WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 5, 2010
Print ISSN: 1991-8747
E-ISSN: 2224-3429








Issue 1, Volume 5, January 2010

Title of the Paper: Research on the Stability Problem of Hydroelectric Station Penstock under External Pressure Based on Neural Network


Authors: Chenghua Dang, Tieguo Ji, Xinpei Jiang

Abstract: The stability of steel penstock under external pressure is a main factor of penstock design in hydroelectric station. Since the assumption conditions and the boundary conditions are simplified in the currently existing methods, the obtained computing results have low accuracy level and every method has its limitation. In this present paper, we apply artificial neural network model and improved BP algorithm to this problem with more complicated conditions and factors. By analyzing the influences on losing stability and breach for reinforcing ring steel penstock caused by diameter-to-thickness ratio of the steel tube, size and space of reinforce rings, a new research approach is obtained and test results show this method is feasible and its validity is verified. This paper provides an efficient solving path for stability problem of reinforcing ring steel penstock under external pressure. Furthermore, we use this method to Chinese Yachihe hydroelectric power station design, the computing results show this method is reliable, economic and fully satisfies the project requirements.

Keywords: Penstock, Stability calculation under external pressure, Neural network, Simulated annealing algorithm

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Thermal Damage on Homogenized Multi-Materials under Thermo-Mechanical Behavior


Authors: Bilal Taher, Said Abboudi, Rafic Younes

Abstract: In the recent high technologies, the increasing need of structures having multiple functions orientates designers to combine materials in order to obtain, according to coupling scales, multi-materials structures. These structures, while functioning, are subject to variable thermal load, leading to a damage that can be fatal in some applications. So, the study of the behavior of these structures, while they are under thermal cycling solicitations, seems to be very important in order to be able to predict their lifetime and their response to any applied solicitation. It is obvious that the variation of the nature of thermal and mechanical solicitation in term of amplitude and frequency leads to a variation of the resulting damage. But at the level of our knowledge, this effect is not studied before in the literature on multi-materials. In this work, we propose a numerical analysis of the thermo-elasto-plastic behavior of these multi-materials and their damage under thermal cyclic solicitations, while using the homogenization technique. This study is done in two dimensions on a cylindrical multi-material constituted of two layers, subjected to a periodic heat flux applied in the inner face of this cylinder and an exchange condition on the opposite face. The other faces are supposed isolated. The sample is supposed fixed at the isolated faces and free in the radial direction. The damage model is based on the works of Lemaitre and Chaboche [6]. This damage model is not done for multimaterials; it is applicable only to one material apart. So the homogenization of these multi-materials permits us to study the damage of the multi-layers as it is a unique material. the numerical results are presented for different forms and frequency of heat flux cycling (triangular, square and sinusoidal wave excitations) and for different thicknesses of the multi-material. Finally we do a comparison of the multi-material damage with respect to different heat flux excitations.

Keywords: Thermal stress, thermo-mechanical, damage, thermo-elasto-plastic, coupling, multi-material, cycling, thermal load

Title of the Paper: Real Time Orbit Determination with Different Force Fields


Authors: Vivian Martins Gomes, Antonio F. B. A. Prado, Helio Koiti Kuga

Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation system that allows the users to determine 3D positioning and the time with high precision. Its main purposes are: aid to radionavigation in three dimensions with high precision positioning, navigation in real time, time synchronization, global coverage and quick acquisition of data signal sent by the GPS satellites. In this work, it is proposed to estimate, in real time, an orbital state vector composed by position, velocity, bias and drift of the GPS receiver clock on board satellites by processing the raw navigation solution obtained by the on-board receiver. In this work the Kalman filter is used to estimate the state vector based on the stepwise incoming navigation solution from the receiver. The Kalman filter is used due to its robustness in real time applications, without unnecessary storage of observations, as they can be processed while being collected. The filter dynamic model includes perturbation due to geopotential, solar radiation pressure and perturbations due to the Sun and the Moon and the observations are the raw navigation solution composed of position and receiver clock bias. Simulations and tests are done using actual data from TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. For performance assessment, a comparison is done between the estimated state vector and the precise orbit ephemeris (POE) produced by JPL/NASA.

