WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 8, 2011
Print ISSN: 1790-0832
E-ISSN: 2224-3402








Issue 1, Volume 8, January 2011

Title of the Paper: Investigating the Impacts of RFID Application on Supply Chain Dynamics with Chaos Theory


Authors: Chien-Yuan Su, Jinsheng Roan

Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification is regarded as the most cutting edge technology for the optimization of supply chain processes in recent years. Researchers of supply chain management have often suggested that the measurement of RFID benefits is very important. This research investigated how the different levels of a multi-level supply chain dynamically behave under the impacts of RFID application and offer insights into how to manage relevant supply chain factors to eliminate supply chain uncertainty. The study involved the simulation model to characterize the supply chain with the conventional beer distribution model and some modifications. We observed the supply chain dynamics under the influence of various factors: demand pattern, demand information sharing, lead time, and the degree of RFID application through the Lyapunov exponent calculating. Results of this study showed that the adjustment parameters for both inventory and supply line discrepancies, RFID application, and lead time are critical factors to influence the supply chain dynamics. To conclude, this research may be of importance in explaining the effects of RFID application and dynamic relationship between supply chain factors and the effective inventory, as well as in providing supply chain managers with an effective supply chain management and strategy of the investment of RFID technology.

Keywords: Supply chain management; RFID; Chaos theory; Lyapunov exponent; Beer distribution model

Title of the Paper: Using Geographical Information System for Implementing Resettlement Strategies in Mining Areas in Kosovo


Authors: Murat Meha, Blerim Rexha, Ismet Shala, Bedri Dragusha

Abstract: In this paper is presented a modern approach for developing and implementing resettlement strategy in mining areas in Kosovo using Geographic Information System. The main aim of such Geographic Information System is to digitally represent various geographical collected data linked to location. The geological map of Kosovo was analogous until year 2000. The lack of a modern information system about miming and settlement areas was deemed as one of the obstacles or difficulties faced by investment decision-makers. The property issues are considered to be directly related with expropriation. Properties registered in the register of rights over immovable property may not be deregistered for any purpose except for public needs. The developed information system will support the calculation of social impacts on the settlements in mining areas and will provide data visualization that will help when creating perceptions regarding mineral source utilization. The full local development benefits of mining can only effectively be realized if local settlement members support and understand mining activities. The most affected area is Kosovo coal basin, which has a surface about 270 km2 and about 44.021 inhabitants with many public, cult, business and industrial buildings. The final graphical and textual data is prepared in shape file stored in data base, which offers the possibility of usage by many geographic information systems. This software application is developed using latest ASP.NET platform, C as programming language and Microsoft SQL as database server. It shall server as unique tool for governmental decision makers and to contribute inputs to future policy and management decision-making in the mining and spatial sector.

Keywords: Database, Expropriations, Property, Geographic Information Systems, Minerals

Title of the Paper: A GA Based Approach to Improving the ICA Based Classification Models for Tumor Classification


Authors: Jian-Bing Xia-Hou, Kun-Hong Liu

Abstract: As it has been pointed out that different ICs are of different biological significance, this paper tries to explore the IC selection problem based on a set of experiments. A regression model and a classification model, referred as penalized independent component regression (P-ICR) and ICA based Support Vector Machine (ICA+SVM), are applied to illustrate the necessity and efficiency of IC selection. A genetic algorithm (GA) is deployed to the selection process, along with an early stopping technique deployed to avoid overfitting in evolution. In particular, the individuals in the selected generation are used to construct an ensemble system to achieve higher classification accuracy. We test the two models with and without the selection methods based on three microarray datasets. The experiment results demonstrate that IC selection methods can further improve the classification accuracy of the ICA based prediction models, and the GA is more effective than the original methods.

Keywords: Microarray data, Independent component analysis (ICA), Genetic algorithm (GA), Early stopping, Support Vector Machine(SVM), Overfitting

Title of the Paper: Design of SOA Integration for 3C Distribution Channel


Authors: Ying-Hong Wang, Jingo Chenghorng Liao

Abstract: In today’s market, peer competition is getting vigorous and distribution channel has become the key for enterprises to obtain competitive advantage and bargaining power. In the global competition business environment, market and demand is changing everyday, company’s distribution channel strategy must be agile enough to adopt change, while effective management of distribution channel is an important key for enterprises success. For many years, the development of business application is getting huge and complicated. Meanwhile, the system maintenance cost is getting higher. In addition, today’s variable business environment is continuously testing software’s lifecycle of these applications. In the keep changing business market, emerging technology and design model both enhance software development scale, and make it more complicated. This paper is aiming on rapid response on market demand and integrating of enterprise’s business process in global economy competition environment, meanwhile, flexibly adjust business rule to meet key ability of enterprise development. This paper proposes the standard specification of this blueprint, to enable every system in 3C Channel Distributor can support each other well. To formulate reliable component interfaces, we can deploy dynamically to achieve a better flexible SOA system. This paper also explains the integration bottleneck and difficulty of enterprise internal heterogeneous system and supplier’s heterogeneous data, in addition to solve problem and increase system agility to enable developers easily maintain system. We expect adopting SOA can increase enterprise and its supplier’s operating incoming and cost down.

