology based on a direct analogy to Darwinian natural selection and mutations in biological reproduction. The scheduling rules such as SPT and MWKR are integrated into the process of genetic evolution. The chromosome representation of the problem is based on random keys. The schedules are constructed using a priority rule in which the priorities and delay times of the operations are defined by the genetic algorithm. Schedules are constructed using a procedure that generates parameterized active schedules. After a schedule is obtained a local search heuristic is applied to improve the solution. The approach is tested on a set of standard instances taken from the literature and compared with other approaches. The computation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Scheduling, manufacturing, heuristics, genetic algorithm, optimization, local search, JSSP

Title of the Paper: Applying Self-Organizing Mapping Neural Network for Discovery Market Behavior of Equity Fund


Authors: Jen-Hua Chen, Chiung-Fen Huang, An-Pin Chen

Abstract: Maximizing the profit and minimizing the loss notwithstanding the trend of the market is always desirable in any investment strategy. The present research develops an investment strategy, which has been verified effective in the real world, by employing self-organizing map neural network for mutual funds tracking the trends of stock market indices according to macroeconomics indicators and weighted indices and rankings of mutual funds. Our experiment shows if utilizing strategy 3 according to our model during a period from January 2002 to December 2008 the total returns could be at 122 percents even though the weighted index fell 22 percents during the same period and averaged investment returns for random transaction strategies stand at minus 25 percents. As such, we conclude that our model does efficiently increase the investment return.

Keywords: Equity Fund, Neural Network, Self-Organizing Mapping, Investment Strategy

Title of the Paper: Fostering the Integration of Web 2.0 Technologies and E-learning in Vocational Education and Training


Authors: Tanja Arh, Matija Pipan, Marija Mojca Peternel, Matjaz Debevc, Borka Jerman Blazic

Abstract: The European Commission placed e-learning on the top of its political agenda, calling for education and training systems to be adapted to meet this challenge. E-learning and Web 2.0 technologies contribute education and training to meet this aim by fostering the integration of ICT in educational process as a lever for change and as an opportunity for increasing quality, convenience, diversity and effectiveness of education. The paper describes one of the possible approaches to the development of Vocational Educational and Training (VET) EduCenter ( focussing on the presentation of five main elements of the centre (e-learning solutions, e-learning environment, communications, content repository and other tools) and the proposed methodology of e-learning, education and training for teachers of general and vocational subject in VET schools. Special attention is paid to the project »e4 VET«, which presents an integral part of the Leonardo da Vinci – Transfer of Innovation – Lifelong Learning Programme aimed at supporting the role of innovation process in improving the quality in Vocational education and training systems.

Keywords: E-learning, e-learning environment, Vocational Education and Training (VET), EduCenter, e-course, Content Creator

Title of the Paper: The Detailed Evaluation Criteria for Designation of Critical Information Infrastructure in the field of Broadcasting and Communication


Authors: Soontai Park, Wan S. Yi, Bong-Nam Noh

Abstract: Increasing to dependency on information infrastructures involves various threats to cyber incidents. Most of nations or organizations work on protect to not only infrastructure but also information infrastructure. Korea established Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Act in 2001 that include 5 evaluation criteria for designation of National CII. This research makes a suggestion that detailed evaluation criteria for objectification and measuring for designation of CII in the field of broadcasting and Communication. Also this paper shows the result of simulation and application using proposed criteria.

Keywords: CII (Critical Information Infrastructure), CIIP (CII Protection), Cyber incident, Cyber Security, Designation Criteria, Information Assets

Title of the Paper: Evaluation and Optimal Computation of Angular Momentum Matrix Elements: An Information Theory Approach


Authors: Maria Eugenia Castro, Alfonso Nino, Camelia Munoz-Caro

Abstract: In this work, we determine all possible angular momentum matrix elements arising in the variational treatment of the rovibrational molecular Hamiltonian. In addition, the logic of the associated computing process is organized in a series of decision tables. Using Shwayder/s approach, information theory is applied to obtain optimal computing codes from the decision tables. The needed decision rules apparition frequencies are computed as a function of the rotational quantum number J. Using these values, we show that the codes obtained are optimal for any value of J. In all cases, the optimal codes exhibit an efficiency of at least a 97% of the theoretical maximum. In addition, pessimal codes are obtained as a counterpart of the optimal ones. We find that the efficiency difference between the optimal and pessimal codes reaches quickly a limit for increasing values of the J quantum number.

Keywords: Molecular rovibrational Hamiltonian; Angular momentum operators; Matrix elements; Decision tables; Information theory; Information entropy

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of a Use-Case-Driven Requirements Analysis Tool Employing Web UI Prototype Generation


Authors: Shinpei Ogata, Saeko Matsuura

Abstract: It has been widely acknowledged that ambiguous or incomplete customer requirements are a major reason for the failure of software development projects. A key example of this is the inconsistency between implementation image and specifications provided in the early stages of software development. To address this, we propose a method for automatic generation of user interface prototypes for developing Web-based business applications, based on the requirements specifications defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). In this study, we compare the proposed method with traditional use case modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Use Case, Prototyping, Web Application, Requirements Analysis, Unified Modeling Language

Title of the Paper: An Interactive Fuzzy Multi-Objective Approach for Operational Transport Planning in an Automobile Supply Chain


Authors: David Peidro, Manuel Diaz-Madronero, Josefa Mula

Abstract: A novel supply chain operational transport planning model is developed in this paper. The goals of the model are to minimize the number of used trucks and the total inventory levels. Because of somewhat imprecise nature of vehicle capacities and decision makers’ aspiration levels for the goals, a fuzzy multiobjective linear programming (FMOLP) modeling approach is adopted. Moreover, an interactive solution methodology is proposed to determine the preferred compromise solution. An industrial case from a real-world automobile supply chain demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed model and the solution methodology to a realistic operational transport planning problem. The computational results indicate that the proposed approach improves the results obtained by the heuristic decision-making procedure spreadsheet-based which is actually applied in the automobile supply chain under study.

Keywords: Supply chain planning, transport planning, fuzzy multi-objective linear programming, uncertainty

Title of the Paper: RAMEPs: A Goal-Ontology Approach to Analyse the Requirements for Data Warehouse Systems


Authors: Azman Taa, Mohd Syazwan Abdullah, Norita Md. Norwawi

Abstract: The data warehouse (DW) systems design involves several tasks such as defining the DW schemas and the ETL processes specifications, and these have been extensively studied and practiced for many years. However, the problems in heterogeneous data integration are still far from being resolved due to the complexity of ETL processes and the fundamental problems of data conflicts in information sharing environments. Current approaches that are based on existing software requirement methods still have limitations on translating the business semantics for DW requirements toward the ETL processes specifications. This paper proposes the Requirement Analysis Method for ETL processes (RAMEPs) that utilize ontology with the goal-driven approach in analysing the requirements of ETL processes. A case study of student affair domain is used to illustrate how the method can be implemented.

Keywords: Requirement Analysis, ETL Processes, Data Warehouse, Ontology, Business Intelligence

Title of the Paper: Multi-Method Audio-based Retrieval of Multimedia Information


Authors: Mario Malcangi

Abstract: Multimedia information and embedded systems are two major technological advances that have significantly changed the way people interact with systems and information in recent years. In this context, audio proves to be the most advantageous media for interacting with embedded systems and their content. Advantages include: hands-free operation; unattended interaction; and simple, cheap devices for capture and playback. The use of embedded systems to seek information stored locally or on the web points up several difficulties inherent in the nature of multimedia-information signals. These difficulties are especially evident when palmtop or deeply embedded devices are used for such purposes. Developing a set of digital-signal-processing-based algorithms for extracting audio information is a primary step toward providing user-friendly access to multimedia information and developing powerful communication interfaces. The algorithms aim to extract semantic and syntactic information from audio signals, including voice. Extracted audio features are employed to access information in multimedia databases, as well as to index it. More extensive, higher-level information, such as audio-source identification (speaker identification) and genre (in the case of music), must be extracted from the audio signal. One basic task involves transforming audio into symbols (e.g. music transformed into a score, speech transformed into text) and transcribing symbols into audio (e.g. score transformed into musical audio, text transformed into speech). The purpose is to search for and access any kind of multimedia information by means of audio. To attain these results, digital audio-processing, digital speech-processing, and soft-computing methods need to be integrated. Neural networks are used as classifiers and fuzzy logic is used for making smart decisions.

Keywords: Audio features, multimedia information, speech-to-text, audio-to-score, text-to-speech, score-to-audio, digital audio processing, pattern matching, soft computing

Issue 3, Volume 7, March 2010

Title of the Paper: Management of Storyboard Graphs for Adaptive Courseware Construction


Authors: Dessislava Vassileva, Boyan Bontchev

Abstract: Adaptive e-learning systems try to improve teaching processes on Internet by providing different educational content and activities for different learners. Modern tendencies of adaptation require usage of learning styles on student grouping. Main idea of adaptive e-learning applications is to use a different pedagogical approach for each of these groups. This paper presents a software module called instructor tool for creating training courses suitable for learners with different learning styles. This module is a part of a platform for building edutainment (education plus entertainment) services called ADOPTA (ADaptive technOlogy-enhanced Platform for eduTAinment). E-learning courses within the tool are presented by directed storyboard graphs. The course instructor can create and edit their graphs and pages by a user-friendly visual interface. Our article is aimed primarily at description of the graph management which is behind the visual presentation and specially at discovering working paths within these graphs.

Keywords: Adaptive e-learning systems, adaptive hypermedia systems, instructor tool, storyboard graph, learning styles

Title of the Paper: Student Learning Contribution through E-learning Dimension at Course “Management Information Systems”


Authors: Karmela Aleksic-Maslac, Dina Vasic, Mirna Korican

Abstract: E-learning offers great opportunities for education quality improvement in both - the classical teaching combined with e-learning, and distance learning. Zagreb School of Economics & Management (ZSEM) is one of the few higher education institutions in Croatia that systematically uses e-learning in teaching. Systematically means that all courses are developed in e-learning form and that among all courses is used the same LMS (Learning Management System) WebCT. School management played an important role in the systematic introduction of e-learning in the educational process. At ZSEM we use a combination of traditional teaching methods with intensive use of e-learning. Each teacher is required to develop an e-learning course in accordance with default 11 standards developed by the e-learning group. In this way at ZSEM we currently have about 1,200 students and about 120 advanced e-learning courses. Course named Management Information System (MIS) is on the list of obligatory courses for the 7th semester. In this paper we will show how to connect all the elements of Course Syllabus with e-learning system: online tests, discussions, WebCT activities, exercises, etc. Special attention is given to group projects and ability to project groups to jointly discuss, submit weekly reports and to project documentation within the LMS system. The research will show whether there is a correlation between the activities of students in a closed discussion among project groups and final grade.

Keywords: Discussion, project, e-learning, student activity, information and communication technologies, learning management system, management information systems

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Cluster Analysis Algorithms for Heavy Metals Contamination in Atmospheric Precipitation


Authors: Miloslava Kasparova, Jiri Krupka, Jaromira Chylkova

Abstract: The submitted article addresses the problematic of the cluster analysis. Real data sets concerning the atmospheric precipitation in chosen localities of the Czech Republic were used. The designed models use monthly data from years 2000 to 2007. Presented results refer to a pair of heavy metals – cadmium and lead. The data was processed by the help of the cluster analysis with presenting the results received through the Self organizing map, Two Step and K-Means methods. On the basis of the achieved results it is possible to decide about “quality” and “contamination” in the locality.

Keywords: Heavy metal contamination, atmospheric precipitation, correlation, cluster analysis algorithms

Title of the Paper: Towards a Community-Oriented Map-Based Portal for Cultural Heritage


Authors: Boyan Bontchev

Abstract: Modern Internet portals to cultural heritage of given nation provide aggregation of multimedia content from digital libraries plus some semantic services but miss support of community collaboration in content enrichment and metadata annotation. The paper presents a new portal for internationalized content authoring, enhancing and annotating, and management of various types of descriptions of immovable cultural monuments. The portal provides community collaboration services in order to encourage and facilitate accumulation of distributed public knowledge about immovable cultural heritage. The conceptual design of the portal is based on ontology and metadata templates for each monument type used for content creation and management with community support. There are explained the software architecture of the portal and the practical realization of its first prototype.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, immovable monuments, metadata, annotation, templates, portal, maps, community

Title of the Paper: Conceptual Models and Advanced Architectures for Adaptive Hypermedia Systems in Education


Authors: Iulian Pah, Dan Chiribuca, Camil Postelnicu

Abstract: Computer-assisted learning has become one of the most dynamic fields of multi-disciplinary research. The major issues studied in this field have been the development of systems focusing on acquiring skills; while in the beginning, such systems were not quite adequate to the learner’s profile and did not provide guidance in decision making throughout the learning cycle, they are now becoming increasingly intelligent, with more and more powerful pedagogical capacities. The emergence of new information and communication technologies (ICT) and especially of artificial intelligence technologies has revolutionized thinking in this respect for several reasons: firstly, ICT can be used to disseminate knowledge on a wide scale; secondly, courses can be selected tacking into account the behavior of the learner, her expectations and her preferences. Therefore, hypermedia systems destined to structuring courses based on the concept of reusing didactic items have started to be developed. In the literature of the field there are three categories of such systems: classical hypermedia, adaptive hypermedia and dynamic adaptive hypermedia.