Keywords: Astrodynamics, artificial satellites, orbital dynamics

Title of the Paper: Stability Analysis for Neo-Hookean Machine-Tools Foundations


Authors: Nicolae–Doru Stanescu, Stefan Tabacu

Abstract: It is well known that the vibrations are a major cause for the instability in the mechanical systems and major source of noises. In this paper we propose a simple system with two degrees of freedom based on a non-linear elastic element and the hypothesis for the coefficients of the elastic force.. For this system, it is proved in the present paper that the motion is stable, but not asymptotically stable. A comparison between the non-linear case and the linear case is performed, and for the both cases the eigenpulsations are also determined. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulation. Finally, we considered the general case.

Keywords: Neo-Hookean, motion, stability, numerical validation

Title of the Paper: Structure Design for TUUSAT-1A Microsatellite


Authors: Chin-Feng Lin, Zuu-Chang Hong, Jeng-Shing Chern, Chien-Ming Lin, Bo-Jyun Chang, Chen-Joe Fong, Huan-Jung Lin

Abstract: One of the main advantage of microsatellites is their small size. The reliability, safety, and effectiveness of the satellite structure play an important role in the normal operation of the satellite. The satellite structure should be designed that it supports all subsystems, and payloads. The satellite structure should be stable against vibration and environmental factors during the rocket launch, in order to ensure normal operation of the other subsystems and payload. When designing a satellite, we take into account the features of the attitude control subsystem, thermal control subsystem, and solar energy subsystem, which are essential for stable operation, as well as the reliability of the structure. In this article, we discuss a structure design for the Taiwan Universities United Satellite NO.1A (TUUSAT-1A) microsatellite. The satellite is a cube with an edge of 28 cm. The surface of the satellite is covered by six aluminum plates, each of which has a solar chip attached to it. The satellite mainly comprises four layers-each layer is an aluminum plates that form a single aluminum alloy block.

Keywords: Structure, microsatellite, reliability, safety, effectiveness, stable operation

Title of the Paper: Application of Analytic Functions to the Global Solvabilty of the Cauchy Problem for Equations of Navier-Stokes


Authors: Asset Durmagambetov

Abstract: The interrelation between analytic functions and real-valued functions is formulated in the work. It is shown such an interrelation realizes nonlinear representations for real-valued functions that allows to develop new methods of estimation for them. These methods of estimation are approved by solving the Cauchy problem for equations of viscous incompressible liquid.

Keywords: Shroinger, Cauchy problem, Navier-Stokes', inverse, analytic functions, scattering theory

Title of the Paper: Theory of High Rate of Fire Automatic Weapon with Together Bound Barrels and Breeches


Authors: Jiri Balla, Lubomir Popelinsky, Zbynek Krist

Abstract: The paper decribes the principle of the weapon with together bound of barrels and breeches at first. Then the kinematics and dynamics of the weapon mechanism with the crank mechanism inserted between the breech block and breech block carrier is discussed. Equations enabling the theoretical solution of the gas operated drive of the weapon mechanism are explained. The imagination about the utilization of the theory mentioned gives the results of the solution of the real weapon at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Crank mechanism, Breech, Gas flow, Equation of motion, Pressure in barrel, Discharge coefficient

Title of the Paper: Measuring the Creep and Material Properties of Cement Paste Specimens


Authors: Pavel Padevet, Petr Bittnar

Abstract: The paper describes creep tests of the small specimen, and analyses the material properties of cement pastes. Material properties were tested in compression tests. Creep of cement pastes was tested on the cylindrical specimens with diameter 10mm. Tests were focused for the pastes made from Portland cement CEM I and CEM II and water, whose water-cement ratio was 0.3; 0.4 and 0.5. Tested specimens for measurement of creep were waterlogged and dried. Shrinkage of cement specimens was measured too. After finalization of the measuring were specimens used for compression tests and Modulus of elasticity was measured. History of creep, material properties, history of specimens are inputs for simulation by finite element method.

Keywords: Cement paste, shrinkage, creep of cement paste, concrete specimen, compression test, lever mechanism

Title of the Paper: On the Reduction of Accelerations Transmitted to Transported Freight for the 4-Axle Platform Car with Mobile Cover


Authors: Tanasoiu Aurelia, Copaci Ion

Abstract: The shock caused by the collision of railway vehicles determines the transmission of forces and accelerations to the vehicles, which may lead to unwanted consequences. In order to reduce the effects of the shock, vehicles are equipped with shock insulators. The paper presents a unique theoretical approach, completed with an experimental study on the efficiency of long-displacement dampeners in regards to reducing the response amplitude of the mechanical system comprising the two colliding vehicles.