Keywords: SOA, Web Services, MDA, Legacy System, Business Process Integration

Issue 2, Volume 8, February 2011

Title of the Paper: Developing Electricity Forecast Web Tool for Kosovo Market


Authors: Blerim Rexha, Arben Ahmeti, Lule Ahmedi, Vjollca Komoni

Abstract: In this paper is presented a web tool for electricity forecast for Kosovo market for the upcoming ten years. The input data i.e. electricity generation capacities, demand and consume are taken from the document “Kosovo Energy Strategy 2009-2018” compiled by Ministry of Energy of Kosovo and approved by the Kosovo Assembly. The web tool enables different settings for national electricity grid, divided in seven electricity consume regions, five interconnection lines and using domestic generation capacities, using existing power plants and those planed to be built until 2018. It enables different scenarios, such as increasing/decreasing electricity demand in different regions, energy import/export and increasing/decreasing generation capacities. The developed web tool was tested especially against boundary condition such as heavy increased/decreased energy consumption, i.e. beyond the planned economic growth of the country and the delay of starting time of new generation capacities. For these boundary conditions are proposed extra measures to be considered in order to fulfill the security of energy supply criteria. This web application is developed using latest ASP.NET platform, C as programming language and Microsoft SQL as database server. The web tool shall server as unique tool for governmental decision makers and to contribute inputs to future policy and management decision-making in the energy sector.

Keywords: Electricity Forecast, Simulation, Database, Internet, .NET, Web

Title of the Paper: Delay Coerced Multi Constrained Quality of Service Routing Algorithm


Authors: P. S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract: IP networks are evolving from data communication infrastructure into many tight-constraint applications such as video conferencing, IP telephony and require stringent Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. A rudimentary issue in QoS routing is to find a path between source-destination pair that satisfies two or more end-to-end constraints. A difficulty in multi constrained routing is that it is intractable. In this context, a multi constrained QoS routing algorithm, Delay Coerced Multi Constrained Routing (DCMCR) is proposed. It approximates (K-1) constraints while coercing one of the constraints. DCMCR is (1+α) (K-1) approximation algorithm and it finds a feasible solution whose first path weight is bound by the first constraint and approximating remaining (K-1) constraints. The proposed algorithm is applied where one of the constraints is strictly satisfied and it performs well by choosing appropriate values of α and constraint bounds. The variety of experimental validations is carried out on different scenario to analyze the performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: QoS routing, coerce, multi constraint, approximation algorithm, Additive, Intractable

Title of the Paper: Optimized Multi Constrained Path Quality of Service Routing Protocol


Authors: P. S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract: One of the key issues in providing Quality-of-Service (QoS) guarantees in packet networks is how to determine a feasible path that satisfies a set of additive constraint. Finding a path subject to multiple additive constraints is intractable. In this paper a distributed Optimized Multi Constrained Routing (OMCR) protocol is proposed that computes feasible paths at each node and routes the packets based on their destinations address. OMCR performs connectionless, hop-by-hop Internet Protocol routing and need not remember the global state of the network. It makes routing decision independently and therefore has the ability to respond to network dynamics swiftly. The volume of update messages are reduced significantly by using vector transform method and formation of loops reduced by addressing count-to-infinity issues effectively. OMCR protocol outperforms shortest path routing protocols both link-state and distance vector in terms of convergence time, success ratio and message overhead.

Keywords: Quality-of-Service, Constrained path, Additive, Routing, Distance vector, Intractable

Title of the Paper: TM: A Development Technique for E-Government 2.0 Portals


Authors: Faras Zuheir Mustafa Mohamed, Saravanan S. Muthaiyah, Arman K. Nassirtoussi

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the software community to TM (Total Mashup): a conceptual software development technique for building and developing e-government 2.0 portals as total mashups. The range of current development approaches and technologies are compared and a particular conceptual development technique with a specific set of technologies is proposed to be instrumental to the development process of e-government 2.0 portals. TM is tested via a real-life prototype that targets the government research community. The outputs of the prototype are discussed and analyzed. TM has various added advantages to the conventional development processes in terms of time efficiency and collaboration. It is a unique technique to enhancing the e-government 2.0 portals development process.

Keywords: E-government 2.0, Web 2.0, portal, mashup, Java, and API

Title of the Paper: Sprague Dawley Rat Sperm Classification Using Hybrid Multilayered Perceptron Network


Authors: Mohd Fauzi Alias, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Mahanem Mohamed

Abstract: As of now, the analysis of sperm such as counting and detection processes are still operated manually which tends to produce errors. False detection in sperm analysis must be minimized as possible. Therefore, the current study focuses on developing a Sprague Dawley rat sperm classification system to assist the detection process by pathologist. The system has the ability to classify the Sprague Dawley rat sperm into two classes namely normal and abnormal based on the morphological characteristic of sperm’s head. The proposed system employs the Hybrid Multilayered Perceptron (HMLP) neural network trained with the Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm as the intelligent classifier tool. This study will also investigate three significant morphological characteristics of rat sperm’s head namely opened degree, width of the curve and template matching percentage as the input data for the HMLP network. Furthermore, this study urther classifies the abnormal sperm into hookless and banana shape. Promising result with 100% and 94.62% of accuracy has been achieved for two classes and three classes classification of rat sperm respectively.

