WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 5, 2009
Print ISSN: 1790-5079
E-ISSN: 2224-3496








Issue 1, Volume 5, January 2009

Title of the Paper: Basis of Energy Efficiency Economical and Ecological Approach Method for Pumping Equipments and Systems


Authors: Mircea Grigoriu

Abstract: The paper presents the basis of an original economical and ecological approach of the pumping systems energy efficiency, offering a holistic picture of the pumping efficiency, with emphasis in economical and GHGs emissions mitigation effects. The main contributions consists in the original energy efficiency evaluation method of pumping equipments, a particularization of the pumping systems optimal operation characteristic determination for variable requested flow conditions, and a practical application for parallel operation variable speed driving adjustment, the actual most applied system. In the application, there are emphasis economic and environmental effects, with a special focus on the GHGs emissions. The paper results application consists in automatic driving operation and in new pumping optimization operation solution evaluation, including pumps and motors energy classification, considering the actual international trends and European Commission commitments in energy and climate changes fields.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, GHGs emission mitigation, operation modeling, variable speed driving

Title of the Paper: A Ground-Based Method for Calibrating Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature for use in Estimating Evapotranspiration


Authors: E. W. Harmsen, V. H. Ramirez Builes, M. D. Dukes, X. Jia, J. E. Gonzalez, L. R. Perez Alegia

Abstract: A method is presented for estimating hourly actual evapotranspiration from short natural vegetation or agricultural crops. The method, which can be used to calibrate remotely sensed evapotranspiration, consists of equating the ET flux equations based on the generalized Penman-Monteith (GPM) combination method and a humidity gradient (HG) method. By equating the GPM and HG expressions, a single unknown parameter, either the bulk surface resistance (rs) or aerodynamic resistance (ra), can be determined. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach used, and presents results of comparisons between the new method and eddy covariance systems in Florida and Puerto Rico. The new method performed well compared to the eddy covariance systems, and has the advantage of being relatively inexpensive. An example is presented in which the average surface temperature of a grass-covered field, located at the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station at Rio Piedras, PR (located within the San Juan metropolitan area), obtained by NASA’s airborne Advanced Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), was corrected to provide accurate estimates of ET using a flux gradient equation.

Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Penman-Monteith, humidity gradient, eddy covariance, remote sensing, surface resistance, aerodynamic resistance, surface temperature

Title of the Paper: Impact Assessment of Motorway Traffic Noise Using Visualized Noise Mapping Technique


Authors: Pichai Pamanikabud

Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze and assess the impact of traffic noise from newly expanded Bangkok-Chonburi Motorway, which links Bangkok-the capital of Thailand to Pattaya-the famous beach resort in the eastern seaboard of the country, with the utilization of visualized noise mapping technique in plan view and cross-section of this motorway. The newly expansion of main roadways of this motorway is to serve the higher demand of traffic flow on this highway section due to opening of the new Suvarnabhumi International Airport nearby this motorway. The high speed and higher volume on this motorway creates the higher traffic noise impact to the vicinity area around this motorway. Traffic noise data are collected on several locations along the side of motorway together with traffic characteristics in simultaneous basis. The physical dimensions of motorway are also measured. Motorway traffic noise model is then applied with all of the measured parameters in order to provide prediction results of traffic noise levels from this motorway, which shows a highly significant in the prediction results against the measured ones. This model is then used to estimate noise levels on the uniform grid platform around the study area for both in the plan view (horizontal plane) and crosssection (vertical plane) of the vicinity area around the motorway. From the analysis result, this newly expanded motorway create traffic noise level in Leq(1hr) index higher than the FHWA’s standard level of 72 dBA and 67 dBA for office building and residential housing respectively at the location of right-of-way of this motorway. In order to build the office buildings or residential houses without any barrier and window protection, the safe building line should be located at about 75 m or 190 m respectively from the right-of-way of this motorway.