Keywords: Shock insulators, long-displacement dampener, stored and dissipated potential deformation energy, accelerations and forces transmitted during shock

Title of the Paper: Cooling Demand in Commercial Buildings - The Influence of Daylight Window Design


Authors: Hendrik Voll, Teet-Andrus Koiv, Teet Tark, Monika Sergejeva

Abstract: The objective of the paper is to show how window design could influence the peak cooling load, daylight availability and direct sun penetration for a south facing office room in North European circumstances latitude about 59 ~ 60°. A daylight window is compared with an ordinary window to find out the design consequence differences. Both size and cost of the HVAC system needed to avoid unacceptably high room temperatures in office buildings depend on the peak load. In office rooms with windows this peak load is usually decided by the solar irradiation. Therewith the architectural design is decisive for the HVAC solutions needed. The Seattle Daylighting Lab heliodon table has been used to analyze daylight window potential in North European circumstances in decreasing the peak cooling load and glare from direct sun by blocking the direct solar rays from entering the room. Finally, outgoing from simulations, daylight and solar tests, the possible combination of window glass share and solar factor for fulfilling the requirements for the highest accepted dimensioning cooling load and lowest accepted daylight level for daylight window compared to ordinary window are presented.

Keywords: Commercial buildings, building design, window share, solar factor, cooling load, daylight factor, daylight window

Title of the Paper: Towards Automated Visual Inspection and Classification of Micro-Parts


Authors: Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Michael Lutjen, Hendrik Thamer, Tobias Lensing

Abstract: The mechanical manufacturing of micro-parts is a challenging field of research. Because of high quality requirements and small tolerances, manufacturing processes have to be very stable and precise. In order to achieve high precision a suitable quality assurance concept is required. Only measured features can be used for statistical process control (SPC). Therefore, this paper presents a concept of an automated visual inspection and classification methods for micro-parts. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, high-resolution 3D-height maps with depth selectivity are obtained. The identification of surface imperfections is done with a set of conventional image processing techniques. Afterwards, these kinds of surface defects are classified by the use of classification methods like decision trees.

Keywords: Micro-Production, Deep-Drawing, Machine Vision, Quality Control, Height Maps

Issue 2, Volume 5, April 2010

Title of the Paper: A Research of Digitizing Ship Design and Stability Analysis


Authors: Wei-Yuan Dzan, Hung-Jen Yang, Hsueh-Chih Lin

Abstract: Based upon the digitizing technology, computer applications play roles in many ways to contribute toward our industries, such as publication, mobile learning, and specified communication. The ship design and manufacturiThe Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) have characteristics of qualities to be light, intensity and does not rust or erode easily, often uses on the yacht, the skiff, the fishery or the special use vessel. The economic output value and total length of Taiwanese yacht are the top five of the world, which accounts for above 80% belongs to the FRP vessel. Obviously, the FRP vessel manufacturing in the shipbuilding aspect are in a pivotal status. This research applied the digitizing technique of 3D design, the special customizing of 3D embryonic form the research and development motor skiff carried on the hull computation, the propulsion system and the still water performance analysis and so on, the experiment corrects the optimization vessel design model. Then, by ways of the CAD/CAM system, 3D of the hull chart the outstanding design, the lofting will draw up the hull cross section, the longitudinal section and the horizontal section. Compiling various sectional drawings to form the computer numerical control machine (CNC) programming language, That produced various types cross section core of wood plate, by the way of computer numerical control cutting with machine center. Setting up the above plate, and smooth the shape, the basis, attrition polishing and surface processing, completes the vessel wooden pattern prototype. Then delivers the original FRP mold after the wooden pattern prototype, by the vacuum the basic way completes manufacture of the power speed boat hull. Finally, after the installation of vessel and the dynamic system disposition finished, accuracy of the launching test run confirmation computation theory and the 3D design practice, in order to help entering the step research and development design. This research is conducted by National Kaohsiung Marine University department of naval architecture, during one year and six month teaching regulation, we had completed research and development of practice experience the length 9 meters motor skiff, not only originates the domestic school, researches and develops precedent of self-reliantly the manufacture motor skiff, also provides FRP of straggling parameter and the improvement direction the vessel 3D design manufacture.