Keywords: Information and communication technology, Dynamic adaptive hypermedia, Computer-assisted learning, Internet, Learning systems

Title of the Paper: Three Algorithms for Analyzing Fractal Software Networks


Authors: Mario Locci, Giulio Concas, Roberto Tonelli, Ivana Turnu

Abstract: In this work we propose an algorithm for computing the fractal dimension of a software network, and compare its performances with two other algorithms. Object of our study are various large, object-oriented software systems. We built the associated graph for each system, also known as software network, analyzing the binary relationships (dependencies), among classes. We found that the structure of such software networks is self-similar under a length-scale transormation, confirming previous results of a recent paper from the authors. The fractal dimension of these networks is computed using a Merge algorithm, first devised by the authors, a Greedy Coloring algorithm, based on the equivalence with the graph coloring problem, and a Simulated Annealing algorithm, largely used for efficiently determining minima in multi-dimensional problems. Our study examines both efficiency and accuracy, showing that the Merge algorithm is the most efficient, while the Simulated Annealing is the most accurate. The Greeding Coloring algorithm lays in between the two, having speed very close to the Merge algorithm, and accuracy comparable to the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

Keywords: Complex Systems, Complex Networks, Self-similarity, Software Graphs, Software Metrics, Object-Oriented Systems

Title of the Paper: Synthesis and Analysis of Fuzzy Diagnostic Systems for Railway Bridges


Authors: Jiri Krupka, Petr Rudolf, Jaroslav Mencik

Abstract: This paper deals with the use of fuzzy logic for building of classification models for the technical condition evaluation of bridge objects, both their superstructure and substructure. The proposed models have hierarchical architecture, built of the Mamdani’s fuzzy inference systems. The models were validated on a data set of real bridges in operation. In the modelling process, the analysis of bridge rating methods in the Czech Republic and abroad was applied. The analysis of the number and shapes of input and output membership functions of given fuzzy sets was carried out, and the numbers of fuzzy inference rules were determined. On the basis of the achieved results, the utility of the presented method of soft computing in the evaluation of the bridge technical conditions was proved.

Keywords: Bridge condition evaluations; soft computing; fuzzy logic; hierarchical architecture

Title of the Paper: Clustering Based Adaptive Refactoring


Authors: Gabriela Czibula, Istvan Gergely Czibula

Abstract: It is well-known that maintenance and evolution represent important stages in the lifecycle of any software system, about 66% from the total cost of the software systems development. Improving the software systems design through refactoring is one of the most important issues during the evolution of object oriented software systems. Refactoring aims at changing a software system in such a way that it does not alter the external behavior of the code, but improves its internal structure. In this paper we approach the problem of adaptive refactoring, and we propose an adaptive method to cope with the evolving structure of any object oriented application. Namely, we handle here the case when new application classes are added to the software system and the current restructuring scheme must be accordingly adapted. The approach proposed in this paper extends our previous clustering based approach for identifying refactorings in an object oriented software system. We also provide an example illustrating the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Restructuring, adaptive refactoring, clustering

Title of the Paper: Traveling Wave Solutions for Two Non-linear Equations by (G'/G)-Expansion Method


Authors: Qinghua Feng, Bin Zheng

Abstract: In this paper, we study the application of the known generalized (G'/G)-expansion method for seeking more exact travelling solutions solutions and soliton solutions of the Kaup-Kupershmidt equation and the (2+1) dimensional breaking soliton equation. As a result, we come to the conclusion that the traveling wave solutions for the two non-linear equations are obtained in three arbitrary functions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. The method appears to be easier and faster by means of some mathematical software.

Keywords: (G'/G)-expansion method, Traveling wave solutions, Kaup-Kupershmidt equation, (2+1) dimensional breaking soliton equation, exact solution, evolution equation, nonlinear equation

Title of the Paper: Toward Language-Independent Text-to-Speech Synthesis


Authors: Mario Malcangi, Philip Grew

Abstract: Text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is becoming a fundamental part of any embedded system that has to interact with humans. Language-independence in speech synthesis is a primary requirement for systems that are not practical to update, as is the case for most embedded systems. Because current text-to-speech synthesis usually refers to a single language and to a single speaker (or at most a limited set of voices), a framework for language-independent, text-to-speech synthesis is proposed to overcome these limitations in implementing speech synthesis on embedded systems. The proposed text-to-speech synthesis framework was designed to embed phonetic and prosodic information in a set of rules. To complete this language-independent speechsynthesis solution, a universal set of phones has been defined so that the appropriate speech sounds for every language are available at run time. Synthesis of more than one language can easily be carried out by switching from one rule set to another while keeping a common phone-data set. Using a vocal-track-based speech synthesizer, the system does not depend on phone sets recorded from an actual specific human voice, so voice types can be chosen at run time.

Keywords: Text-to-speech, multi-language speech synthesis, rule-based speech synthesis

Title of the Paper: Daily Life Support and Widely Applicable Living Arrangement System under the Internet Environment


Authors: Hidetoshi Wakamatsu, Takuri Takahashi

Abstract: A simple technology in principle is proposed on the basis of its safety, reliability and flexibility, reflecting past technical achievements for the well-being in ageing society. Hereby, the active use of the Internet environment is described for the wide provision of convenience and help of daily life on public benefits. We propose some methods concerning system management and software provision to start up the computer from a distance, which can help better use of these networks. We present technical viewpoints from our studies with comprehensive engineering issues related to development and practical utilization of basic functions required by the Internet. From the progress in information and communication technology, appropriate systems were systematically developed for the help of daily life, amusement, guidance, health care, rehabilitation, nursing and medicare. They enabled the beneficiaries not only to ask neighbors in emergency and to have daily necessities, but also to cover effective activity and communications in remote islands and/or depopulated area where sufficient resource of medical staff might not be provided. In order to bilaterally communicate with beneficiaries, an extended functions of the proposed basic system are utilized for all the various systems, which we propose as the concrete methods and apparatus to communicate their concerning data. In the present study, important methods for the help of everyday life and rescue of a lonely living person with sudden illness threatened to life are realized by the combination of the additional button type computer with the proposed communication techniques without any complicated manipulation under the Internet environment.

Keywords: Welfare, Remote, Daily life support, Communication, Button computer, Internet

Title of the Paper: Linear Multiple Regression Model of High Performance Liquid Chromatography


Authors: Stanislava Labatova

Abstract: The multiple regression analysis is proposed as method for presentation results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which simultaneously depends on several parameters. The coefficients of linear multiple regression model are assessed by the least square method. In this way dependent variable – retention volume – is expressed by more than one explanatory variable (i.e. by the molar mass, concentrations of eluent and temperature). The approach was to depict dependences of retention volumes on molar mass of polystyrene probes in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and in mixed eluents THF plus dimethylformamide eluents on the silica gel alkyl bonded column packing. The dependences retention volumes on molar mass, concentrations of eluent and are shown.

Keywords: Multiple regression analysis, model specification, high performance liquid chromatography, calibration curves

Title of the Paper: Business Activity Monitoring System Design Framework Integrated With Process-Based Performance Measurement Model


Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Sang Hyun Choi, Jin Gu Kang, Geon Lee

Abstract: Recently, strong interests in the real-time performance management are increasing to gain competitive advantages in the rapidly changing business environment. For better business performance or continuous process improvement of an enterprise, real-time measurement and analysis of the performance of managerial activities is essential. Business activity monitoring (BAM) which provides real-time access to key performance indicators or business processes is one of core elements for successful business process management (BPM) system. Since performance measurement cannot be managed independently of business processes, BAM system needs to monitor performance metrics in terms of business process. This paper proposes BAM system design framework integrated with the process-based performance measurement model (PPMM), in which monitored KPIs are closely related with business processes. The proposed PPMM consists of three sub-models: KPI model, process model, and K-P model. To show the applicability of proposed framework, BAM system prototype was also developed using a real case. This paper is expected to be a practical help to the practitioners who are planning and executing the BAM system implementation for continuous process improvement.

Keywords: Business Activity Monitoring (BAM), Business Process Management (BPM), Business Performance, Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Title of the Paper: Transformation of UML Activity Diagrams into Analyzable Systems and Software Blueprints Construction


Authors: Chien-Yuan Lai, Dong-Her Shih, Hsiu-Sen Chiang, Ching-Chiang Chen

Abstract: Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for software blueprints, UML can be used to visualize, specify, construct and document software-intensive system of heritage. In the UML, the activity diagrams often are widely used to workflow and system flow in system analysis. However, the activity diagram of UML now there are still many drawbacks to be overcome, such as lacks support for simulation, dynamic semantics limits and verifiability capabilities. Petri nets are a popular technique for modeling the control flow dimension of workflows. Associative Petri nets (APNs) not only take all the advantages of PNs but also has a complete semantics, simulation and verifiability capabilities. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology to describe how UML Activity diagrams can be intuitively translated into an APN model. This work can improve the simulation and verifiability capabilities of activity diagram and provides the systematic procedure to reduce complexity of translating activity diagrams into associative Petri net.

Keywords: Unified Modeling Language, Activity Diagram, Visualize, System Description

Issue 4, Volume 7, April 2010

Title of the Paper: Economic Production Quantity Model with Backordering, Rework and Machine Failure Taking Place in Stock Piling Time


Authors: Feng-Tsung Cheng, Huei-Hsin Chang, Singa Wang Chiu

Abstract: This paper investigates the optimal inventory replenishment policy for an economic production quantity (EPQ) model with backordering, rework and machine breakdown taking place in stock piling time. A prior paper by Chiu has examined the lot-sizing problem on an imperfect quality EPQ model. Due to another reliability factor - random machine breakdown seems to be inevitable in most real world manufacturing environments, and to deal with it the production planners must practically compute the mean time between failures (MTBF) and establish a robust production plan accordingly in terms of the optimal replenishment lot size that minimizes total production-inventory costs for such an unreliable system. This study extends Chiu’s work and incorporates a machine breakdown taking place in the stock piling stage into his model. The effects of random machine failure on optimal run time and on the long-run average costs are examined in this paper. Mathematical modeling and cost analysis are employed. The renewal reward theorem is utilized to cope with variable cycle length. Convexity of the long-run average cost function is proved and an optimal lot-size that minimizes the expected overall costs for such an imperfect system is derived. Numerical example is given to demonstrate its practical usage. Managers in the field can adopt this run time decision to establish their own robust production plan accordingly.

Keywords: Optimization, Run time, Breakdown, Lot size, Production, Backorder, Rework, Inventory

Title of the Paper: Composed Fuzzy Measure of Maximized L-Measure and Delta-Measure


Authors: Hsiang-Chuan Liu, Hsien-Chang Tsai, Yu-Du Jheng, Tung-Sheng Liu

Abstract: The well known fuzzy measures, λ-measure and P-measure, have only one formulaic solution. Two multivalent fuzzy measures with infinitely many solutions, L-measure and δ-measure, were proposed by our previous works, but the former do not include the additive measure as the latter and the latter has not so many measure solutions as the former, therefore, a composed fuzzy measure of above two measures, called Lδ -measure was proposed by our additional previous work. However, all of abovementioned fuzzy measures do not contain the largest measure, B-measure, which all not completed measures. In this paper, an improved completed fuzzy measure composed of maximized L-measure and δ-measure, denoted m L δ -measure, is proposed. For evaluating the Choquet integral regression models with our proposed fuzzy measure and other different ones, two real data experiments by using a 5-fold cross-validation mean square error (MSE) were conducted. The performances of Choquet integral regression models with fuzzy measure based m L δ -measure, m L δ -measure, Lδ -measure, L-measure, δ-measure, λ-measure, and P-measure, respectively, a ridge regression model, and a multiple linear regression model are compared. Both of two experimental results show that the Choquet integral regression models with respect to our new measure based on γ-support outperforms others forecasting models.

Keywords: Lambda-measure, P-measure, Delta-measure, L-measure, composed fuzzy measure

Title of the Paper: Computational Intelligence-Based Personalization of Interactive Web Systems


Authors: Tricia Rambharose, Alexander Nikov

Abstract: The main Computational Intelligence (CI) models for personalization of interactive web systems are identified as Fuzzy Systems, Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, Artificial Immune Systems and Swarm Intelligence which includes Particle Swarm Optimization, Ant Colony Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization and Wasp Colony Optimization. These models are reviewed and compared regarding their inception, functions, performance and application to personalization of interactive web systems. A taxonomy for personalization of interactive web systems based on CI methods is proposed. It uses two approaches to personalize web-based systems as profile generation and profile exploitation. Based on this taxonomy a general procedure and recommendations for personalization of interactive web systems are suggested. Future directions for application of CI modelling for personalization are discussed.

Keywords: Personalization, computational intelligence, taxonomy, web systems, modelling

Title of the Paper: Vitality Detection in Fingerprint Identification


Authors: Mojtaba Sepasian, Cristinel Mares, Wamadeva Balachandran

Abstract: The fingerprint liveness detection refers to the inspection of the finger characteristics to ensure whether the input finger is live or artificial. A number of fingerprint identification systems are used widely and implemented at various important places such as border and immigration services. However, it is not declared by the manufacturers of these systems whether liveness detection is actually implemented. Possible measures to detect liveness are only proposed in patents and published literature. There are three major schemes, which are reported in fingerprint liveness literature. These coupled with the additional hardware, software, or combination of fingerprint with other identifications is aimed to verify the liveness in submitted fingerprints. The hardware-based methods use auxiliary sensors to detect the biological and physiological measurements from finger, whereas software-based methods utilize changes in physical properties that take place in early stages of pressing the finger. In this paper, various fingerprint liveness detection methods, which are categorized as voluntary and involuntary, are explored. These categories are based on determining the presence of a user by different responses from either voluntary (e.g. passwords or multiple biometrics) or involuntary (e.g. pulse oximetry or blood pressure) liveness detections. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the voluntary and involuntary fingerprint liveness detection techniques proposed in the literature, and discuss their effectiveness and possible limitations.