Keywords: HMLP, MRPE, Sprague Dawley rat, Opened degree, Width of the curve, Matching percentage

Issue 3, Volume 8, March 2011

Title of the Paper: Economic Information Systems for Small and Medium Businesses and Evaluation of Return


Authors: Renata Myskova

Abstract: From manager’s viewpoint, the most fundamental requirement in the process of information gathering is simple and quick information obtaining process. That implies technically stated requirement – information system has to be technically capable of providing information in optimal rate, in the fastest and the safest possible manner. Next criterion stems from the structure of users, because their IT literacy and abilities in the area of computer technology can present a certain limitation of up-to-date technologies usage. Decision of implementation of new information system is, therefore, a problem including not only technical, economic, but also human aspects. The aim of this article is to describe valuation of return rate of information system used in practice and to present the valuation on an example. Further, analysis of ERP systems offered in the Czech Republic to small and middle-sized businesses is performed with relationship to managers’ requirements.

Keywords: Economic Information System, Requirement for Information System, Return of Investment

Title of the Paper: A Hybrid Approach to Continuous Valued Datasets Classifying based on Particle Swarm Optimization, Variable Precision Rough Set Theory and Modified Huang-index Function


Authors: Kuang Yu Huang

Abstract: This paper proposed a new hybrid method, designated as PSOVPRS-index method, for partitioning and classifying continuous valued datasets based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, Variable Precision Rough Set (VPRS) theory and a modified form of the Huang-index function. In contrast to the Huang-based index method which simply assigns a constant number of clusters to each attribute and in which the Rough Set (RS) theory is applied, this method could not only cluster the values of the individual attributes within the dataset and achieves both the optimal number of clusters and the optimal classification accuracy, but also extends the applicability of classification using VPRS theory. The validity of the proposed approach is investigated by comparing the classification results obtained for a real-world dataset containing stock market information with those obtained by PSORS-index method and pseudo-supervised decision-tree classification method. There is good evidence to show that the proposed PSOVPRS-index method not only has a better classification performance than the considered methods, but also achieves a more reliable basis for the extraction of decision-making rules.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Variable Precision Rough Set theory, PSOVPRS-index method, classification, discretization, pseudo-supervised classification method

Title of the Paper: A Qualitative Study of Swedish University Students' Perceptions and Experiences of Using Digital Media in Informal Learning


Authors: Alimohammad Aghazamani

Abstract: Background: Emergence of new capacities on information and communication technology have influenced educational activities of learners, in particular University students toward non-formal learning practices by using a various type of tools. A grounded theory approach was undertaken for this research. Purposive sampling and semi structured interviews were carried out with sample of 48 students in various majors in Faculty of Economy and Communication at Karlstad University in Sweden during the period January-June, 2010. Fifty six sessions of interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Six main themes emerging from this study included “Individual interests”, “Social motivations”,” Professional views”, ”General tools”, “Virtual communities” and “Professional digital tools”. A theoretical model was designed to represent the interrelationships between these six categories. The result of data analysis reveals that the students enable to address their learning needs via digital media in order to gain a large extent of information easily; they turn to more interactive educational activities based on digital means, such as using virtual and blogging communities, wikis and searching multimedia data on the internet. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Informal learning, digital media, virtual communities, ICT, formal learning

Issue 4, Volume 8 April 2011

Title of the Paper: Efficient Lower Bounding Procedures with Application in the Allocation of Virtual Machines to Data Centers


Authors: Jurgen Rietz, Rita Macedo, Claudio Alves, Jose Valerio De Carvalho

Abstract: Cloud computing is becoming an alternative model for delivering computing resources and services to endusers and companies. The configuration of the clouds raises many issues that come from the need to manage efficiently the available resources in the data centers and from the agreements on the quality of the service that must be delivered to the clients. One of the key issues in the operation of the clouds consists in determining how the workload should be distributed among the physical machines such that the utilization of the computing resources in the cloud computing data centers is maximized. In this paper, we address this latter problem. We describe in particular a set of new and fast procedures for computing lower bounds on the number of physical machines that are required by a cloud provider to execute efficiently a set of user applications (virtual machines). To compute the bounds, we formulate this virtual machine allocation problem as a bin-packing problem and we address some of its variants. All our lower bounding procedures are polynomial-time algorithms that rely on the use of maximal dual-feasible functions. These functions are parameter dependent. We describe the best set of parameters when the 1-dimensional variant of the problem is considered, and we discuss the complexity of the lower bounding procedures that are proposed. We report also on extensive computational experiments conducted on benchmark instances of the literature. The results of these experiments show the strength of the lower bounds described in this paper.

Keywords: Combinatorial optimization, Lower bounds, Maximal dual-feasible functions, Polynomial complexity, Virtual machine allocation problem, cloud computing

Title of the Paper: Advances in Fuzzy Temporal Relational Databases: A Review


Authors: Nadeem Mahmood, Aqil Burney

Abstract: This paper investigates the need for the development of fuzzy-temporal relational database model (FTRDM) and investigates some important and necessary issues and concepts for the development of such model. This paper highlights the importance of building temporal ontology for database application in the relational environment. The main emphasis is on the conceptual framework and paper presents important contributions made by the researchers in developing temporal relational models and temporal query languages. Most of the real world applications involve imprecise and uncertain data and fuzzy set theory has been extensively used by the researchers for the management of fuzzy (non-crisp) data in relational database environment. We propose the guideline for the representing imprecise and vague information concepts in a conceptual data model. The significant contributions in this area are also explored. Fuzzy data has its own dynamics and time has its own complexity, which leads to fuzzy-temporal or temporal-fuzzy models. This paper presents the methodology and concepts pertaining to the development of fuzzy and fuzzy temporal query language and surveyed the important contributions in this direction.