Keywords: Fiberglass reinforced plastic, CAD/CAM, 3D design, skiff

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Induction Brazing for Thin-Walled Aluminum Tubes


Authors: Mircea Nicoara, Aurel Radula, Laurenliu Roland Cucuruz, Cosmin Locovei

Abstract: Major environmental concerns have triggered lately some important developments in applicative research. Innovation programs for manufacturing industry are intended to achieve both lower emissions of carbon dioxide and smaller specific energy consumption. Since use of inductive brazing for aluminum has remained restricted to few applications, a complex research program has been pursued in order to develop an optimized joining technology for tubes with thin walls. The new technology should be suitable for large scale production, to replace torch brazing at better costs and lower carbon dioxide emissions. An experimental study, which includes complete design of technology and equipment for inductive brazing, has proved that use of induction could produce high quality joints and eliminate the considerable scrap level generated by torch brazing. Induction brazing also lowers energy consumption and totally eliminates direct emission of carbon dioxide.

Keywords: Emission-free technology, Induction brazing, Thin-wall aluminum tubes, Reduced energy consumption

Title of the Paper: On the Dynamics of a Planetary Transmission for Renewable Energy Systems


Authors: Jaliu Codruta, Saulescu Radu, Diaconescu Dorin, Neagoe Mircea, Climescu Oliver

Abstract: The speed increaser placed between a turbine and a generator in a small hydro plant has to multiply the input speed so that the generator to function at its best efficiency. The analyzed speed increaser is an innovative planetary chain transmission that was proposed by the authors. The dynamic model of the chain speed increaser is presented in the paper based on Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods. The dynamic modeling allows the establishment of the working point in stationary regime for the turbine – speed increaser – generator assembly. The results guarantee the good functioning of the physical prototype of small hydropower plant in certain conditions.

Keywords: Planetary speed increaser, dynamics, numerical simulation, small hydro

Title of the Paper: Development of Mathematical Models for Analysis of a Vehicle Crash


Authors: Witold Pawlus, Jan Eivind Nielsen, Hamid Reza Karimi, Kjell Gunnar Robbersmyr

Abstract: Nowadays, each newly produced car must conform to the appropriate safety standards and norms. The most direct way to observe how a car behaves during a collision and to assess its crashworthiness is to perform a crash test. Because of the fact that vehicle crash tests are complex and complicated experiments it is advisable to establish their mathematical models. This paper contains an overview of the kinematic and dynamic relationships of a vehicle in a collision. There is also presented basic mathematical model representing a collision together with its analysis. The main part of this paper is devoted to methods of establishing parameters of the vehicle crash model and to real crash data investigation i.e. – creation of a Kelvin model for a real experiment, its analysis and validation. After model’s parameters extraction a quick assessment of an occupant crash severity is done.

Keywords: Modeling, vehicle crash, Kelvin model, data processing, ridedown criterion

Title of the Paper: A Rigid-Plastic Hybrid PCM/FEM for Metal Forming Problems


Authors: Yong-Ming Guo, Shunpei Kamitani

Abstract: Point collocation methods (PCM) have some advantages such as no mesh, no integration. While, the robustness of the point collocation methods is an issue especially when scattered and random points are used. To improve the robustness, some studies suggest that the positivity conditions can be important when using the PCMs. For boundary points, however, the positivity conditions cannot be satisfied, so that it is possible to get large numerical errors from the boundary points when using the point collocation methods. Specifically, the errors could arise in point collocation analyses with complicated boundary conditions. In this paper, by introducing a boundary layer of finite element in boundary domain of workpiece, unsatisfactory issue of the positivity conditions of boundary points can be avoided, and the complicated boundary conditions of metal forming can be easily imposed with the boundary layer of finite element. A modified MLS approximation is also proposed, its shape functions have Kronecker-delta property. Therefore, the unsatisfactory issue of the essential node condition can be avoided in the modified MLS approximation. To obtain very simple formulas of the shape function derivatives, the local coordinates are used in the hybrid PCM/FEM. An axisymmetric forging problem is analyzed by using the rigid-plastic hybrid PCM/FEM.