Keywords: Liveness Detection, Spoofing, Fingerprint, Biometric Security, Voluntary and Involuntary Technique

Title of the Paper: Gastroenterology Dataset Clustering Using Possibilistic Kohonen Maps


Authors: Anas Dahabiah, John Puentes, Basel Solaiman

Abstract: Kohonen maps are an efficient mechanism in signal processing and data mining applications. However, all the existing versions and approaches of this special type of neural networks are still incapable to efficiently handle within a simple, fast, and unified framework, the imperfection of the patterns’ information elements on the one hand like the uncertainty, the missing data, etc., and the heterogeneity of their measuring scale (qualitative, quantitative, ordinal, etc.) on the other hand. Therefore, we propose in this paper a possibilistic Kohonen network essentially based on two fuzzy measures: the possibility and the necessity degrees, to deal with all these aspects together in a robust way. Concrete examples and medical applications will also be given to clarify and to easily explain the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), Fuzzy Logic (Possibility Theory), Imperfect information, Gastroenterology Dataset, Similarity

Title of the Paper: Model of Usability Evaluation of Web Portals Based on the Fuzzy Logic


Authors: Miloslav Hub, Michal Zatloukal

Abstract: This paper presents a model of usability evaluation based on fuzzy logic which results from a need to establish a common approach to deal with the usability evaluation of various kinds of systems. The model definition arises from the methodology of fuzzy usability evaluation that was presented in the previous research of the authors. As a result of a particular evaluation, usability score is obtained. The score combines various factors affecting the usability of target system. The authors demonstrate the model on the example of usability evaluation of Web portals. Paper also includes results and analysis of the case study and validation of the proposed model.

Keywords: Usability, usability evaluation, usability engineering, fuzzy logic, software engineering

Title of the Paper: An Image Search for Tourist Information Using a Mobile Phone


Authors: Wichian Premchaiswadi

Abstract: Currently, Mobile phones perform like a personal computer. In searching for information, people generally use keywords or character sets to search for information using a computer or mobile phone. When using keyword to search, users have to define the appropriate keywords for things that they want to search for. In some cases, multiple keywords must be given in order to obtain satisfactory results. However, defining the appropriate keyword is sometimes difficult. This paper proposes a mobile application for searching travel related information by using images to search instead of keywords. The image used in this application is taken from a mobile phone camera and sent to the server. The Auto-correlogram and Color Different Correlogram (AC/CDC) algorithms are deployed in the image retrieval system. The images and travel related information are sent back and forth through the Internet by using Web-services. This proposed system could provide more convenience for users and/or tourists and decrease the restriction of searching information from a mobile phone through GPRS.

Keywords: Autocorrelogram, Autocorrelogram and Color Different Correlogram, AC/CDC, Image search, Mobile phone, Web Services

Title of the Paper: Shape Approximation using Circular Grids


Authors: Azzam Sleit, Atef Abu-Areda, Hasan Al-Hasan

Abstract: Research in shape approximation has been motivated by object analysis, matching and recognition. Polygonal shape approximation is widely acceptable and gives reasonable reflection for the shape of the object. This paper presents an object shape approximation algorithm which generates polygons for closed objects. The algorithm is also capable of handling open objects as well as handwritten characters. The proposed algorithm utilizes circular grids to generate the segments. The user can control the number of segments generated by adjusting the granularity of the grid. The outcome of the proposed algorithm is scale and rotation invariant.

Keywords: Polygon, Shape approximation, Circular grid, Rotation invariant, Scale invariant, Handwritten characters, Open shape, closed shape

Title of the Paper: A Competency-based System for Supporting Corporate Information Systems Planning


Authors: Sang-Hyun Choi, Kwan-Hee Han, Jin-Wook Kim

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to address a framework to suggest a set of To-Be enablers for planning strategic information systems. One feature of the framework is the incorporation of measuring incomplete preferences in IT and process competency of experts. This paper presents a competency-based decision support system for supporting corporate strategic information systems planning (SISP), which is based on a prescriptive group decision making method showing how to aggregate experts’ incomplete preference judgments. The system is suggested on the competency leverage concept for selecting technical or organizational enablers to attain organizational business objectives. We put the competencies between the objectives and enablers, measure the importance rates of competencies on the objectives, and derive target enablers for the company. This system is implemented in practice via a detailed three stage methodology. The three stages are defining current business, analyzing competency, and suggesting To Be Enablers. We apply the system to SISP task of a Korean manufacturing company.

Keywords: Strategic information systems planning, Information systems selection, Decision support systems, Multiple attribute group decision making, Incomplete preference

Title of the Paper: Towards a Possibilistic Processing of Missing Values Under Complex Conditions


Authors: Anas Dahabiah, John Puentes, Basel Solaiman

Abstract: To estimate the missing values of an attribute in the records of a dataset, all the information provided by the other attributes and the knowledge databases must be considered. However, the information elements could be imperfect (imprecise, possibilistic, probabilistic, etc.) and could have different measuring scales (quantitative, qualitative, ordinal, etc.) at the same time. Furthermore, the relationships and the correlation between the considered attribute and the others should also be pondered. Unlike the prior works that have separately processed these issues using complex and conditional techniques, our approach, essentially based on the tools provided by the possibility theory, can easily handle these aspects within a unified, robust, and simple frameworks. Several numeric examples and applications have been given to simply illustrate the main steps of our method, and some promising perspectives have been proposed at the end of this paper.

Keywords: Possibility Theory, Missing Data, Information Imperfection (Uncertainty and Ambiguity), Data Mining

Title of the Paper: A Study of Generating Teaching Portfolio from LMS Logs


Authors: Hsieh-Hua Yang, Hung-Jen Yang, Wan-Ching Wu, Lung-Hsing Kuo, Lan-Hua Wang

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of LMS log and teaching portfolio. The elements of teaching portfolio for different universities were analyzed. The analyzed results would support designing and developing logic relationship between LMS log and professional teaching portfolio. Eight major elements were drawn as an integrated type of professional teaching portfolio. For each element of professional teaching portfolio, the data convert flow was designed based upon LMS log. The relationship between LMS log and professional teaching portfolio was identified upon these information flows. Besides, according to the relationship identified in each data convert flow, we could conclude that it is possible to generate meaningful information from LMS log to support teaching portfolio.

Keywords: Teaching Portfolio, Learning Management System, Server Log

Title of the Paper: Benchmark Database and GUI Environment for Printed Arabic Text Recognition Research


Authors: Amin G. Al-Hashim, Sabri A. Mahmoud

Abstract: This paper presents the details of a comprehensive database of Printed Arabic text for Arabic text recognition research. It consists of scanned images of different forms of Arabic printed text (viz. book chapters, advertisements, magazines, newspapers, and reports) scanned with 200, 300, and 600 dpi resolutions. A total of 6954 pages are scanned. The database may be utilized by Arabic printed text recognition research community. It may be used as a benchmark database where researchers can evaluate their algorithms and results compared with published work of other researchers using the same database. To the best of our knowledge, there is no public comprehensive printed Arabic text database that is freely available. Hence, this database may address this deficiency in Arabic printed text recognition research. This database will be made freely available to interested researchers. In addition, this paper presents a software GUI environment to make the manipulation of the created database easier. Moreover, the software GUI provides a number of imageprocessing functions that can be used in the field of automatic text recognition.

Keywords: Arabic Printed Text Database, OCR Datasets, Arabic Text Recognition, OCR

Title of the Paper: A Method of Automatic Integration Test Case Generation from UML-based Scenario


Authors: Shinpei Ogata, Saeko Matsuura

Abstract: One key to success for high quality enterprise information systems development is to validate the customers' requirements sufficiently at the early stage. Scenarios are an effective means to an end because they make it possible to represent various situations of system usage. Most scenarios are defined by using a natural language or such a formal language as Unified Modeling Language (UML) and describe normal, alternative, and exceptional service flows from the point of view of system usage. As a result, scenarios make it easy for the customers to confirm their requirements intuitively because of the concreteness. On the other hand, based on the V-model, which is well-known software development process and denotes the correspondence of requirement analysis stage to integration test stage, it is desirable that the testers should test the system by using the test cases derived from the validated scenarios. We have proposed a UML-based requirements analysis (RA) model with automatic prototype system generation for enterprise Web application development. This paper proposes a way to efficiently create reliable test cases from the scenarios that have been validated by the customers using the prototype system which was generated by the RA model.

Keywords: Unified Modeling Language, Web Application, Scenario, Test Case for Integration Testing

Issue 5, Volume 7, May 2010

Title of the Paper: Software Agents as a Versatile Simulation Tool to Model Complex Systems


Authors: Filippo Neri

Abstract: In the paper we will describe how the software agent paradigm can be a powerful and versatile simulation tool to model and study complex systems. Software agents allow to approximate the behaviour of complex systems under several scenario conditions. In some cases, software agents can also be used to approximate solutions to difficult problems occurring in complex systems. To support our position, we will introduce two different domains: consumer decisions in fast moving consumers goods and mobile telecom network management applications. Finally we will show how a software agent modeling approach could be used to study their behaviour in various scenarios.

Keywords: Software agents, Consumer markets, Telecom network management systems, Cellular networks, Distributed simulation systems

Title of the Paper: A Secure Remote Authentication Scheme Preserving User Anonymity with Non-Tamper Resistant Smart Cards


Authors: Wen-Bing Horng, Cheng-Ping Lee, Jian-Wen Peng

Abstract: Anonymity is one of the important properties of remote authentication schemes to preserve user privacy. Besides, it can avoid unauthorized entities from using the user ID and other intercepted information to forge legal login messages. In 2004, Das et al. first proposed a remote user authentication scheme with smart cards using dynamic ID to protect user anonymity. Later, in 2005, Chien and Chen demonstrated that Das et al.’s scheme fails to preserve user anonymity and then presented a new scheme to remedy this problem. In 2007, Hu et al. pointed out that Chien-Chen’s scheme cannot preserve user anonymity if the smart card is non-tamper resistant; i.e., the secret information stored in the smart card can be revealed. They then proposed an improved scheme to cope with this problem. In this paper, however, we will show that Hu et al.’s scheme still cannot preserve user anonymity under their assumption. In addition, their scheme is also vulnerable to the offline password guessing attack. We then present an improvement to overcome these weaknesses, while preserving all the merits of their scheme.

Keywords: Anonymity, non-tamper resistant, cryptanalysis, remote authentication, smart card

Title of the Paper: Modeling Recognizing Behavior of Radar High Resolution Range Profile Using Multi-Agent System


Authors: Jiansheng Fu, Kuo Liao, Daiying Zhou, Wanlin Yang

Abstract: In an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system, target recognition-makers need assistance to determine which class a new High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) belongs to. Note that the HRRP data can be obtained from an Open Database (ODB) freely, we present a new Multi-Agent System (MAS) model in which specialized intelligent agents, namely Individual Target Analyzing (ITA) agents, are designed to perform recognizing behaviour on behalf of their corresponding target classes, and then show their identity information and claims that Public Recognition Arbitrating (PRA) agent may adopt for HRRP analyzing and judging. In order to describe the details, we apply Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) in the model, and accordingly, two new GDA variations come forth, called Distributed-GDA (D-GDA) and Synthetic-GDA (S-GDA) respectively. Generally, the traditional application of GDA is to emphasize the Common-Discrimination Information (C-DI) among all targets while D-GDA prefers to the Individual-Discrimination Information (1-DI) against other targets one by one, so their syntheses S-GDA can obtain more useful discrimination information than both of them. Experimental results for measured and simulated data show that GDA and D-GDA are complementary in many facets and can be considered as a feature extraction method couple. Furthermore, compared with GDA and D-GDA, the proposed S-GDA not only achieves better and better recognition performance with the number of targets increasing, but also is more robust to many challenges, such as noise disturbance, aspect variation, Small Sample Size (SSS) problem and etc. All these experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the MAS model proposed in this paper.

Keywords: Agent, target recognition, high resolution range profile, generalized discriminant analysis

Title of the Paper: Creating WEB Based Didactical Resources for Teachers in Physical Education


Authors: Danimir Mandic, Dragan Martinovic, Milovan Stamatovic

Abstract: Creating adequate didactical resources and planning the student’s activities for physical education classes is very important in modern schools. Students prefer playing computer games and there are not enough physical activities in their everyday lives. This paper deals with software for measuring pupil’s abilities in elementary school. To assess the physical abilities of students we used the battery of tests "Eurofit. Tests are carried out in certain order: taping hand - segmentary speed, reach the sedu - flexibility, jump from a place - the power leg, jump in - static force, running 10 times 5 m - agility, running 20 m - sprint speed, coordination with bat - coordination, endurance running in (progressively increasing the load) - endurance. Sample includes 1002 students. Based on the results and comparisons with available standards of other authors, we can say that the level of development of motor abilities of students from IV to VII grade school, in most cases within the norms for their age.

Keywords: Informational technology, WEB resources, Motor characteristics, Pphysical education, Sport-technical education

Title of the Paper: A Novel Strategy Approach for Agent-based Resource Management System


Authors: Steven K. C. Lo, Lu Wang, Huan-Chao Keh, Yi-Hong Lin

Abstract: The purpose of resource management is based on the limit resource and unknown users which retrieve the resources at any time to increase the resource exploitation rate, flexibility and availability. In this study, we propose four types of strategy including Expansion (when user loads are large and available resources are not limiting), Constraint (when user loads are large and resources are limiting), Modulation (when user loads are small and excess resources are held), and Supervision (when user loads are small and available resources are also small). The four types of strategy are abbreviated as MSCE. The MSCE strategy of resource management delivers efficient control and management of available resources, allowing for adaptations to changes in the system environment and changes in user requirements. The Monitor agent is responsible for monitoring the resource management system, controlling the rate of resource consumption while simultaneously keeping track of user loads. By employing the Monitor agent in this fashion, the system’s resources have greater availability and their control becomes more flexible and efficient.