Keywords: Motorway, Visualized noise mapping, Traffic noise, Plan view, Cross-section, Noise prediction, Motorway noise model, Traffic noise on building, Noise impact

Title of the Paper: Intensity of Ultra-Violet Radiation as an indicator of Ozone layer thickness in Troposphere at Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)


Authors: H. O. Al Jeran, A. R. Khan

Abstract: Troposphere Ozone layer acts as a shield against all ultraviolet radiation approaching the planet Earth through absorption. It was noticed in mid 80s that ozone layer has thinned on the poles of the planet due to release of man-made substances commonly known as Ozone Depleting Substances, (ODS) into its atmosphere. The consequences of this change are adverse as the harmful radiations reach to the surface of the earth, strongly influencing the crops yield and vegetation. These radiations are major cause of skin cancer that has long exposure to UV radiation. United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Community have imposed strict regulations to curb the emission of ODS and phase out schedules for the manufacture and use of ODS that was specified by Montreal Protocol in 1987. This research program deals with data analysis of ozone layer thickness and measured ultra-violet radiation that have been obtained at an altitude of 8 km from Abu Dhabi Monitoring station. The ozone layer thickness in stratosphere has been correlated with measured ultraviolet radiation above the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The influence of import of ozone depletion substances for the last decade and other factors that strongly affect the ozone layer thickness in stratosphere were discussed in the final report submitted to public. The dependency of ozone layer thickness on ambient pollutant levels is discussed in detail.

Keywords: Troposphere, ultraviolet radiation, Ozone Depleting Substances, Total hydrocarbon compound, Nitrogen oxides

Title of the Paper: Nutrient Transport Model in CHAHNIMEH Manmade Reservoirs


Authors: Seyyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Seyyed Arman Hashemi Monfared, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: A Model for predicting nutrient transport to CHAHNIMEH reservoir is developed in this paper. Nitrogen and phosphorous have been simulated as the important parameters in evaluating water quality in the reservoir. Solar radiation and wind flow are considered in the model. Model uses mass balance equation to predict a one year period of changing concentrations. Results show the relative of different types of nitrogen to each other and similar behavior of phosphorous. Also results show the relative concentration of algal biomass with nitrogen and phosphorus changes in different times.

Keywords: Nutrient, CHAHNIMEH, Modeling, Reservoir, Transport, Water movement

Title of the Paper: Peace Parks a Global Perspective


Authors: Yu Wang, Jon Burley

Abstract: Planners and designers are interested in projects that express spatial ideas and have meaning for the general population. The design of peace gardens and peace parks is one type of place where designers have opportunities to express ideas and connect with the public. We examined two peace related environments: the Dalian World Peace Park in China and the International Peace Garden on the border between the United States of America and Canada. Both parks attempt to symbolize peace in a conceptual manner. Both parks are located on sites of historical significance. Because of their somewhat remote locations, they can both suffer visitation problems. However their remote location also makes both parks unique and not as crowded as other parks. The peace park movement is growing as numerous other peace parks are being planned around the world.

Keywords: Remembrance; memorials; recreation; leisure; landscape architecture

Title of the Paper: Inverse Box-Counting Method and Application: A Fractal-Based Procedure To Reclaim a Michigan Surface Mine


Authors: Cyril Fleurant, Jon Burley, Luis Loures, Wade Lehmann, Jessica Mchugh

Abstract: Planners and designers are interested in replicating biospheric landscape patterns to reclaim surface mines to match existing natural landscape patterns. One approach that shows promise is the use of fractal geometry to generate biospheric landscape patterns. While the measurement of the actual fractal dimension of a landscape can be difficult, a box-counting method was developed at AgroCampus Ouest, Angers, France which approximates the spatial patterns of biospheric landscapes. Essentially the procedure entails covering a natural object/pattern with a regular grid of size r and then one simply counts the number of grid boxes, N(r), that contain some part of the object. The boxes are subdivided and the value of r is progressively reduced and N(r) is similarly re-measured until some of the boxes become empty (containing no landscape objects of interest). Then the fractal dimension of the object is approximated to be the log(N(r))/log(1/r). We illustrate this procedure by measuring and replicating a stand of trees in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and applying the method for a planting plan on a surface mine. Our study revealed a fractal number of 1.017 (p<0.01), with a mean of 77.4 trees per 100 m by 100 m stand, and a standard deviation of 34.87 trees per stand.