Keywords: Hybrid method, Meshless method, Point collocation method, FEM, Kronecker-delta property, Positivity conditions, Local coordinates, Metal forming

Issue 3, Volume 5, July 2010

Title of the Paper: Using Finite Element Method in Geotechnical Design. Soil Constitutive Laws and Calibration of the Parameters. Retaining Wall Case Study


Authors: Horatiu Popa, Loretta Batali

Abstract: Using FEM for geotechnical design of constructions with high impact of the soil – structure interaction is a common practice. However, for obtaining results close to the real behavior of the analyzed structures it is required to use complex constitutive models for all materials, especially for describing the soil behavior. Paper presents the differences in the numerical modeling when three different constitutive laws are used: one linear elastic – perfectly plastic and two nonlinear elastic - hardening plastic laws. Comparisons between numerical modeling and laboratory tests are presented in order to emphasize the differences between the constitutive laws and to calibrate their parameters. As well, a numerical calculation using FEM for an embedded retaining wall is presented, using different soil constitutive models. The results regarding the displacements of the wall and the bending moments in the wall are compared with the experimental values.

Keywords: Numerical modeling, finite element method, soil mechanics, Mohr-Coulomb, Nova, Vermeer, retaining wall

Title of the Paper: Comparison of FEA and Experimental Results for a Steel Frame Connection


Authors: Adrian Ivan, Marin Ivan, Ioan Both

Abstract: The paper presents the results and the similarity between the experimental test and FEA of a steel frame connection. The same connection is analyzed in two situations. The second case analyses the connection having some of the elements strengthened in order to increase the capacity of the specimen. The analysis is performed using solid finite element and is compared to the experimental test performed in the laboratory. Several considerations, such as identical conditions for force definition, have to be taken into account in order to obtain good results.

Keywords: Deformed shape, strengthen, strain gauge, boundary conditions, stresses

Title of the Paper: On the Influence of Residual Stresses on Fatigue Fracture of Railway Axles


Authors: Aurel Raduta, Cosmin Locovei, Mircea Nicoara, Laurentiu Roland Cucuruz

Abstract: Influence of residual stresses on the fatigue propagation of cracks represents a major concern for important components subject to complex loading. The purpose of present research is to numerically predict the lifetime of axles used for railway tank wagons in various theoretical conditions. The developed procedure is based on both calculating residual thermal stresses by mean of finite element method, and the number of cycles to fracture, using the closed form solution of NASGRO equation for fatigue. Calculations of fatigue resistance are based on fatigue crack development starting from an initial crack detectable by means of non-destructive testing. The numerical prediction of number of cycles (or kilometers) to fracture for axles belonging to railway tank wagons has proved the deep negative impact of residual thermal stresses introduced by poorly controlled heat treatments or other processing procedures.

Keywords: Fatigue fracture, NASGRO equation (Forman–Newman–de Koning equation), Von Misses stresses, Finite element analysis (FEA), Residual thermal stresses, Lifetime prediction.

Title of the Paper: Optimal Design of Heating Elements Sheathed with INCOLOY Superalloy 800


Authors: Aurel Raduta, Mircea Nicoara, Laurentiu Roland Cucuruz, Cosmin Locovei

Abstract: Electric heating has become in recent years the first choice for both industrial and household applications, since reduction of carbon dioxide emissions represents a major concern, and has caused replacement of solutions based on burning of gas or oil. Considering the importance of low energy consumption and increased functional safety, significant efforts have been made for design optimization. Microstructural analysis has determined that most of failures reported during exploitation and maintenance of electric heaters for production of hot water are caused by overheating of metallic components, although existing components are usually fabricated from heat resistant steels or super-alloys such as INCOLOY 800. Therefore constructive optimization has been based of an analysis of temperature distribution in heated water and on surface of heating element, using the finite elements, for both classical solutions, which are mostly based on empirical experience, and some new technical solutions that have been proposed to improve the existing design experience. The newly optimized solutions are based on new forms of heating elements, as well as different positions for water inlet or outlet. Simulations of temperature distributions indicate that optimized shapes of heating element are likely to improve both heating efficiency and reduce occurrence of failures.

Keywords: INCOLOY 800, Heat transfer, Pitting corrosion, Fluid flow, Electric heating, Finite elements

Issue 4, Volume 5, October 2010

Title of the Paper: Applicability Analysis of 2D-Models for Masonry Arch Bridge Assessment: Ring, Archie-M and the Elasto-Plastic Model


Authors: Amaryllis Audenaert, Johan Beke

Abstract: A lot of different tools are available for the assessment of masonry arch bridges:experimental formulae,2D-models and finite-element models and discrete-element models (2D as well as 3D) . Due to the complex behaviour of the arches and the disability of determine the material properties of the arch and the infill of these ancient constructions, many different suppositions have been made for the different models. Until now there is not yet a generally accepted method for assessment. This study covers a comparison of some 2D assessment tools. Three models are compared based on a case study: Ring, Archie-M and an elasto-plastic model. It is concluded that every model has advantages and disadvantages. Thus it cannot be stated which model should be preferred.