Keywords: Multi-agent, MSCE, Resource Management System

Title of the Paper: A Conceptual Framework on Mobile Commerce Acceptance and Usage Among Malaysian Consumers: The Influence of Location, Privacy, Trust and Purchasing Power


Authors: Jayashree Sreenivasan, Mohd Nazri Mohd Noor

Abstract: The aim of this conceptual paper is to investigate the mobile commerce acceptance among Malaysian consumers. With mobile commerce or m-commerce technology, consumers can use mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and laptop computers to access the internet, send and receive messages and make transactions at any time from any places without having tied to a particular location. This new electronic marketing concept has broadened the scope of service and offer great experience to consumers. On the other hand, marketers are able to obtain numerous benefits related to customization of products and services based on the location of the consumer. However, with the abundance of access to information system and high frequency of exposure to mass media, consumers are now becoming more concerned about the fraudulent issues that appear in electronic marketing. Therefore, considerations must be given to the implications of privacy and trust in m-commerce, if utilization and mutual benefits is to be derived on a lasting basis between consumers and marketers. It is very important to examine the privacy and trust elements to understand the acceptance and use of m-commerce according to Malaysian context thus enrich the model of m-commerce acceptance and use behavior. This conceptual paper is also engrossed to examine the influence of purchasing power on behavioral intent and specifies an extension model for the acceptance and use of m-commerce. By reading this paper, readers will be able to obtain clearer picture about conducting future research in order to understand the behavior of Malaysian consumers related to location, privacy, trust and purchasing power.

Keywords: Mobile Commerce, Consumer acceptance, Privacy, Trust, Location, Purchasing power

Title of the Paper: Industrial Experiences of Developing a Model for Software Development Quality Gates


Authors: Pasi Ojala

Abstract: The purposes to use quality gates in software development are many. Quite often companies see that the usage of quality gates improves their overall efficiency, effectiveness and output quality of software delivery chain. They also see that the usage of quality gates helps them to make things right at once by not skipping quality assurance actions. This paper defines quality gate model for a software company. As well it shows that even quality gates might be in place they are not always followed because of a business reason. Companies can forget their well structured quality gate systems when business reason justifies it. The results of neglecting quality gates might lead to a situation where software asset output is not trusted anymore and quality is not known. In a longer run quality gate system seems to be as good as human being who is keeping it. This paper discusses about the most typical software development quality gates in an industrial context. As well it gives reasoning why these gates are usable and defines general criteria for each of them. Paper notifies that even quality gates are in place, they are not useful if not followed. The theoretical discussion in this paper is constructive and follows the constructive research method. Industrial experiments are explained using a case study method.

Keywords: Software quality, quality gates, software development

Title of the Paper: New Outlier Detection Method Based on Fuzzy Clustering


Authors: Moh'd Belal Al-Zoubi, Ali Al-Dahoud, Abdelfatah A. Yahya

Abstract: In this paper, a new efficient method for outlier detection is proposed. The proposed method is based on fuzzy clustering techniques. The c-means algorithm is first performed, then small clusters are determined and considered as outlier clusters. Other outliers are then determined based on computing differences between objective function values when points are temporarily removed from the data set. If a noticeable change occurred on the objective function values, the points are considered outliers. Test results were performed on different well-known data sets in the data mining literature. The results showed that the proposed method gave good results.

Keywords: Outlier detection, Data mining, Clustering, Fuzzy clustering, FCM algorithm, Noise removal

Title of the Paper: A Parallel Algorithm to Compute Data Synopsis


Authors: Carlo Dell'aquila, Francesco Di Tria, Ezio Lefons, Filippo Tangorra

Abstract: Business Intelligence systems are based on traditional OLAP, data mining, and approximate query processing. Generally, these activities allow to extract information and knowledge from large volumes of data and to support decisional makers as concerns strategic choices to be taken in order to improve the business processes of the Information System. Among these, only approximate query processing deals with the issue of reducing response time, as it aims to provide fast query answers affected with a tolerable quantity of error. However, this kind of processing needs to pre-compute a synopsis of the data stored in the Data Warehouse. In this paper, a parallel algorithm for the computation of data synopses is presented.

Keywords: Data warehouse, approximate query processing, data synopsis, parallel algorithm, message passing interface

Title of the Paper: Estimation of Pause Length Set by Storyteller at Sentence Boundary in Nursery Tale: Design of Synthesized Speech to Support Listener’s Comprehension


Authors: Hideji Enokizu, Kazuhiro Uenosono, Seiichi Komiya

Abstract: In the present study, we examined the pause length which the storyteller sets at each sentence boundary in the story text to support children’s comprehension and proposed one method of estimating the pause length preliminarily to apply to the speech synthesis. While reading the story text, the reader constructs the situation model that is the mental microworld described in each sentence. Unlike the reader who can read the text at his own pace, however, the listener must hear the story at the storyteller’s reading pace. Therefore we assumed that the experienced storyteller can set the pause length at each sentence boundary necessary for the listener to construct the situation model. If the listener is a young child, this assumption is true. Then we focused on the relationship between the mental operations for constructing the situation model and the pause length set by the experienced storyteller to help the listener comprehend the story. Specifically, we devised a knowledge representation with multilayered frame structure corresponding to the situation model to predict the mental operations for constructing the situation model. The knowledge representation was named as the situation frame. The results indicated that the storyteller controlled the pause length on the basis of several operations. The formula, that can estimate the pause length from the operation needed to construct the situation frame, seems to provide us the reasonable method to determine the pause length in the synthesized speech preliminarily.

Keywords: Speech synthesis, Pause length at sentence boundary, Story comprehension, Situation model, Event-indexing model, Mental operation, Multilayered frame representation, Multiple linear regression analysis

Title of the Paper: Deriving Priority in AHP using Evolutionary Computing Approach


Authors: Nur Farha Zakaria, Halina Mohamed Dahlan, Ab Razak Che Hussin

Abstract: In the real world, human will face the problem and dilemma to making decision. Making decision is the critical part in choosing the best solution. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) is one of the most well known branches of decision making and it is referring to making decision in the presence of multiple criteria. MCDM problem are common occurrences in everyday life. In 1977, Saaty introduced Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to solve the MCDM problem. The AHP is widely used for MCDM. Since AHP has been introduced, it has been applied in numerous situations with impressive results. However, AHP has been also criticized in the literature review, mainly in priority derivation procedure. This paper has identified three main problems in current priority derivation procedure which are: (1) Inconsistency of the judgment, (2) Non-evolutionary computing approach, and (3) Accuracy performance of the prioritization method. To solve the criticism and the problems; this paper proposes AHPEC which is using Evolutionary Computing (EC) to derive priorities in AHP. The AHPEC gives better result compare to the other prioritization methods based on accuracy of derived priorities. The comparison is based on the value of Total Deviation (TD) which is measure accuracy o the solution. The case study from Srdjevic, 2005 was chosen to compare the performance of the AHPEC and the current prioritization methods based on accuracy of the solution as a criterion to be optimized.

Keywords: Decision making, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Evolutionary Computing (EC), and Web-based Decision Support System (WDSS)

Title of the Paper: Conceptual Fuzzy Temporal Relational Model (FTRM) for Patient Data


Authors: Aqil Burney, Nadeem Mahmood, Tahseen Jilani, Hussain Saleem

Abstract: Classical relational model offer very little built-in support for managing time varying data. Relational model mainly deal with crisp data and not with imprecise data. Managing temporal data in the relational environment keeping the imprecise and fuzzy nature of the data requires the extension of the relational model. Small numbers of extended models at conceptual level are proposed and there is no significant implementation of such model exists. Importance of developing ontological framework for imprecise data and temporal data is required in many applications such as health and patient databases. In this paper we propose a temporal fuzzy ontology for patient data in a hospital environment. On the basis of the ontology defined we propose a conceptual fuzzy temporal relational model (FTRM) for handling time varying attributes and fuzzy attributes in the relational database environment. The proposed model is easy to define, manage and incorporates the important and relevant features in the target fuzzy temporal relational model.

Keywords: Relational model, time varying data, fuzzy data, ontology, fuzzy attributes, fuzzy temporal model

Title of the Paper: ICT and Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia: An Exploratory Study


Authors: D. Magiswary, R. Murali, M. Saravanan, K. Maniam

Abstract: Malaysians are increasingly finding themselves exposed to disasters especially land slides and flood. However, concern can be raised about citizen’s preparedness of disasters, and the extent to which they are consequently prepared, protected and equipped to deal with emergencies that they may encounter. This paper discusses the level of disaster preparedness among Malaysians from a survey of 346 citizens to assess their perceptions of disaster issues, and their attitudes towards increasing the disaster preparedness. The findings reveal that although there is a high degree of confidence at surface level, with respondents claiming to be aware of the disaster issues and the ability to utilize many of the relevant safety methods, a deeper assessment suggests that there are several areas in which desirable knowledge and understanding is lacking. The study presents the role of ICT in the form of knowledge management systems as the recommendation for Malaysians and the Malaysian government as a tool to improve the level of disaster preparedness. The study is timely to the public especially to the local community to preempt, deal with and, ultimately, survive a disaster.

Keywords: Disaster preparedness, knowledge, Malaysia, disaster, knowledge management systems

Issue 6, Volume 7, June 2010

Title of the Paper: Input Space Reduction for Rule Based Classification


Authors: Mohammed M. Mazid, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, Kevin S. Tickle

Abstract: Rule based classification is one of the most popular way of classification in data mining. There are number of algorithms for rule based classification. C4.5 and Partial Decision Tree (PART) are very popular algorithms among them and both have many empirical features such as continuous number categorization, missing value handling, etc. However in many cases these algorithms takes more processing time and provides less accuracy rate for correctly classified instances. One of the main reasons is high dimensionality of the databases. A large dataset might contain hundreds of attributes with huge instances. We need to choose most related attributes among them to obtain higher accuracy. It is also a difficult task to choose a proper algorithm to perform efficient and perfect classification. With our proposed method, we select the most relevant attributes from a dataset by reducing input space and simultaneously improve the performance of these two rule based algorithms. The improved performance is measured based on better accuracy and less computational complexity. We measure Entropy of Information Theory to identify the central attribute for a dataset. Then apply correlation coefficient measure namely, Pearson’s, Spearman and Kendall correlation utilizing the central attribute of the same dataset. We have conducted a comparative study using these three most popular correlation coefficient measures to choose the best method. We have picked datasets from well known data repository UCI (University of California Irvine) database. We have used box plot to compare experimental results. Our proposed method has showed better performance in most of the individual experiment.

Keywords: Classification, C4.5, PART, Entropy, Pearson’s Correlation, Spearman Correlation, Kendall Correlation

Title of the Paper: A Default Risk Model with Multi-Loan Lending Operations: A System of Integral Scale with Scope


Authors: Jeng-Yan Tsai, Jyh-Jiuan Lin, Jyh-Horng Lin

Abstract: Recent research on multi-loan lending operations has remained largely silent on the question of what ties together the retail banking functions of scale and scope lending. Our main point is that in a sense, they are just two different manifestations of banking expansion. This is especially true to the extent that banks are heavily involved in consolidation-based lending. In a multi-loan call pricing model, changes in lending scope have direct effects on the bank’s interest margin related to lending scale and thus bank profits and risks. Comparative static analysis shows that scale and scope lending are complements. However, this commingling is not guaranteed to produce higher return and greater safety for the bank. As a result, bank equity return and default risk are overvalued when the integral role on the inclusion of more realistic loan portfolio management in the consolidated banking is ignored.

Keywords: Bank Interest Margin, Default Risk, Scale, Scope

Title of the Paper: Resolution of Resource Conflict Between the Different Two Projects in MPL-CCPM Representation


Authors: Munenori Kasahara, Hirotaka Takahashi, Hiroyuki Goto

Abstract: Max-Plus-Linear (MPL) system is known as a solution for scheduling problems of a class of discrete event systems. Typical systems include: manufacturing system and project management, etc. In such systems, the initial schedule is frequently changed due to unpredictable disturbances. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) method is a management method that can shorten the time required to complete a project based on the Theory Of Constraints (TOC). Therefore, in our previous papers [1] [2], we proposed a method for applying the concepts of the CCPM to MPL representation in order to control the occurrence of an undesirable state change. The CCPM method also provides a solution for the problem of the resource conflict. However, we did not discuss the resource conflict for simplicity. In this paper, we propose a method for discovering resource conflict between the different two projects in the MPL-CCPM representation. We also discuss how to shift the resource in order to resolve the conflict.

Keywords: Max-Plus Algebra, Max-Plus-Linear system, Discrete Event Systems, Critical Chain Project Management, Resource Conflict, State-Space Representation, Scheduling

Title of the Paper: A Proposal of a Method to Navigate Interview-driven Software Requirements Elicitation Work


Authors: Takatoshi Yamanaka, Hajime Noguchi, Shimon Yato, Seiichi Komiya

Abstract: System development for software is in accordance with requirements specification. Omissions or errors in requirements specification cause omissions or errors in subsequent deliverables. Therefore, requirements elicitation work in order to prepare requirements specification is a very important process. However, it is very difficult to extract customer requirements for software development without omissions or errors, mainly because customers and software engineers (SE) do not share common knowledge resulting in omissions or errors in the requirements elicitation work due to poor mutual communication. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a structure to navigate requirements elicitation work through interviews in order for SEs to elicit customer requirements without omissions or errors by using the interview technique. We are also conducting a comparative experiment in regards to the cases that requirements elicitation work is conducted by both utilizing and not utilizing this structure. As a result, we were better able to elicit customer requirements without omissions or errors in the case of the former rather than the latter; therefore we successfully verified that the structure proposed in this paper by utilizing this structure is effective.

Keywords: Requirements Elicitation Requirements Elicitation Work Requirements Specification Navigation Rule Interview IEEE830

Title of the Paper: Supervised Learning Vector Quantization for Projecting Missing Weights of Hierarchical Neural Networks


Authors: Cin-Ru Chen, Liang-Ting Tsai, Chih-Chien Yang

Abstract: A supervised learning vector quantization (LVQ) method is proposed in this paper to project stratified random samples to infer hierarchical neural networks. Comparing with two traditional methods, i.e., list-wise deletion (LWD), and non-amplified (NA), the supervised LVQ shows satisfying efficiencies and accuracies in simulation studies. The accomplishments of proposed LVQ method can be significant for sociological and psychological surveys in properly inferring the targeted populations with hierarchical neural network structure. In the numerical simulation study, successes of LVQ in projecting samples to infer the original population are further examined by experimental factors of sampling sizes, missing rates, and disproportion rates. The experimental design is to reflect practical research and under these conditions it shows the neural network approach is more accurate and reliable than its competitors.