Keywords: Temporal ontology, temporal relational model, imprecise data, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy-temporal model, fuzzy-temporal query language

Title of the Paper: Radar HRRP Recognition Based on Discriminant Information Analysis


Authors: Jiansheng Fu, Xiaohong Deng, Wanlin Yang

Abstract: In radar HRRP target recognition, the quality and quantity of Discriminant Information (DI), which one is more important? Accompanied with this issue, the paper proceeds to delve into DI analysis, and accordingly, three fundamental DI extraction models are proposed, i.e., PGA, PIB and AIB. Among these models, PIB and AIB both aim to obtain Between-class DI (B-DI) from individual standpoints while PGA obtains Among-class DI (A-DI) from a general viewpoint; PGA and PIB are both used for passive recognition while AIB for active recognition. In order to externalize these models, we conduct Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) into them, and two GDA variations come forth, i.e., PIB-based GDA (PIB-GDA) and AIBbased GDA (AIB-GDA). Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate as follows. Firstly, although PGA prevails in pattern recognition, but the implementation prospect is hardly optimistic on account of the weak anti-fading ability of A-DI. Compared with PGA, PIB and AIB are both more suitable to multi-class discrimination due to the relative stability of B-DI. Secondly, in general, PIB-GDA is inferior to AIB-GDA but superior to GDA to many challenges, such as computational efficiency, target quantity, aspect and sample variation, noise disturbance, etc.

Keywords: Discriminant information, feature extraction, target recognition, generalized discriminant analysis

Issue 5, Volume 8, May 2011

Title of the Paper: Survey Software: A Data Collection Tool Based on the Principles of the Decision Board Analysis


Authors: Nageen Mustafa, Paul Kingston, Kamran Ahsan

Abstract: In 2002 the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) was established in the United Kingdom to help ensure safer recruitment decisions could be made for posts involving vulnerable persons. Specifically, the CRB may be utilised to facilitate safer recruitment decision-making practices by providing employers with wider access to an applicant’s criminal record information through a disclosure service. The disclosure service consists of both standard and enhanced checks, giving details of an applicant’s personal and criminal record information. However, how these checks are impacting upon recruitment decisions is yet to be examined. In order to identify how recruitment decisions are being made based upon CRB information, a computerised data collection tool based on the Decision Board Analysis Technique (DBA) entitled Survey Software Version 5 has been created. This software has the ability to administer a series of questionnaires and surveys. In doing so, data is simultaneously recorded, sorted and processed at the time of input. Databases, files, reports and forms are incorporated within the program, expanding its functionality. Further, an in-built security system, including a password protected interface, helps to ensure that all information that is entered into the software can be kept confidential. The focus of this paper is to explore the creation of Survey Software Version 5 as a tool in data collection surrounding the information utilised in the recruitment decision-making process.

Keywords: Criminal Records Bureau, Decision-Making, Data Collection, Computerised Survey Software, vulnerability

Title of the Paper: Multimodal Mood-based Annotation


Authors: Barbara Rita Barricelli, Mario Malcangi, Piero Mussio

Abstract: The paper presents an architecture for multimodal mood-based annotation systems. The architecture aims at the implementation of interactive multimodal systems to support communities of users in the creation and management of annotations in locative media projects. The annotations are multimodal in that they can be created and accessed through visual and audio interaction. The annotations are mood-based in that they reflect the mood of the user respect to the point of interest s/he is commenting. The paper presents a definition of multimodal mood-based annotation and a description of the architecture, illustrating in particular the interaction process between users and systems through the audio interface. A concrete application of the architecture is presented: an annotative locative media project aimed at supporting tourists in creating annotations related to the Valchiavenna valley in Italy.

Keywords: Communication, Multimedia, Multimodal, Audio, Annotation, Mood, Speech recognition

Title of the Paper: Enterprise Information Integration: People, Automation, and Complexity Concerns


Authors: Ionel Botef

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore how people, automation, and complexity can be effectively and successfully integrated into a manufacturing enterprise information system. This exploration is required because various studies showed that manufacturing enterprise information integration faces complex organisational, technical, and social shortcomings. Based on the paper's qualitative findings supported by authorities, evidence, or logic, essentially, it is argued that automation and information systems should focus, incorporate, and assist human, and that wisdom of simplicity in order to control complexity should prevail against the attempt to develop complex systems that usually are a consequence of unnecessary requirements. This also leads to the need for a multi-perspective research approach for solving enterprise integration problems.

Keywords: People, Automation, Complexity, Information, Integration

Issue 6, Volume 8, June 2011

Title of the Paper: General Properties of Staircase and Convex Dual Feasible Functions


Authors: Jurgen Rietz, Claudio Alves, J. M. Valerio De Carvalho

Abstract: Dual feasible functions have been used successfully to compute lower bounds and valid inequalities for different combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we show that some maximal dual feasible functions proposed in the literature are dominated by others under weak prerequisites. Furthermore, we explore the relation between superadditivity and convexity, and we derive new results for the case where dual feasible functions are convex. Computational results are reported to illustrate the results presented in this paper.

Keywords: Dual feasible functions, Maximal functions, Extreme functions, Dominance, Convex functions, Lower bounds.