Keywords: Masonry arch bridge, assessment methods, collapse load, comparison study, Ring, Archie-M, elastoplastic model

Title of the Paper: Quantitative and Qualitative Study on the State of Stresses and Strains of the Strength Structure of a Crane Bridge


Authors: Camelia Bretotean Pinca, Gelu Ovidiu Tirian, Ana Josan, Gladiola Chete

Abstract: In heavy-duty material handling equipment, major concern is optimum utilization of material for equipment construction without sacrificing the design parameters. To understand this aspect and also to validate the design, as this kind of equipment are vital part of any manufacturing industry, finite element analysis is one of the best method that can be used extensively. This paper work provides a modeling of the structural strength of a crane bridge, in operation for 15 years in the continuous casting department of a steel plant. Due to the importance of the cranes bridge within the technological processes in which they are involved, either from the point of view of steel consumption or functionality, their resistance calculation, during the design phase and after a certain operation period, constitutes a permanent field of investigation which aims a faithful schematization to be used in further modeling, appropriate for our target. Modeling will be done with the aid of a COSMOS/M software in two numerical variants using beam3 and shell 3 type finite element. This paper work is meant for checking out the limit state of the structure subject to normal operation, which involved the evaluation of its reaction while under working in terms of quantity and quality. In quantitative terms, we have revealed that the structure had reserves of strength; qualitatively speaking it had confirmed the validity of modeling.

Keywords: Crane bridge, modeling, strength, structure, finite elements, shell

Title of the Paper: Resistance of Thin-Walled Plate Girders under Combined Bending and Shear


Authors: Zdenek Kala, Jiri Kala

Abstract: The objective of the paper is to analyze the influence of initial imperfections on the behavior of thin-walled girders welded of slender plate elements. A number of full-scale plate girders are modeled and analyzed to determine their bending and shear failure mechanism characteristics. The design of a thin-walled system is always rather complicated as also the influence of initial imperfections is to be taken into account to a greater extent. The theoretical analysis was based on a nonlinear variant of the finite element method. All input imperfections were considered to be random quantities. The statistical distributions were introduced according to both experimentally obtained results and data given in literature. Random realizations of input random quantities were simulated by the LHS (Latin Hypercube Sampling) method. By means of sensitivity analysis, it was studied to what extend the variability of initial imperfections was reflected in the variability of stresses in the crack-prone areas of the girder.

Keywords: Resistance, steel, imperfections, shell elements, girder, stability, sensitivity analysis, reliability

Title of the Paper: Comparative Study of Contact Stresses and Strains at Horizontal and Vertical Continuous Casting Using Conventional and Innovative Methods of Withdrawing Profiles


Authors: Marius Tufoi, Ion Vela, Constantin Marta, Lenuta Suciu, Ionel Adelin Tuta, Cornel Mituletu

Abstract: This paper presents comparative study of contact stresses and strains at horizontal continuous casting and an innovative method of the half-finished products to horizontal continuous casting of metals. Withdrawal of half-finished products to continuous casting of metals is generally realized by using one or more pairs of metal rollers made of steel. The pairs of rollers are electromechanical and hydraulic driven. This method of half-finished products, although most prevalent, also presents drawbacks. The method proposed by the authors, using jaws firing concentrically oriented, with the half-finished product which is subject of the withdrawal operation.The proposed method is an innovative, and eliminates the hydraulic system of roller shrinkage on the profile, the necessary system in withdrawals roller case. In this way is ensure energy saving and improves facility efficiency and product quality. In terms of curvilinear wire vertical continuous casting, the authors propose the optimization of withdrawal cylinders. In vertical continuous casting withdrawal cylinders are generally used to withdraw several sizes and types of profiles. This is because vertical continuous casting applies only to the large semi-manufactured and change withdrawal cylinders for every size and shape of the semi-manufacturing is not economical. Thus, because the same cylinders are used to withdraw for several types and sizes of semi-manufactured products, slip and deformation may occur, which may affect product quality and reliability of vertical continuous casting. To overcome this problem, the authors propose optimization withdrawal cylinders. This optimization is done by machining the cylinder with more rays that adapts to different kinds of round shapes, but also may withdraw and blooms or billets.

Keywords: Continuous casting, withdrawal, rollers, jaws, cylinder, advantages, FEM

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