Keywords: Neural Network, Learning Vector Quantization, Missing Weights, Stratified Structure, Simulation Study, Large Scale Data

Title of the Paper: Integrating Thin Client Solution in Human-Computer Interaction Study


Authors: Abdul Rahman Bin Ahlan, Yusri Bin Arshad, Murni Bt Mahmud

Abstract: Over the past decades the field of education has witnessed the introduction of Internet, a new and revolutionary technology that seems to radically alter the way humans teach and learn. Offering thin client solution for Orang Asli provides opportunities for the team to undertake human-computer interaction related studies. Thin client is an effective and efficient ways to provide least computer computers and internet facilities and infrastructure for organizations or communities. Orang Asli community is continuously given attention by the government for their development so as not to widen digital gap with other advanced races in Malaysia. IT education and access to computers and internets seem to be one of the noble viable options for the young generations to nurture the knowledge society values. This is due to many adverse reports related to Orang Asli attitudes and behaviours in the media as well as research publications. Thus, our IT social inclusion project is timely and hoped to contribute to their development for better lives. This paper describes the proposed thin client configuration for Orang Asli community in Gombak area. It begins with literature reviews on previous studies, concepts and products available and description of Orang Asli schoolchildren in the area as well as introduction to human-computer interaction and usability testing and evaluation. Based on risk management assessment, thin client system is chosen for the community and the proposed architecture configuration is described and illustrated. The HCI is described and proposed for future researches.

Keywords: Human-computer interaction, thin client, schools, Malaysia, Orang Asli, information technology

Title of the Paper: A Multi Purpose Web-based Contractual Management System


Authors: Sharil Tumin, Sylvia Encheva

Abstract: A Web-based multi purpose contractual management system can provide support to contractual process workflows for difeerent types of contractual process of unilateral, bilateral or multilateral contracts. These processes can be done on-line i.e. Web-based without the need for all actors to be synchronously present with respect to both time and space. Di erent contractual processes of initialization, negotiation, agreement, signing (witness), and archive are managed within the application securely by analyzing data-flow between actors, ushering actors to perform their duties in a timely manner and employing appropriate cryptographic techniques on every step of the way. The implementation must deliver a management system that provides operational properties of authenticity, privacy, trustworthy, reliability, verifiability, and linkability.

Keywords: Contract, Contract Management, Applications security, SecureWeb-based Application, SecureWorkflow Modelling, Applied Cryptography

Title of the Paper: Simplifying Enterprise Wide Authorization Management Through Distribution of Concerns and Responsibilities


Authors: Sharil Tumin, Sylvia Encheva

Abstract: Authentication lets a system know who you are, while authorization controls your resources access rights and what operations you are allow to perform. Resources have owners to whom the resources belong to. The owner knows best who is allowed to access her resources at any one time. Distribution of concerns and responsibilities can be effectively used for efficient management of enterprise wide authorization. A collection of users with similar rights to a resource can be logically grouped. Managing user groups, recourse groups, access relationships and permissions is tedious due to complex inter-relationships between actors and among actions. A Web-based application which implements a higher level abstraction of access management that mappes specific low level operating system access control can be deployed to access local manager to manage their resource access effectively and economically, which in turn will increase the system’s security level of the entire organization.

Keywords: Authentication, Authorization, Distributed Management, Delegation, Enterprise IT security, Multitiers Web-based System

Title of the Paper: Secure Multi Party Computation Algorithm Based on Infinite Product Series


Authors: Abdolreza Rasouli, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mahboubeh Shamsi

Abstract: Nowadays, data mining has been extremely interested; because of its ability to give the companies a better view for strategic decisions. In case of, contribution of several companies for a shared data mining, there is a big problem: confidentially of data. Here, the companies are avoided passing their data to the miner directly. The best solution is applying a cryptographic tools named as Multi Party Computation (MPC). In this paper, we represent a secure MPC algorithm for online transactions, where the clients’ information, especially joint time and public keys are not clear. The algorithm emerges the excessively useful response time. The mathematic demonstration also ensures the privacy of clients’ data.

Keywords: Multi Party Computation, Privacy Preserving, Secure Counting Algorithm, Distributed Data

Title of the Paper: Spatial Clustering and Outlier Analysis for the Regionalization of Maize Cultivation in China


Authors: Hu Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Shaoming Li, Xiaomei Song

Abstract: Regionalization has been the foundation of large-scale plantation and local optimization for crop cultivation. Current regionalization approaches practiced mainly rely on qualitative analysis and heuristic methods, which cannot meet the increasingly challenging demands. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of spatial clustering method on the regionalization of crop cultivation, with the maize growing in China as an example. In the proposed method, we adopt four indicators [that is, elevation, effective accumulated temperature (EAT), precipitation and yield] which are the major factors reflecting the maize cultivation differences. In addition, by taking into account the spatial information of counties in the clustering process, we achieve a more spatially coherent clustering result. As a post-processing step, adjustment with the help of a Geographic Information System (GIS) eliminates regions that appear inconsistent with the vicinity. With the proposed approach, we classify the 2,831 counties of China into 7 regions, and show that the result is highly consistent with the conventional regionalization of maize cultivation in China. This result proves the feasibility of our approach, and suggests its possible application on other crops. Furthermore, we carry out outlier analysis for each of the regions to identify the counties that show abnormal behaviors in maize cultivation, and further analyze the possible causes. This study provides valuable information for cultivation region selection in large-scale crop plantation.

Keywords: Spatial clustering, regionalization, maize-growing region, outlier analysis

Title of the Paper: Spatial Clustering for the Regionalization of Maize Cultivation in China and its Outlier Analysis


Authors: Hu Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Shaoming Li, Xiaomei Song

Abstract: Regionalization of crop cultivation is the foundation of large-scale planting and a reasonable layout scheme, but current approaches mainly rely on qualitative analysis and heuristic methods, which cannot meet the progressively challenging demands. In this study, we propose a spatial clustering approach that consists of two steps. First, attributive clustering is applied on the indicators. Second, post-processing step of spatial contiguity adjustment is applied according to specific rules. This two-step algorithm results in clustered regions which are both contiguous in spatial relation and similar in attributes. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a spatial clustering method on the regionalization of crop cultivation, with the maize growing in China as an example. The result shows that the result is highly consistent with the conventional regionalization of maize cultivation in China, which proves the feasibility of our approach, and suggests its possible application on other crops. Furthermore, we carry out outlier analysis for each of the regions to identify the counties that show abnormal behaviors in maize cultivation, and further analyze the possible causes.

Keywords: Spatial clustering, regionalization, maize-growing region, outlier analysis

Title of the Paper: Maize Varieties Combination Model of Multi-Factor and Implement


Authors: Lin Yang, Xiaodong Zhang, Shaoming Li

Abstract: The maize varieties combination model which fully uses all kinds of resources and strikes a balance between low risk and high yield has been built by taking the county as the research unit.It analyzes the factors influencing over corn production so as to determining the indexes impact on corn varieties,profits from the mature investment portfolio selection model and considers from both of qualitative and quantitative point of view.In addtion, under the idea of object-oriented programming, the system of the model, which has both problem solving and visualization, has been designed and implemented in the .net platform by using C language. The result indicated that the model can provide maize planting proportion and make useful decision support for seed companies, agricultural enterprises, agricultural extension agents, farmers and so on in accurate popularization of maize varieties.

Keywords: Maize varieties, combination , LPM model, markowitz mean - variance model, varietal character,climate type,terrain, pest environment, farming arrangements

Title of the Paper: The Research of Ubiquitous Infrastructure of Museum Service Applications in National Palace Museum


Authors: Chen-Wo Kuo, Shrane-Koung Chou

Abstract: Based on abundant artifact collections together with the employment of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and wireless networking technologies, NPM has been implementing Ubiquitous Project with aims to transform NPM from a traditional museum into a U-Museum and to assist domestic cultural and creative industries in reaching out the world. New technologies also facilitate other missions such as public service, ticketing, digital value-added applications and cultural creativity, while advanced digital technologies bring new excitement and visiting experience to the audience. This essay will highlight the project for digital value-added application in marketing and licensing department of NPM.

Keywords: RFID, NPM, Ubiquitous, U-museum, Wireless, Sensor

Issue 7, Volume 7, July 2010

Title of the Paper: Computerized Access System for Entry into Enterprises


Authors: Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos E. Mastorakis, Jean-Octavian Popescu

Abstract: This paper develops two distinct systems in terms of their use: the classic centralized access control in a building (or building complex) based on a card and the proposed system of development for applications based on PIC 16F628 microcontroller. These systems are studied in terms of advantages and disadvantages involved in using them. In the second part of the paper shows how to implement video-tracking device used to access an enterprises.

Keywords: System implementation, Microcontroler PIC 16F628, Programator IC-Prog

Title of the Paper: A Head Pose and Facial Actions Tracking Method Based on Effecient Online Appearance Models


Authors: Xiaoyan Wang, Xiangsheng Huang, Huiwen Cai, Xin Wang

Abstract: Target modeling and model fitting are the two important parts of the problem of object tracking. The former has to provide a good reference for the latter. Online appearance models (OAM) has been successfully used for facial features tracking on account of their strong ability to adapt to variations, however, it suffers from time-consuming model fitting. Inverse Compositional Image Alignment (ICIA) algorithm has been proved to be an efficient, robust and accurate fitting algorithm. In this work, we introduce an efficient online appearance models based on ICIA, and apply it to track head pose and facial actions in video. A 3d parameterized model, CANDIDE model, is used to model the face and facial expression, a weak perspective projection method is used to model the head pose, an adaptive appearance model is built on shape free texture, and then the efficient fitting algorithm is taken to track parameters of head pose and facial actions. Experiments demonstrate that the tracking algorithm is robust and efficient.

Keywords: Visual tracking, Online appearance models, Inverse Compositional Image Alignment, model learning, facial feature tracking

Title of the Paper: Integration of Item Hierarchy and Concept Tree based on Clustering Approach with Application in Statistics Learning


Authors: Yuan-Horng Lin

Abstract: Item hierarchy and concept tree provide references for cognition diagnosis and remedial instruction. Therefore, integration of data analysis on item hierarchy and concept tree should be important. The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated methodology of item hierarchy and concept tree analysis. Besides, fuzzy clustering is adopted to classify sample so that homogeneity appear in the same cluster and adaptive instruction will be more feasible. Polytomous item relational structure (PIRS) is the foundation of item hierarchy analysis. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) combined with calculation of ordering coefficient is to construct concept tree. Source data sets of PIRS and ISM are based on response data matrix and item-attribute matrix respectively. In this study, the empirical test data is the statistics assessment of university students. The results show that the integration of PIRS and ISM based on fuzzy clustering are useful for cognition diagnosis and adaptive instruction. Finally, further suggestions and recommendations based on findings are discussed.

Keywords: Cognition diagnosis, concept tree, fuzzy clustering, ISM, item hierarchy, PIRS

Title of the Paper: Two Novel Effort Estimation Models Based on Quality Metrics in Web Projects


Authors: Ljubomir Lazic, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: Web development projects are certainly different from traditional software development projects and, hence, require differently tailored measures for accurate effort estimation. Effort estimation accuracy will affect the availability of resource allocation and task scheduling. In this paper, we investigate the suitability of a newly proposed quality metrics and models to estimate the effort and duration for small or medium-size Web development projects. It then describes a new size metrics, presents two novel methods (WEBMO+ and VPM+), based on WEB model (WEBMO) using Web objects instead of SLOC and Vector Prediction Model (VPM), to fast estimate the development effort of Web-based information systems. We also empirically validate the approach with a four projects study. The results indicate that the approach provides a mechanism to measure the size of software systems, classify software systems, and estimate development effort early in the software life cycle to within +/-20 percent across a range of application types. In contrast with other existing methods, WEBMO+ and VPM+ uses raw historical information about development capability and high granularity information about the system to be developed, in order to carry out such estimations. This method is simple and specially suited for small or medium-size Web based information systems.

Keywords: Web Quality, Effort Estimation Method, Sizing Metric, Web-based Metrics, Web Engineering

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Road Pavement Condition, Based on the Combined Concept of Chance, Change and Entropy


Authors: Radu Andrei, Zeynep Durmusoglu, Vasile Boboc, Elena Puslau

Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology for the assessment of road pavement condition, based on three powerful concepts, aimed to accommodate the uncertainty caused by the complex interrelationships, material defects, structural deficiencies, human errors, and ambient fluctuations characterizing the pavement systems. These very useful concepts, selected with the aim, to approach, in a new comprehensive manner, the difficult task of assessment of road pavement condition are as follows: the concept of chance, expressed in terms of probabilities and reliability; the concept of change, expressed in terms of dynamics, e.g. of change of the pavement condition in time; the concept of entropy, expressed in terms of differences in pavement system's entropy, occurred in time, as an appropriate quantitative parameter, measuring the degree of uncertainty of a pavement to meet its specific structural, surface and traffic safety requirements.

Keywords: Pavement condition, chance, probability, change, dynamics, entropy

Title of the Paper: A New Approach for Identification of MIMO Non Linear System with RKHS Model


Authors: Taouali Okba, Elaissi Ilyes, Garna Tarek, Messaoud Hassani

Abstract: In this paper we propose a new approach for the modelling of the multi-variable systems (MIMO) on the Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS). The proposed approach considers the MIMO system as a set of MISO processes modelled in RKHS space. We propose also a comparative study of three identification kernel methods of nonlinear systems modelled in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), where the model output results from a linear combination of kernel functions. Theses methods are support vector machines (SVM), regularization networks (RN) and kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). The performances of the proposed MIMO RKHS model and of each kernel method in terms of generalization ability and computing time were evaluated on numerical simulations.