Title of the Paper: An Effective and Adaptive Data Cleaning Technique for Colossal RFID Data Sets in Healthcare


Authors: A. Anny Leema, M. Hemalatha

Abstract: Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has seen increasing adoption rates in applications that range from supply chain management, asset tracking, Medical/Health Care applications, People tracking, Manufacturing, Retail, Warehouses, and Livestock Timing. This technology is used in many applications for data collection. The data captured by RFID readers are usually of low quality and may contain many anomalies. Data quality has become increasingly important to many organizations. This is especially true in the Medical/health care field because minute errors in it can cost heavy financial and personal losses. In order to provide reliable data to RFID application it is necessary to clean the collected data. SMURF is a declarative and adaptive smoothing cleaning technique for unreliable RFID data. However it does not work well when tag moves rapidly in and out of reader’s communication range. The errors need to be cleansed in an effective manner before they are subjected to warehousing. Factors such as inter tag distance , tag-antenna distance, number of tags in the read range of antenna, reader communication range, velocity of tag movement affect the data cleaning result. Our proposed algorithm considers these factors and also the missing tag information, tags that are mistakenly read as present dynamically in determination of the size of slide window. Simulation shows our cleansing approach deals with RFID data more accurately and efficiently. Thus with the aid of the planned data cleaning technique we can bring down the health care costs, optimize business processes, streamline patient identification processes and improve patient safety.

Keywords: RFID technology, significance of data quality, RFID Architecture, RFID middleware systems, cleaning methods, Data cleaning approaches

Title of the Paper: A Test of the Guillotine Restrictions Determination for a Rectangular Three Dimensional Bin Packing Problem


Authors: Daniela Marinescu, Alexandra Baicoianu

Abstract: This paper is an extended version of the paper [9] regarding to the rectangular three dimensional bin packing problem, where a bin is loaded with a set of rectangular boxes, without overlapping but with possible gaps. One of the most popular restriction for the solution of the 3D-bin packing problem is the guillotine restriction. The guillotine restriction requires that the packing patterns should be such that the boxes can be obtained recursively by cutting the bin in two smaller bins, until each bin will contains only one box and no box has been intersected by a cut. Our objective is to find a method to verify if a 3D bin-packing pattern has the guillotine constrains or not. For this purpose we use a weighed graph representations of a solution of the problem, the generalisation of this kind of representation obtained by us for 2D cutting-stock problem in [10, 11, 12].

Keywords: 3D bin-packing problem, guillotine constraints

Issue 7, Volume 8, July 2011

Title of the Paper: Development of an Information Platform for Training Graphic Construction Abilities


Authors: Chih-Han Chang, Woei-Luen Chen, Chih-Chen Chen, Sheng Chen, Tzu-Chin Chao, Sheng-Wen Hong, Yu-Luen Chen

Abstract: In clinical nurses, some of the examination tools of cognitive function are detection of the reaction for graphs. There are the examinations of visual recognition memory in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test (or Bender-Gestalt test) is a psychological assessment used to evaluate visual-motor functioning, visual-perceptual skills, neurological impairment, and emotional disturbances. This research seeks to import the RFID technology to do for the graphic training tools. The figures are composed by the tag. After the users read the tag by the RFID reader, the information will be passed to the server via the wireless communication module. Information can be immediately stored in the database to compare the data and computing operations, such as to obtain the tag location which the display to be read. The data are managed using database management systems, which store database contents, allowing data creation and maintenance, and search and other access. With the developed application, the user can see that the training course and test results, as a reference for medical personnel.

Keywords: RFID, Tag, Database, Server

Title of the Paper: The Growing-Tree Sorting Algorithm


Authors: Sherenaz Al-Haj Baddar, Sami Serhan, Hamed Abdel-Haq

Abstract: In this paper, a new sorting algorithm called the Growing-Tree Sorting Algorithm (GTSA) is proposed to sort a vector of items in a linear time. It implements a structured tree that stores the digits of each input integer and retrieves the integers in the correct order. If d is the maximum number of digits per input number and n is the input size, then it can be shown that the GTSA algorithm requires è(dn) time to sort both in its best and worst-case scenarios. It can be also shown that the best-case memory complexity of GTSA is è(d) and that the worst-case memory complexity is è(dn). To evaluate the performance of GTSA, it was compared with the radix and counting sort algorithms in terms of the memory they consume and their corresponding execution times. The experiments showed that GTSA was, in general, more memory-conservative than counting sort and radix sorting algorithms. The experiments also showed that the GTSA was faster than the radix and counting sort algorithms when the input size was relatively large and the input range was relatively small.

Keywords: Non-comparative sorting, linear-time sorting, tree, post-order traversal

Title of the Paper: An Empirical Study on Relationship of Need for Cognition, Attitudes, and Intention before Installation of Corporate E-learning Programs in Taiwan


Authors: Cheng Kai-Wen

Abstract: It’s known that business employees take the largest share of e-learning users. This figure highlights businesses’ attempt to deliver their core competencies through low-cost, convenient, and flexible e-learning mechanisms. However, while numerous previous studies have focused on the use of some corporate e-learning programs (CELP), little is known about the users' pre-installation reactions to CELP. This study focused on investigation into an international accounting firm’s CELP in the pre-installation phase. The relationship among users' need for cognition (NFC), attitudes towards corporate e-learning (ATT) and intentions for the use of corporate e-learning (INT) was explored. Findings of this study can illuminate that users’ NFC relates positively to the users’ ATT, and users’ ATT relates positively to the users’ INT.