Keywords: Identification, RKHS, SLT, MIMO model, SVM, RN, KPCA

Title of the Paper: Exploring the Effects of Game-based Instructional Design on 3D Animation: A Perspective of Technology Acceptance


Authors: Jung-Chuan Yen, Chih-Hsiao Tsai, I-Jung Chen

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of individual differences on learners’ performances of three-dimensional animation through game-based instructional design. Participants were 78 college juniors enrolled in a 3D animation course, an 18-week course designed for enhancing students’ animation skills. A t-test was conducted to analyze the independent variables by self-regulation, perceived parents’ expectancy, perceived teachers’ expectancy, and perceived initiative on project performance as the dependent variables. An online questionnaire was conducted at the end of the semester to obtain learners’ perceptions of the system. The results showed that (a) students with higher self-regulation and stronger parents’ expectancy outperformed the lower-group on project performance, (b) there were no significant differences on learners’ acceptance grouped by gender and perceived parents’ expectancy, (c) students with stronger teachers’ expectancy demonstrated higher acceptance on perceived ease to use, perceived usefulness, and perceived willingness to use, and (d) students with higher perceived initiative showed more positive attitude in willingness to use the system.

Keywords: 3D animation, Game-based learning, Individual differences, Virtual reality, Self-regulation

Title of the Paper: Implementing Data Security in Student Lifecycle Management System at the University of Prishtina


Authors: Blerim Rexha, Haxhi Lajqi, Myzafere Limani

Abstract: In this paper is presented a novel approach for fulfilling the data security criteria in a Student Lifecycle Management System at the University of Prishtina. The four main criteria of data security such as: privacy, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation are fulfilled through carefully selected security policies. Student data privacy is achieved using the Secure Socket Layer protocol for web communication with web server. Each user, being student, academic or administrative staff is provided with unique user name and initial password in the Student Lifecycle Management System. Data integrity and non-repudiation are fulfilled using digital signatures. The novelty of implemented solution is based on extending the subject name in X.509 digital certificates and using this certificate for securing student grades, which is in full compliance with the Kosovo Law on Information Society. Public Key Infrastructure and X.509 digital certificates have been established as the most trustworthy methods for assuring data security criteria in modern software applications. Security policy enforces that digital certificate and its associated private key shall be stored in a smart card. Access to private key stored in a smart card is protected by Personal Identification Number, known only by smart card holder. This implementation was installed at the Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering and has successfully passed a six semester testing period and students were, for the first time in the history of the University of Prishtina, able to apply online to take an exam.

Keywords: Authentication, Digital Signature, Non-Repudiation, Privacy, Security, Smart Cards, Student Lifecycle Management, X.509 Certificate

Title of the Paper: Stochastic Optimization Algorithm with Probability Vector in Mathematical Function Minimization and Travelling Salesman Problem


Authors: Jan Pohl, Vaclav Jirsik, Petr Honzik

Abstract: In the paper there is introduced the newly developed optimization method the Stochastic Optimization Algorithm with Probability Vector (PSV). It is related to Stochastic Learning Algorithm with Probability Vector for artificial neural networks. Both algorithms are inspired by stochastic iterated function system SIFS for generating the statistically self similar fractals. The PSV is gradient method where the direction of individual future movement from the population is based stochastically. PSV was tested on mathematical function minimization and on the travelling sales man problem. The influence of the quantity of individuals upon the best achieved fitness function was also tested on the mathematical functions minimization.

Keywords: Stochastic, Optimization Algorithm, PSV, SIFS, Random Walk, Travelling Salesman Problem

Title of the Paper: Study on Context Understanding, Knowledge Transformation and Decision Support Systems


Authors: Dana Klimesova, Eva Ocelikova

Abstract: The contribution deals with the problem of detecting, interpretation and understanding various contexts on the background of the process understanding and the context applying. Also the problem of multi-criteria evaluation is addressed and the different ways of knowledge integration is discussed. Despite rapid progress in this area, there are still a significant number of challenges that need to be addressed to enable automatic contextual decision making. Those challenges include robust detection of the context, its interpretation, multi-level semantic information and understanding on the base of inference from object interactions. The contribution is focused also on the use of Voronian diagrams in combination with standard spatial data to support the decisions in the field of nearest objects selection with regards to the additional considerations. It is shown that the localized knowledge make possible to aggregate important aspects of defined objects and phenomena and evaluate them in context of different requirements.

Keywords: Decision making, contextual modelling, knowledge transformation, Voronian diagram, nearest triangulation, decision support, Delaneu triangulation

Title of the Paper: Correlation between Netspeak Elements and Asynchronous Discussion


Authors: Karmela Aleksic-Maslac, Dina Vasic, Jagoda Poropat Darrer

Abstract: Asynchronous discussion can take place no matter how distant the collocutors are and therefore is playing a very important role of any e-learning system. Online discussion allows students to consider and examine other people’s thoughts and opinions on a specific topic and answer them in a concise and logical way. Within the ICT course taught in a first semester at Zagreb School of Economics and Management, we use two types of online discussion, so called opened and closed discussions. Opened discussions represent every day, informal communication between the students and the professors; while the closed ones are related strictly to the course topics. In this paper we will analyze the use of some particular elements of language in closed discussion on two levels: professor – student and student – student. Netspeak is a new language of information communication found on Internet in a form of chat, text messages and msn. It is rapidly developed, more direct, natural and for its features is close to a spoken language. Analyzed parts of the Netspeak in this paper are those the most subjected to changes, as for Croatian language those are the omission of diacritical marks, increasing use of acronyms and abbreviations, prolongation of graphemes, the use of uppercase when lower cases are required and the introduction of signs meaning actual state of mind or mood, so called emoticons. We expected the discussion between students and professors to be formal, highly respecting the norms of the written Croatian language and the discussion between students to be less formal, more near to the Netspeak. As well we wanted to see whether there are some relations among students using Netspeak, Discussion Quality, Dominant Members and Discussion Moderators.

Keywords: Online discussion, Netspeak, e-learning, Information and Communication Technologies, education, asynchronous, language

Title of the Paper: An Advanced Learning and Discovering System


Authors: J. B. Savkovic-Stevanovic

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach and method for learning and discovering. Concept learning illustrates acquiring descriptions that make the structure of generalizations explicit. Two kinds of concept learning are distinguished inductive and deductive. The entity structure in which all components are encoded has modeled knowledge representation scheme. Discovering with process knowledge acquisition and learning were applied. Learning by discovering systems enhance their knowledge base. In this paper examines the entity structure for chemical system building in organic chemistry. The obtained results has illustrated the development of discovering model for surfactants formation.

Keywords: Concept learning, process discovering, compounds, functional groups, formulation

Issue 8, Volume 7, August 2010

Title of the Paper: Training of RFB Neural Networks using a Full-Genetic Approach


Authors: Iulian-Constantin Vizitiu, Petrica Ciotirnae, Teofil Oroian, Adrian Radu, Florin Popescu, Cristian Avram

Abstract: The efficiency of pattern recognition (PR) systems using RBF neural networks to implement their recognition function, depends a lot by the training algorithms of these neural networks and especially, by the specific techniques (e.g., supervised, clustering techniques etc.) used for RBF center positioning. Having as starting point the basic property of genetic algorithms (GA) to represent global searching tools, a full-genetic approach to assure optimization both connectivity and neural weights of RBF networks is proposed. In order to confirm the broached theoretical aspects and based on real pattern recognition task, a comparative study (as performance level) with others standard RBF training methods and SART neural network is also indicated.

Keywords: RBF neural networks, clustering techniques, genetic algorithms

Title of the Paper: Nuchal Translucency Marker Detection Based on Artificial Neural Network and Measurement via Bidirectional Iteration Forward Propagation


Authors: Lai Khin Wee, Too Yuen Min, Adeela Arooj, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Ultrasound screening is performed during early pregnancy for assessment of fetal viability and prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal anomalies including measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) thickness. The drawback of current NT measurement technique is restricted with inter and intra-observer variability and inconsistency of results. Hence, we present an automated detection and measurement method for NT in this study. Artificial neural network was trained to locate the region of interest (ROI) that contains NT. The accuracy of the trained network was achieved at least 93.33 percent which promise an efficient method to recognize NT automatically. Border of NT layer was detected through automatic computerized algorithm to find the optimum thickness of the windowed region. Local measurements of intensity, edge strength and continuity were extracted and became the weighted terms for thickness calculation. Finding showed that this method is able to provide consistent and more objective results.

Keywords: Nuchal translucency, ultrasound, fetal, pattern recognition, artificial neural network

Title of the Paper: Mobile and Wireless Services and Technologies for M-Government Solution Proposal for Dubai Government


Authors: Mansoor Alrazooqi, Rohan De Silva

Abstract: Electronic governments (e-governments) are fast emerging replacing functions performed by traditional governments. However, as new mobile and wireless technologies are penetrating even faster and more and more people prefer them than the landline connections, the governments are faced with a new challenge. The mobility of people and use of mobile devices necessitate the provision of anytime, anywhere access to government resources. As such, governments need to move to mobile governments (m-governments). In this paper, an m-government solution for the Dubai government is proposed by gathering and analysing the requirements of the public that visit the Dubai Police. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered using interviews and questionnaires and qualitative data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Finally, the mobile and wireless service and technology components of m-Government solution for the Dubai government are presented.

Keywords: E-government, m-government, ICT, mobility, mobile penetration, technology and services

Title of the Paper: Hybrid Magnetoacoustic Method for Breast Tumor Detection: An In-vivo and In-vitro Modelling and Analysis


Authors: Maheza Irna Mohamad Salim, Mohammad Azizi Tumiran, Siti Noormiza Makhtar, Bustanur Rosidi, Ismail Ariffin, Abd Hamid Ahmad, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: A new breast cancer detection method that is based on tissue bioelectric and acoustic characteristics has been developed by using a hybrid magnetoacoustics method. This method manipulates the interaction between acoustic and magnetic energy upon moving ions inside the breast tissue. Analytical in-vivo and in-vitro modelling and analysis on the system performance have been done on normal and pathological mice breast tissue models. Analysis result shows that, hybrid magnetoacoustic method is capable to give unique characteristics between normal and pathological mice breast tissue models especially in in-vitro application. However, additional parameter such as analysis of current distribution in tissue should be taken into account for in-vivo application due to the redundancy of the existing result.

Keywords: Magnetic field, acoustic wave, breast tissue, normal and pathological

Title of the Paper: Language Assessment and Training Support System (LATSS) for Down Syndrome Children Under 6 Years Old


Authors: Tan Meng Kuan, Yeo Kee Jiar, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Theoretically and generally, Down syndrome children in this study are defined as children who are proven scientifically and medically of their impairment in mental health or developmental abilities. Although some of the limitations of Down syndrome children cannot be overcome, early childhood intervention is proven to be able to improve the quality of their lives. Early childhood intervention includes screening for common problems, and vocational training can improve the development of the Down syndrome children. The language ability is emphasized in this study as the speech and language skill of Down syndrome children are significantly delayed – more delayed than non-verbal abilities. Besides that, the speech and language skill underpin social and cognitive development, therefore affecting all aspects of development. In other words, improving the language ability of individuals with Down syndrome will improve all aspects of their development and quality of lives. In this study, the support system provides the most effective assessment and training method for language ability to the children. This software utilizes speech recognition technology, with modified internationally recognized curriculum, implemented in C sharp programming language. In conclusion, the result of this study is expected to be beneficial and able to assist parents and trainers on effective language training for Down syndrome children.

Keywords: Support system, Language training, Language assessment, Down syndrome children, Speech recognition, Early Intervention Program

Title of the Paper: Computerized Automatic Nasal Bone Detection based on Ultrasound Fetal Images Using Cross Correlation Techniques


Authors: Lai Khin Wee, Adeela Arooj, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Recent study shows that fetal chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in early ultrasonic prenatal screening by identifying the absence of fetus nasal bone. The drawbacks of current method are operator dependent, observer variability and improper training. In particular, accurate nasal bone detection requires highly trained sonographers, obstetricians and fetal medicine specialists since the ultrasound markers may easily confuse with noise and echogenic line in ultrasound image background. We present a computerized method of detecting the absence of nasal bone by using normalized grayscale cross correlation techniques. Image preprocessing is implemented prior to cross correlation to assess the availability of nasal bone. The resultant threshold, bordering the absence and presence of nasal bone, is set to a value of 0.35. The accuracy of the developed algorithm achieved was, around 96.26 percent which promises an efficient method to recognize nasal bone automatically. The threshold can be further improved if a larger set of nasal bone ultrasound images are applied.

Keywords: Chromosomal abnormalities, nasal bone, cross correlation, ultrasound image, matching, trisomy

Title of the Paper: The FAME Tool: An Automated Supporting Tool for Assessing Methodology


Authors: Filippo Eros Pani, Giulio Concas, Daniele Sanna, Luca Carrogu

Abstract: The FAMEtool is a support tool for the FAME (Filter, Analyze, Measure and Evaluate) Methodology, an iterative approach for open source software assessment. The FAMEtool does not replace evaluation experts, but it serves to improve the productivity of experts in evaluating the different solutions. The efficacy of the FAMEtool is reported in this paper. Several methods have been created to define a process for assessing Free/Open Source software. Some focus on some aspects like the maturity, the durability and the strategy of the organization around the Open Source project itself. Other methodologies add functional aspects to the assessment process. Only some of these methodologies are supported by specific tools. This paper describes the FAMEtool that implements the steps of the FAME methodology, particularly in the filtering and analysis phases, trying to follow the logic of the simplified method that allows a faster application and gives support to who will be engaged in the selection of the new IT solution. Such a tool is introduced in the form of Web application and has been developed in Java.

Keywords: Open Source software, Software evaluation, Technology transfer, Software quality, Assessment model

Title of the Paper: Modeling of a Real Situation as a Method of the Algorithmic Thinking Development and Recursively Given Sequences


Authors: Stepan Hubalovsky, Eva Milkova, Pavel Prazak

Abstract: A method of developing students’ algorithmic thinking is demonstrated in the paper first. This is followed by an example of a physical problem step by step modeling and several approaches to its solution. These approaches demonstrate possible interdisciplinary learning, which is considered to be a very important part of future teachers’ education. Especially the relationship among physics, computer science and mathematics is introduced. Finally the benefit of CAS for explaining and visualizing recursively defined sequences is discussed.

Keywords: Algorithms, interdisciplinary learning, modeling, visualization, motivation, CAS, Maple, recursively defined sequence, linear recursive equation, logistic equation, cobweb plot, bifurcation diagram.

Title of the Paper: Knowledge Coding Methods for Rule-Based Expert Systems


Authors: Petr Polach, Jan Valenta, Vaclav Jirsik

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of knowledge representation methods that are currently being implemented for use in a hybrid expert system shell that has been under development at the Department of Control and Instrumentation, BUT. Two approaches are discussed – a diagnostic and a planning expert system knowledge base coding. A new method suitable for diagnostic rule-based expert systems with automated weight tuning, deriving from neural networks, is proposed. Next, an approach to modeling knowledge bases using Petri Nets is discussed and inference engine operations are compared for both diagnostic and planning expert system.

Keywords: Expert systems, Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge base tuning, Resla, Petri Nets

Issue 9, Volume 7, September 2010

Title of the Paper: Web Based Real-Time Meteorological Data Analysis and Mapping Information System


Authors: Refik Samet, Serhat Tural

Abstract: In this paper, the real-time meteorological data analysis and mapping information system is proposed. This system makes real-time data and the results of analysis available through all end users. It captures the real-time meteorological data from meteorological stations, pushes these data into geodatabase and publishes the raw data and the results of analysis through server as a web mapping service that can be accepted by any desktop and web applications. One of contributions of the proposed system is executing the real-time analysis and mapping operations whenever the latest real-time meteorological data arrive to the system via a determined protocol from meteorological stations. This contribution allows the system to store, analyze and map each meteorological data once. Other contribution is related to mapping operations. Proposed system creates the map for certain data and for the results of analysis and renews each time when the data is changed. Due to these contributions proposed information system allows the end users to get newest metrological information in instant. Besides, because these operations are performed on the server side, any end user can use them without the need for custom code.

Keywords: Geographical Information System, Web Based Information System, Real-Time Meteorological Data, Mapping, Statistical Analysis, Geostatistical Analysis, Krigging Interpolation Method

Title of the Paper: Enhancing the Quality of Administration, Teaching and Testing of Computer Science Using Learning Management System


Authors: Martin Capay, Julia Tomanova

Abstract: In the 21st century, the digital technologies are firmly implemented in all part of industry and services. Communication and also cooperation is often realized only via electronic connection. Using of modern concepts based on information and communication technologies in education too is still growing. That requires modern approach in control, teaching and testing process, which is commonly carry out by LMS. The authors analyze the using of learning management systems and e-learning in Slovakia. They try to describe computer science e-learning courses created mainly for blended learning at the Department of Informatics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovak republic. They describe their own experiences in managing the teaching process with -LMS, present interactive dynamic visualizations and finally present the outcomes of survey about electronic testing.

Keywords: Computer science course, teaching, e-learning, LMS Moodle, on-line testing

Title of the Paper: A Self-Organized Neuro-Fuzzy System for Stock Market Dynamics Modeling and Forecasting


Authors: Ching Long Su, Chuen Jyh Chen, Shih Ming Yang

Abstract: A self-organized, five-layer neuro-fuzzy model is developed to model the dynamics of stock market by using technical indicators. The model effectiveness in prediction and forecasting is validated by a set of data containing four indicators: the stochastic oscillator (%K and %D), volume adjusted moving average (VAMA) and ease of movement (EMV) from TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index). A modified moving average method is proposed to predict the input set for the neuro-fuzzy model in forecasting stock price. Simulation results show that the model is effective in prediction and accurate in forecasting. The input error from the prediction of the modified moving average method is attenuated significantly by the neuro-fuzzy model to yield better forecasting results.

Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy system, Sugeno fuzzy system, Forecasting, VAMA, EMV

Title of the Paper: The Appearance of Printing Activity in the Romanian Space: an Integral Part of a European Phenomenon


Authors: Agnes Erich

Abstract: In the context of the European Cyrillic print, the printing activity in Wallachia occupies an important place, reflecting the degree of cultural development reached by Romanian principalities and, at the same time, constituting itself as an integral part of a European phenomenon. It is known that between the Romanian culture and the culture of the South-Slavic peoples there was a strong connection. The first printed books from Targoviste (1508-1512), executed by the monk Macarie, spread in the Slavic world, being used as a model for the books printed in this space. The relations of the Romanian written culture with the other cultures in South-eastern Europe manifested on several plans: the printing activity was in a constant evolution, printers, proofreaders, engravers or bookbinders coming to work in the Romanian principalities, the same way as the Romanian craftsmen produced manuscripts and books for the Balkan communities or even traveled to remote places to set up printing workshops.

Keywords: Liturgy book, Targoviste, Macarie, Wallachia, Printing history, Book History, Cetinje

Title of the Paper: Information-based Item Selection with Blocking Strategy based on a Bayesian Network


Authors: Tien-Yu Hsieh, Bor-Chen Kuo

Abstract: With the rapid development of computer technology information theory has been implemented for searching optimal adaptive item sequence in computerised adaptive test systems based on Bayesian network. Information theory such as entropy between dichotomous concepts and test items generalise common intuitions about item comparison for heuristic methodology. However, the executive time and the storage space are still open problems in constructing and storing decision item trees. The blocking strategy is proposed for overcoming those problems. Experimental results show that the blocking strategy could overcome both the executive time and storage space problems.

Keywords: Bayesian network, Information, Entropy, Computerised adaptive testing, Blocking strategy

Title of the Paper: Integrating Patient Information and Research Data for Maxillofacial and Craniofacial Domain into a Single Database


Authors: Fariza Hanum Nasaruddin, Maizatul Akmar Ismail, Somasundaram Nagappan

Abstract: Research in the area of maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery almost always comes from images of patients. This paper discusses the possibility of integrating the database for daily medical operational needs together with data for research purposes in the area of maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery. Currently, medical institutions concentrate on systems which have the main function of managing daily operational data. Even at medical institutions where researches are being conducted, data to be used for research are separated from the data from the hospital system. Maxillofacial and craniofacial surgeries are mostly preceded with the development of models, and this nowadays would mean three dimensional digital models This opens an opportunity for medical team to collaborate with other department for example a team from a computer science department. The main task of the CS team is to develop digital models and part of the ongoing research would be on modeling techniques to improve the design of the models. The data from the surgical team can be used the CS team and stored data and models can be reviewed by surgical team to analyze past procedures, diagnoses and prognoses. The design of the database and the system architecture of the proposed system are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Research database, image data, maxillofacial data, craniofacial modeling

Title of the Paper: Website Model for Top 10 Travel Guides


Authors: Mirela-Catrinel Voicu, Marilen Pirtea, Sandra Bazavan

Abstract: Top 10 is a famous series of travel guides in the world. Starting from the data presented in these travel guides, we propose a website model. Our model supposes a single implementation, which can be used for all city destinations. The website can be used easily and includes plenty and various information. The displayed data in the website pages are stored in a database. These data can be quickly modified or deleted. We present our implementation in Java.

Keywords: Travel guides, websites, Java

Title of the Paper: Teaching Information Technology for Elder Participation: A Qualitative Analysis of Taiwan Retirees


Authors: Hsieh-Hua Yang, Chien Yu, Chih-Hsun Huang, Lung-Hsing Kuo, Hung-Jen Yang

Abstract: The present inquiry considers the nature and meaning of elder participation in information technology and the degree to which computer-mediated communication increases in the social capital of elder adults. This study compares 27 elder computer participants and 27 nonparticipants by means of open-ended interviews. Three primary themes emerged from the interviews. The first concerns the different conceptions of old age held by the computer-participants and the nonparticipants, and in particular, differing views on learning capacity in later life. The second concerns their intentions of applying information technology. The third concerns the learning problems of operating computers. The findings from the current study also show that older persons are able to study and to use computers if a good training program exists that encourages them to do so. On the other hand, it cannot be dismissed that those who chose to participate and to study computer use may have done so because they had a stronger prior desire and/or ability to engage in this particular undertaking. It might be that the elderly information technology participants had a positive approach to the computer, a priori, and perhaps a better capability for learning new things as well.

Keywords: Elder participation, information technology, qualitative analysis, Taiwan retirees

Title of the Paper: Monitoring the Stability of the Processes in Defined Level Software Companies Using Control Charts with Three Sigma Limits


Authors: G. Vijaya, S. Arumugam

Abstract: Monitoring the stability of the software process in the lower level companies is a challenging issue to software engineers. In this paper, SPC is applied to software metrics. Defect Density, Review Performance and Rework percentage and results after applying the SPC to various processes of software are discussed and analyzed, using control charts, the most sophisticated tools of SPC. The difficulties in the application of Statistical Process Control to lower level software organization are observed and relevant suggestions are provided.

Keywords: Control Chart, Statistical Process control (SPC), Defect density, Inspection Performance, Rework percentage, CMM

Issue 10, Volume 7, October 2010

Title of the Paper: A Study of Online Asynchronous Learning Monitored by Face Recognition


Authors: Lung-Hsing Kuo, Hsieh-Hua Yang, Hung-Jen Yang, Wen-Chen Hu, S. M. Sue

Abstract: The purpose of this study was focused on the learning behavior and performance of asynchronous distance learning with face recognition system among in-service teachers. There were 48 participants invited. In this study, teacher's gender, age, job status, educational level, school level, and school district were analyzed to explore the differences in learning behaviors and performance. The results showed that the higher average face identification rate, the more learning satisfaction, subjects had more login times, login times in the morning, time total quantity of login, study time total quantity, participation modular unit numbers, the higher summary examination average scores. We also found subjects had more summary examination average times, the less summary examination average scores, subjects had more time total quantity of login, average face identification rate, the more learning satisfaction, and subjects’ summary examination average times can predict summary examination average scores.

Keywords: Learning behavior, Asynchronous distance learning, Face recognition system, In-service teacher

Title of the Paper: Monitoring the Stability of the Processes in Defined Level Software Companies Using Control Charts with Three Sigma Limits


Authors: G. Vijaya, S. Arumugam

Abstract: Monitoring the stability of the software process in the lower level companies is a challenging issue to software engineers. In this paper, SPC is applied to software metrics. Defect Density, Review Performance and Rework percentage and results after applying the SPC to various processes of software are discussed and analyzed, using control charts, the most sophisticated tools of SPC. The difficulties in the application of Statistical Process Control to lower level software organization are observed and relevant suggestions are provided.

Keywords: Control Chart, Statistical Process control (SPC), Defect density, Inspection Performance, Rework percentage, CMM

Title of the Paper: Research Contributions to the Seismic Performance of ICF Technology Wall Systems


Authors: Andreea-Terezia Mircea, Ruxandra Crutescu

Abstract: Being a very easy to install system, increasing job site efficiency and worker productivity which saves time and money, Insulated Concrete Form (ICF) tilt-up wall systems ensure a more sustainable construction with superior energy efficiency, low material costs, and versatility for the built environment. A research was carried out in order to asses an ICF tilt-up wall system with regard to the requirements of the actual earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete wall systems and reinforced concrete wall equivalent dual systems. After a preliminary analysis of the constructive provisions, a comprehensive structural analysis program was performed in order to identify the best practices in implementing the system on the market. As variables were considered the design ground acceleration (0.08g, 0.20g and 0.32g), the normalized axial force (0.05, 0.20 and 0.40), the quality of concrete (classes C 16/20 and C 20/25), the effective thickness of the walls (i.e., 150 mm and 200 mm), the longitudinal reinforcing ratio at the ends of the wall (0.005, 0.020 and 0.040) and the type of primary shear wall (i.e., high ductility and medium ductility respectively). The full compliance with the European structural design frame can be reached by two detailing strategies, related to the severity of the actions specific to each site and solution. The results are presented in a synthetic manner, which enables an easy comprehension of the conclusions drawn from the processing of the numerical data.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete, primary shear wall, ductility, non-linear behavior, seismic design

Title of the Paper: Development the Strategics and Customer Relationship Management Model for Medical Center Outpatient Services


Authors: Ching-Kuo Wei, Ming-Chin Yang, Kuo-Piao Chung

Abstract: After the implementation of national health insurance in Taiwan, the hospitals are facing severe operational competition, particularly in Taipei. Thus, to develop customer management model, hospitals have introduced Customer Relationship Management (CRM) to gain new customers, maintain the relationship with existing customers, and enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. After analyzing the patients’ needs, the hospitals can satisfy the patients who will thus revisit the hospitals. The patients’ customer loyalty will be enhanced. It is also the effective approach to monitor customer relationship. This study targets on 600 outpatient service customers in a medical center in Taipei, and probes into the relationship between outpatient service customers’ characteristics and satisfaction, as well as importance by correlation analysis. This study then divides outpatient service customers into four clusters by cluster analysis, and proposes different managerial strategies with regard to four clusters’ characteristics as the criteria for CRM in the hospital.

Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, Hospital Customer Relationship Management, Medical Center Outpatient Services, Strategic Analysis, Cluster Analysis

Title of the Paper: Implementation and Evaluation Methodology for the Asynchronous Search Techniques in DisCSP-NetLogo


Authors: Ionel Muscalagiu, Manuela Panoiu, Diana Maria Muscalagiu, Caius Panoiu

Abstract: The implementation and evaluation of asynchronous search techniques can be done in any programming language allowing a distributed programming. Nevertheless, for the study of such techniques and for their evaluation, it is easier and more efficient to implement the techniques under certain distributed environments, which offer various facilities, such as NetLogo and are open-source. This article proposes a solution of evaluation for the asynchronous search techniques in NetLogo. This model will allow the use of the NetLogo environment as a basic simulator for the evaluation of asynchronous search techniques. Starting from the proposed evaluation model, we obtain one multi-agent system which can be used for implementing and evaluating the asynchronous search techniques, that can run on a single computer. In this paper there is presented a methodology of implementation and evaluation for the asynchronous search techniques in NetLogo, using the proposed evaluation model.