Keywords: corporate e-learning program (CELP), accounting firm

Issue 8, Volume 8, August 2011

Title of the Paper: Optimal Eighth-Order Simple Root-Finders Free from Derivative


Authors: F. Soleymani

Abstract: The calculation of derivatives of a function mostly takes up a great deal of time and even in some cases, such as the existing problems in engineering and optimization, is impossible to be evaluated directly. Accordingly, an accurate derivative-free class of three-step methods is suggested for solving 􀝂(􀝔) = 0. The proposed three-step technique comprises four evaluations of the function per iteration. The analytical proof of the main contribution is given. And finally, the accuracy of the developed techniques is tested numerically by solving numerical examples.

Keywords: Kung-Traub Hypothesis, fourth-order, eighth-order; iterative methods, efficiency index

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Image Processing Techniques Using Neural Networks – A Review


Authors: Bharathi P. T., P. Subashini

Abstract: This paper reviews the application of artificial neural networks in image preprocessing. Neural networks, especially uses feed-forward neural networks, Kohonen feature maps, back-propagation neural networks, multi-layer perception neural networks and Hopfield neural networks. The various applications are categorized into a novel two-dimensional taxonomy. One dimension specifies the type of task performed by the algorithm, preprocessing, data reduction or feature extraction, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization. The other dimension captures the abstraction level of the input data processed by the algorithm that is pixel-level, local feature-level, structure-level, object-level, object-set-level and scene characterization. Each of the six types of tasks poses specific constraints to a neural-based approach. A synthesis is made of unresolved problems related to the application of pattern recognition techniques in image processing and specifically to the application of neural networks. By this survey, the paper try to answer what the major strengths and weakness of applying neural networks for image processing would be.

Keywords: Image preprocessing, Data reduction, Image Segmentation, Object recognition, Image understanding, optimization and Neural Networks

Title of the Paper: An Interpretive Analysis of Factors Contributing to Issues in Agribazaar’s Implementation


Authors: Nor Farzana Abd Ghani, Faudziah Ahmad

Abstract: Agribazaar, a one stop center for the Malaysian agricultural community is developed to facilitate agricultural community conduct businesses locally or globally online, specifically in terms of buying and selling agricultural products. After seven years of its implementation, no study has been made to evaluate the performance of the portal. The study conducted in the year 2007, evaluated the performance of Agribazaar in terms of utilization, awareness, satisfactory level of Agribazaar users and identified issues and challenges to the implementation of Agribazaar. The study adopts a qualitative research approach where qualitative data were collected through gathering users’ comments on Agribazaar from a specified range of date. Interviews were conducted with users, administrator, and developers. Focus group discussions were carried out to verify results. Interpretive analysis was used to evaluate data. Analysis on the total comments revealed seven major issues: portal usefulness, system administrator support, portal usability, content accuracy, relevant features, portal usefulness, and privacy and legitimacy. Agribazaar is considered as successful as it has helped to create business leads and has attracted many individuals and companies who are not directly involved with producing the agriculture product. A few suggestions were made to guide future enhancement on the portal. A concerted effort between the users, developers and owner of the system is most crucial in leveraging the business matchmaking potential of the portal.

Keywords: agribusiness, portal, Internet-based application, evaluation, issues and challenges

Issue 9, Volume 8, September 2011

Title of the Paper: HCI to Engage Design Team Members in IT-integrated Design Collaboration Process


Authors: Naeimeh Delavari, Normahdiah Sheikh Said, Rahinah Ibrahim, Muhamad Taufik Abdullah

Abstract: Design Collaboration is an activity that requires participation of project team members for organizing design tasks and sharing experience and information. Currently, in this process the project team members are yet to fully utilize computer technologies while communicating in non-collocated design collaboration. Correspondingly, many still prefer to communicate face-to-face. However, miscommunication and lack of efficient collaboration is observed among them. The purpose of this paper is to integrate Human Computer Interaction (HCI) in design collaboration process in order to engage design team members in IT-integrated design collaboration process. Based on the extensive literature survey analysis, we identify the current gaps and deficiencies in design collaboration process. Consequently, to fulfil the current gaps, the study proposes HCI solution to current non-collocated design collaboration process. The authors identify that engaging professionals in human computer interaction is a solution to the deficiencies of current IT-integrated design collaboration process. Our literature survey will include design collaboration in building project team, technology in communication, HCI and engagement studies. The result of this analysis and proposed solution is presented by a model. This model indicates that identification of key human factors during design collaboration process is essential to engage professionals in collaborating using IT/ICT technology. Additionally, the study recommends the key human factors supporting IT-supported design collaboration. Consequently, the identified key human factors will lead us to identify the most dominant parameters that engage design team members in IT-integrated design collaboration. It will potentially help to improve collaboration among team members trough IT technologies.

Keywords: Engagement, HCI, non-collocated design collaboration, human factor, IT-integrated design collaboration process, IT/ICT

Title of the Paper: Mixed-sampling Approach to Unbalanced Data Distributions: A Case Study involving Leukemia’s Document Profiling


Authors: Wu Qing Qiang, Liu Hua, Liu Kun Hong

Abstract: Leukemia’s types and their relationships to literatures are introduced, based on which data set about Leukemia for classification is constructed with original data sources, such as Cancer Gene Census, PubMed and gene2pubmed. The data set is imbalanced as the research object. Based on the introduction of current classification methods of imbalanced data set, the problems of sampling in imbalanced data set are analyzed, and mixed-sampling method is proposed to classify the Leukemia data set. The multi-class problem about Leukemia is transferred to a set of two-class problems. Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC) are used to evaluate the mixed-sampling method. Then, experiments are performed to verify the classification efficiency and stability of eight classification methods, and their classification results are comparatively analyzed. It can be found that the mixed-sampling method achieves the best performance. At last, the research work in this paper is concluded with a look forward to the future work.