Keywords: Constraints programming, distributed problems, asynchronous searching techniques, multi-agent systems

Title of the Paper: Educational Software for Study the Performances of Some Known Parallel and Sequential Algorithms


Authors: Manuela Panoiu, Ionel Muscalagiu, Caius Panoiu, Maria Raich

Abstract: The paper presents an educational software package, implemented in Java which shows and analyzes through visual simulation some well known sequential and parallel algorithms. It was study the memory access for PRAM model and some known algorithms for PRAM model. It was analyze also the most know sorting algorithms and the main graph algorithms in both variants sequential and parallel. It was also performed a comparative study between a classic sequential algorithm and a parallel algorithm in terms of execution times. The software is very useful to both students and teachers because the computer science especially computer programming is difficult to understand for most students.

Keywords: Java, educational software, parallel algorithms, Parallel sorting algorithms, performance analysis, simulation software

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Design and Performance of Snow Cover Computing on GPUs and Multi-Core Processors


Authors: Ladislav Huraj, Vladimir Siladi, Jozef Silaci

Abstract: The aim of this work is the depth of the snow cover computing in the desired point based on the geographical characteristics of a specific geographical point in a modeled area. The measured data are known on few places. These places are coincident with raingauge stations. These data have been collected by many continuous observations and measurements at the specific climatologic raingauging stations of Slovak Hydrometeorogical Institute. An interpolation method is necessary to obtain a representation of real situation about whole surface. The main characteristic of the interpolation computing is the fact that it is timeconsuming. In paper, we present two cheap approaches of HPC. The first solution is a utilization of graphics processing units (GPUs) where the availability of enormous computational performance of easily programmable GPUs can rapidly decrease time of computing. The second one is a utilization of multi-thread CPUs. In our article we demonstrate how to deploy the CUDA architecture, which utilizes the powerful parallel computation capacity of GPU, to accelerate computational process of snow cover depth using the inversedistance weighting (IDW) method. The performance of GPU we face with OpenMP implementation of IDW method. We consider variable number of threads per CPU. The outputs are visualized by the GIS Grass tool.

Keywords: GPGPU, CUDA, Multi-core processor, OpenMP, Snow cover depth, Interpolation

Title of the Paper: Hospital Information System using HL7 and DICOM Standards


Authors: Alin Cordos, Bogdan Orza, Aurel Vlaicu, Serban Meza, Carmen Avram, Bogdan Petrovan

Abstract: In the medical world of nowadays, the information systems and the standardization of the transmission protocols have been gaining more and more importance. Therefore, the integration of different kinds of medical software applications has become mandatory. In order to achieve this, the HL7 – Health Level Seven standard has been developed, which offers a set of rules and algorithms related to the medical field. This paper illustrates the use of HL7 and Web Services to form an integrated medical pilot system, specially adapted to the Romanian sanitary system.

Keywords: HIS-Hospital Information System, HL7 – Health Level Seven, eHeatlh, DICOM, Web Services, XML

Title of the Paper: The Digital Social Impact in ICT Literacy Programme for Rural Community


Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Norizan Abdul Razak

Abstract: This paper will be discussing ICT literacy at rural community in bridging digital divide for rural digital divide community by Perak State Government in Malaysia. This study is looking at the impact of ICT literacy program for rural community after infomediaries conducted a training for the community. The understanding of the research is looking at the social digital impact such as social digital impact formation, social digital impact imbrications and social digital impact articulation. Methodology of the research is conducted by distributing questionnaire to 583 respondents in the familiar village choose by Perak State Government. The finding of the research shows that social digital impact formation .majority used for chatting and online services. Social digital impact implications revealed that majority used ICT to access internet and do homework. They also used ICT for playing computer games. Meanwhile, social digital impact articulations revelaed majority used ICT for general knowledge and academic purpose, also used ICT for online banking and utility bill.

Keywords: Digital Social Impact in ICT literacy programme for Rural community

Issue 11, Volume 7, November 2010

Title of the Paper: Statechart Normalizations


Authors: Benjamin De Leeuw, Albert Hoogewijs

Abstract: Simplified statecharts are derived by excluding all redundant constructs of the UML (Unified Modeling Language) metamodel on statecharts. In previous papers we introduced this basic concept and pointed out some interesting applications. We transformed and compacted state machines into serializable objects that clearly highlight their basic constructs and showed how a lot of sparse edges were created during this transformation. Sparse edges contain little or no information (e.g. empty transitions). From this compaction we derived a theory in which state machines are reduced to two distinct partial orderings on states. For the sake of convenience to read this paper, we briefly recapture part of this theory and show the exponentially growing complexity of calculating all possible values of variables that appear on state machine edges. In order to arrive at feasible algorithms leading to practical applications of the implicity complex partial ordering relations we need to reduce this complexity by formulating and proving reductions to state machine normal forms. Apart from aligning formal and behavioral equivalence, normal forms allow us to reduce the number of sparse edges and useless states thereby limiting calculational complexity. In this paper, we extend our theory with normal forms and inject them into the theory of simplified statecharts presented in earlier work. Some statecharts are only seemingly different from others if one analyzes the different paths in those statecharts. The UML is designed to allow for this kind of (uncontrollable) flexibility but in mathematical descriptions it has adverse effects. We introduce an equivalence relation on simplified statecharts and derive a normalization procedure which converts a simplified sc to a normalized simplified sc equivalent to the original one. Our formalism allows us to unravel superficial differences between simplified statecharts.

Keywords: Statecharts, Statechart Normalization, UML, Model Checking, State Machine Theory

Title of the Paper: Indexing the Fully Evolvement of Spatiotemporal Objects


Authors: Hung-Yi Lin

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel economic and efficient framework of indexing spatiotemporal objects based on compressed B+-trees. Our new index technique can compress data records in leaves and in turn reduce index size to improve update and query efficiencies. The contribution of our framework is threefold. First, the proposed index structures are more succinct to resident in the main memory. Second, sufficient data with high similarity inside all indexing pages for the high retrieval quality of cache fetches are attainable. Third, in addition to process multi-dimensional spatial information, our framework is typically appropriate to model the valid- and transaction-time of a fact. We present the index efficiency analyses and experimental results which show that our technique outperforms others.

Keywords: Spatio-temporal databases, Compressed B+-trees, Trajectories, Data aggregation, Storage utilization

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Meshes and Tori in an asymmetric Faulty Incrementally Extensible Hypercube with Unbounded Expansion


Authors: Jen-Chih Lin

Abstract: The paper considers the problem of finding meshes and tori in a Faulty Incrementally Extensible Hypercube if any. We develop novel algorithms to facilitate the embedding job when the Incrementally Extensible Hypercube (IEH) contains faulty nodes. We present strategies for reconfiguring a mesh or tori in an IEH with unbounded expansion. These simulation approach shows a mesh or torus can be embedded into a faulty IEH Gn(N) with load 1, congestion 1 and dilation 3 such that O(n2-?log2m ? 2) faults can be tolerated. Furthermore, the technology can be apply in grid computing and cloud computing.

Keywords: Incrementally Extensible Hypercube (IEH), hypercube, mesh, torus, embedding, expansion

Title of the Paper: Exploring the Perception and Behavior of Software Engineers about Computer Software Patent


Authors: Shann-Bin Chang, Shu-Min Chang

Abstract: Patent is one kind of the intellectual property, and the nature of patent institution is to accelerate the speed of innovation and invention. It is likely to the patent of computer software. But the opinion voiced by exponents of open source and free software is extremely opposed to patenting computer software. They are concerned the software patent acts as a barrier to technology improvement. This study employs a modified technological acceptance model (TAM) to explore the perception and behavior of software engineers, and examines the relationship between perception and management behavior about patent. The findings of this study are two-fold: 1. Most of the relations of this research model are positively significant, including knowledge of patent, dependency on patent, perceived usefulness of patent, perceived ease of use of patent, intention to use patent, and actual behavior of patent management; 2. The scales of firm and number of patents owned by firms have a significantly different effect from the above constructs, but the individual attributes of engineers are not significantly different from those constructs. Finally, this study provides two suggestions for future study: one is concerned with the willingness and capability of computer software inventors to codify invention; another concern the competency of absorbing the patent knowledge from computer software engineer. Based on these two aspects, researchers can achieve a deeper understanding of the knowledge innovation and technology diffusion.

Keywords: Patent, computer software, software engineer, technological acceptance model (TAM)

Title of the Paper: An Approach to Designing Distributed Knowledge-based Software Platform for Injection Mould Industry


Authors: Milko Marinov, Nicola Magaletti, Tsvetelin Pavlov, Fabian Gaus, Domenico Rotondi, Pavel Vitliemov, Slavina Ivanova

Abstract: Nowadays, the globalization of the manufacturing enterprises requires collaboration across frontiers. In order to attain effective collaboration, the information about the product life cycle must be captured and administrated in a way that supports the decision taken during the product development. In this context, the manufacturing process information needs to be shared between manufacturers. The moulding process is quite complex involving many variable process parameters like pressure, temperature and time settings. These process parameters have to be optimally set in order to improve part quality and maximize the production capacity of the injection moulding machine. In this paper we propose an approach to designing distributed knowledge-based software platform for injection mould industry. The user requirements to the software tools and the key features of our design are defined. The basic principles and the architecture of the software platform and decision support tools are considered.

Keywords: Distributed systems; Service-oriented architecture; Rule-based knowledge representation; Rule engine tools; User requirements analysis; Injection moulding

Issue 12, Volume 7, December 2010

Title of the Paper: Manpower or Relationships: An Empirical Study on Early Childhood Teachers’ Job Seeking


Authors: Yi-Gean Chen, Jao-Nan Cheng

Abstract: Chinese society values relationships; thus, this study attempts to discover if relationships are effective during job seeking. Due to a lower birth rate, many kindergartens in Taiwan have encountered difficulties in operation. This study investigates the following question: When recruiting teachers, will kindergartens focus on selecting candidates with higher education and professional certificates, in order to increase competitiveness, or will kindergartens focus on selecting candidates who have a relationship with the school? This study collected 1058 valid samples of teachers in 23 counties and cities in Taiwan, using stratified cluster random sampling. Results of statistical analysis showed that teachers with higher education, teaching experience, and professional certificates tend to acquire teaching positions with higher salaries. Moreover, educational factors significantly influence opportunities to acquire jobs in public early childhood education institutions, indicating that human capital is a priority. However, teaching positions secured using relationships tend to be in private institutions with lower salaries. Nowadays, in Taiwan, people need to invest in human capital in order to acquire ideal teaching positions in early childhood education, and not rely on relationships. The findings can serve as a reference for other countries influenced by Chinese culture.

Keywords: Early childhood teachers, occupation acquisition, human capital, favor relationship

Title of the Paper: The Factors Affecting Adoption Intention in Navigational Information System – A Study of Mariner’s Perception on Utilizing ECDIS


Authors: Hui-Ling Yu, Sheng-Fei Hsu

Abstract: Although the International Maritime Organization had approved electronic chart display and information system as a paper chart equivalent, parts of mariners still doubted of its feasibility on safe navigation. For analyzing mariner?¦s more or less hesitations on using such navigational information system, this study surveyed the samples of the students in the navigational department for understanding how the perceived risk affected the user?¦s adoption intention over and above perceivability of usefulness and ease of use on electronic chart display and information system by comparing the students with/without practical experience on board. Research found that perceived risk presented different levels of negative influences on user?¦s adoption intention directly and mediated through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use as well.

Keywords: International Maritime Organization (IMO), Electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS), Perceived risk, Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Adoption intention

Title of the Paper: Lifetime Based Routing Algorithm in Emergency Object Tracking


Authors: Yihjia Tsai, Wenfa Huang, Chengchin Lin

Abstract: Sensor networks have many applications, a typical setting is in nature environment monitoring, such as forest fire, tsunami, and earthquake. In order to be easily deployed in this environment, sensor device is design to have small form factor, and as lightweight as possible, thus, its battery capacity is limited. The issue of battery capacity is more important when applied in tracking moving objects, and when real time response of the system is critical where the routing algorithm do not need to perform data aggregation. This paper proposed a routing algorithm for tracking objects and perform emergency reporting when a situation occurred and at the same time reducing total energy consumption and thus prolonging the system lifetime. Our algorithm is called sensor on demand betweenness vector(SOBV). This algorithm is a multipath routing algorithm based on the characteristics of network topology.

Keywords: Betweenness, Network model, Routing algorithm, Object tracking

Title of the Paper: Effects of Interactively Virtual Reality on Achievements and Attitudes of Pupils- A Case Study on a Natural Science Course


Authors: Chun-Ming Hung, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Iwen Huang, Jiun-Ming Li

Abstract:This study aimed at investigating the effects of interactively virtual reality on learning achievements and attitudes of elementary school pupils to natural science. A quasi-experiment with unequal class pre-post evaluations was carried out. Within the 136 participants from four Grade 5 classes in an elementary school, 68 pupils from two classes were randomly assigned as the experimental group, while another 68 pupils from other two classes were the control group. Within the 80 minutes experimental teaching, the experimental group was instructed with interactively virtual reality, and the control group was taught with multimedia presentations. Regarding the process of experimental teaching, both groups received pretest, experiment, and post-test; and, the data were tested with covariance analyses. The findings showed that the learning achievement of the students in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, indicating that interactively virtual reality could effectively enhance the learning achievement of pupils. Regarding the learning achievement of different genders, both males and females did not present remarkable difference in learning with the virtual reality approach. Moreover, the average of questionnaire analyses on the attitudes to the application of actively virtual reality into the instruction was 4.46, showing that pupils affirmed the instruction with actively virtual reality.

Keywords: Virtual reality, natural science, mosquito, dengue fever, information technology


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