Keywords: Leukemia, Literature Profiling, Imbalanced Data Distribution, Decision Tree, mixed-sampling, Ensemble Learning

Title of the Paper: Exploring the Performance Impact of Web-based Direct Procurement Systems: From the Perspective of Process Integration


Authors: Yi-Ming Tai

Abstract: In addressing the issue of value derived from Web-enabled direct procurement, this study attempts to investigate the impact of Web-based direct procurement systems on intra- and inter-organizational process integration capabilities and organizational performance. A sample of 131 manufacturing firms with experience participating in government-subsidized e-business development projects is surveyed, with resulting data subject to partial least squares analysis to investigate the performance impacts of Web-based direct procurement systems. The results reveal that implementing Web-based direct procurement systems enables firms to improve their intra- and inter-organizational process integration capabilities which, in turn, yield sustained gains in organizational performance.

Keywords: Web-based direct procurement system, Information technology value, Intra-organizational process integration capability, Inter-organizational process integration capability, Organizational performance

Issue 10, Volume 8, October 2011

Title of the Paper: The Study of Internet Applications in LabVIEW Teaching


Authors: Ching-Yi Chao, Chau-Shing Wang, Hsin-Ying Yang, Kun-Hung Hsieh, Tsair-Rong Chen

Abstract: This study is proposed to discuss the application of graphical programming software of LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) and the integrated interface technology of control system for development board through Internet teaching. Students can operate the lab computers to write programs and learn to utilize education board via the remote desktop built in the Windows operating system. Students can also observe immediately if their operation is accurate and if they can meet the requirements of each exercise with web cameras, designed in this study to achieve the teaching purpose of the integrated courses in LabVIEW system. Through the internet, students who have no lab equipment and software at home can not only learn earily without the limitation of time and space, but also obtain curriculurn efficiency to enhance career ability.

Keywords: LabVIEW, Education board, Internet, Online learning

Title of the Paper: BER Performance of an Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio Correlator Receiver


Authors: Giorgos Tatsis, Vasilis Christofilakis, Constantinos Votis, Panos Kostarakis, Leonidas Ivrissimtzis, Spyridon K. Chronopoulos

Abstract: This paper studies the characteristics of an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) communication system employing Impulse Radio techniques and, specifically, the effects of the matched filter of a correlator receiver in the performance of such a system. Such effects are evaluated in terms of the Bit Error Rate (BER) for a Binary Pulse Position Modulation (BPPM) scheme, in an indoor multipath propagation channel and in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The case of imperfect channel estimation is taken into account, while comparisons with perfect channel estimation are performed. The dependence of BER on parameters such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of estimation pilot pulses and correletor taps, is finally derived. It is shown that there is an optimum number of correlator taps for best BER performance depending on the channel estimation procedure.

Keywords: Ultra-wideband, Impulse Radio, correlator, BER

Title of the Paper: Role of Mobile Agent in Medical Information Retrieval in Mass Casualty Scene – A Performance Study in Web Environment


Authors: M. Vigilson Prem, S. Swamynathan

Abstract: Addressing health disorders at the early stage during mass casualty is one of the important issues to be thrown light nowadays. If mass casualty occurs in remote locations where proper health care equipments or analysis of medical information is not available, a special team must be appointed to monitor and control it. When an emergency occurs, especially in mass casualty incidents, lots of victims need medical attention. It is obvious that the faster and accurate the acquisition and analysis of data, the more effective the answer could be given. That is, the needs will be attended as early as possible and the affected population could be reduced. The common point in all cases is the analysis of information. Around it lies, the importance of responding to the emergency. Mobile agents play a vital role in communication between different remote locations. If the special team needs information from these locations or the remotely located medical officers needs information from the special team, mobile agents are useful. This paper discusses the use of mobile agent technology as an enabler of open distributed e-Health applications. More precisely, it describes the experiences based on this technology: concerning emergency scenarios.

Keywords: Mass Casualty, Emergency, Mobile Agents, Client-Server, Web Environment, Response Time, Throughput

Issue 11, Volume 8, November 2011

Title of the Paper: Computer Security Economics Based On Risk Analysis Of Multilevel Authentication Design For Access Control


Authors: Ford Lumban Gaol

Abstract: Several password techniques for multilevel authentication mechanism in the development of secondary password are presented. These include user-selected passwords, system-generated passwords, passphrases, cognitive passwords, and associative passwords. A comparative evaluation on the users memorability and users subjective preferences for those various password mechanisms was conducted. The Return on Investment (ROI) of the access control was calculated based on the result of the users memorability and risk analysis. From the comparative evaluation and the study on the ROI of the access control, it can be concluded that cognitive passwords and associative passwords appear to be the most appropriate techniques for secondary passwords.

Keywords: user preferred password, ease of recall, secondary password, return on investment, Cost Based Analysis, Value of Information

Title of the Paper: Estimation of HW/SW Cost Parameters in Altera FPGA Design Environment


Authors: M. Jagadeeswari, M. C. Bhuvaneswari

Abstract: This paper explains the method for obtaining Hardware/Software (HW/SW) cost parameters such as hardware area, hardware time, software area and software time using Altera FPGA design environment. HW/SW partitioning of FFT and JPEG FDCT are derived using multi-objective optimization techniques Weighted Sum Genetic Algorithm (WSGA), Elitist Non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm (ENGA) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization using Crowding Distance (MOPSO-CD) algorithms. Experimental results show that ENGA is effective in obtaining the HW/SW partition that obtains both minimum area and minimum time for both the applications.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, HW/SW partitioning, Multi-objective optimization, Pareto-optimal solutions

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Test Cases Using Soft Computing Techniques: A Critical Review


Authors: Manoj Kumar, Arun Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract: Software testing is the key technology for evaluating the fault detecting capability quantitatively. Software testing is very labor-intensive and expensive process. It is a core activity in quality assurance. Test cases minimization, selection, prioritization forms common thread of optimization. Test case optimization is a multi-objective optimization, peculiar nature and NP-Complete problem. However, by applying appropriate test case optimization techniques, these efforts can be reduced considerably. Moreover, by using the multi-objective optimization of test cases with test data adequacy criteria and automation of testing process will help in improving the overall quality of the software. Present paper gives the insight into existing single objective test cases optimization techniques such as Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization, Hybrid Genetic, Intelligent Search Agent Techniques, Particle Swan Optimization, Graph based Intelligent Techniques, Hybridization of Soft Computing techniques devised by various researchers or practionners by using single parameter like number of defect detecting capability, cost, efforts, coveragebility of requirement/ code and quality of the results. In addition to this, it highlights some research issues relating to above.

Keywords: Multi-Objective Optimization, Soft Computing Techniques, Test Cases, Test Data Adequacy Criteria

Issue 12, Volume 8, December 2011

Title of the Paper: On Improving the Performance of Multimodal Biometric Authentication through Ant Colony Optimization


Authors: L. Latha, S. Thangasamy

Abstract: Multimodal biometric authentication systems are now widely used for providing the utmost security owing to its better recognition performance compared to unimodal systems. Multimodal biometric systems are developed by combining the information of individual biometrics. In this paper, a multimodal biometric system is proposed by combining the scores of iris and palm print traits of a person. This information fusion takes place at the matching score level, due to the ease in accessing and combining the scores generated by the two different matchers. Since the matching scores output by the two modalities are heterogeneous, score normalization is needed to transform these scores into a common domain, prior to combining them. The normalized values are then applied to various score fusion methods. The resulting scores are compared to a threshold value for taking a decision of accepting or rejecting the person. The recognition accuracy of fusion methods strongly depend upon the correctness of this threshold value. Hence we propose Ant colony optimization (ACO) technique for selecting the optimal threshold value for each of the fusion method employed. This approach further enhances the accuracy of the system compared to the fusion methods with no optimal threshold. The experimental results obtained using CASIA iris and palm print databases show that the application of ACO results in higher recognition rates and lower error rates. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first work that applies ACO to enhance the accuracy of biometric authentication process.

Keywords: ACO, Biometrics, Multimodal, Normalization, Product, Score fusion, Sum

Title of the Paper: The Returns Policy for Perishable Commodities under Fuzzy Demand


Authors: Shu-Hui Chang, Shih-Heng Pao, Jeng-Yan Tsai

Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the returns policy on channel coordination and Pareto efficiency in a two-echelon supply chain with fuzzy demand. As in the traditional probabilistic analysis, we prove that the profits for the whole supply chain, the manufacturer and the retailer in the coordination situation are larger than the corresponding one in the non- coordination situation. Not like the probabilistic analysis, the optimal quantity is not unique in fuzzy demand. The goal of channel coordination and Pareto efficiency can be achieved by the returns policy if the optimal quantity is smaller than the most possible value of fuzzy demand; otherwise, it may not be achieved.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Returns policy, channel coordination, Pareto efficiency, Double marginalization, Partial refund, The participation constraint

Title of the Paper: A Demand-Driven Architecture for Web-Based Tracking Systems


Authors: Bing-Fei Wu, Ying-Han Chen, Po-Chia Huang

Abstract: With the convergence of the Internet and the Global Positioning System (GPS), a common approach called GPS tracking system has been developed nowadays. A GPS tracking system uses GPS to determine the precise location of a vehicle, person, or other assets and shares information with remote clients through the Internet. In the outdoors, the device usually connects to the Internet through mobile networks like GPRS or 3G. However, the weaknesses of a mobile network are low bandwidth and high charging strategies compared to Ethernet or Wi-Fi. In this paper, a demand-driven architecture for web-based tracking systems is presented. By integrating several technologies nowadays, this architecture is designed to improve the efficiency for the location-aware applications. The proposed architecture focuses on two problems. One is the redundant connection, causing the waste of bandwidth and fees during the connection period in the mobile network. The other is the data asynchronization during the period of transmission. We not only addressed the connection scheme to solve above issues, but also designed a prototype on an embedded platform for web-based tracking systems. The performance has also been evaluated for the total latency time when a user exploits different communication medium, and the results showed that the user can monitor the status of target in real time even in the worst case.

Keywords: GPS, redundant connections, asynchronization, tracking


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