Keywords: Landscape architecture, landscape planning, physical geography, landscape ecology, landscape

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Optical and Thermal Properties of Window Glazing


Authors: Jitka Mohelnikova, Hasim Altan

Abstract: Optical properties of glazings for window applications serve as input data for the assessment of visual and thermal comfort in buildings. Large amount of advanced glazings are used in many building today. Some special glasses have ability to filter ultraviolet or infrared part of solar radiation, others reduce transmittance of visible light or on the other hand antireflective glazings can increase transmittance for visible radiation. There are also glasses highly reflective for long-wave IR radiation – so called “infrared or heat mirrors”. These glasses belong into the main group of glasses recommended for architectural purposes generally called as low-emissivity glazings. This paper topic is aimed at the classification of low-emissivity glasses and the comparison of their properties with ordinary glass transmittance and reflectance.

Keywords: Glazings for window applications, light transmittance and reflectance, solar transmittance and reflectance, visible radiation, daylighting, wavelength, glass coatings, low-emissivity glazings, solar radiation, thermal comfort in buildings.

Title of the Paper: Evapotranspiration Studies for Nagpur District


Authors: H. V. Hajare, N. S. Raman, Er Jayant Dharkar

Abstract: Knowledge of the exact amount of water required by different crops in a given set of climatic conditions of region is of great help for planning of irrigation schemes, irrigation scheduling and also for mid term planning in case of mid season drought. The effective design and management of an irrigation system requires accurate estimation of crop evapotranspiration. The method selected for estimating evapotranspiration, however, should produce good result with a minimum of climatic data and also be applicable over a wide range of climatic conditions. The multiple correlation and regression analysis is generally used in hydrology to develop a relationship between three or more hydrologic variables by studying the dependence among them.
The research work aims to arrive at a suitable empirical model for reasonable estimation of reference evapotranspiration for Nagpur region (Maharashtra State). In this research work the observations were recorded at Nagpur meteorological station are used to calculate the evapotranspiration with the methods of Blaney-Criddle (BCL), Christiansen Equation(CNM), Hargreaves Method(HGM), Modified Penman method (MPM), Radiation Method (RAD), Thornthwaite Method (THW). The results of each method are compared with the results of the other.

Keywords: Evapotranspiration Modified Penman Method, Blaney-Criddle, Christiansen Equation

Title of the Paper: The Influence of Domestic Hot Water Maximum Consumption on the District Heating Network Dimensioning


Authors: Teet-Andrus Koiv, Alvar Toode, Allan Hani

Abstract: Domestic hot water consumption trends in Estonian apartment buildings are presented. Changes in domestic hot water consumption profile are shown. The results of measuring show that the actual maximum consumption values are substantially less than the design values. A new formula for calculating the domestic hot water load for dimensioning instantaneous heat exchangers is recommended. The influence of the new calculation method for dimensioning the pipes of the district heating network is analyzed; the results of the calculation of initial and operating costs are presented.

Keywords: Hot water consumption, consumption profile, dimensioning of heat exchangers, initial and operating costs of district heating network

Title of the Paper: Timber Defects In Building: A Study of Telapak Naning, Malacca, Malaysia


Authors: A. I. Che-Ani, A. Zaharim, M. F. M. Zain, N. Mohd-Tawil, M. Surat

Abstract: Timber traditional houses can pose a significant image of Malaysian built environment heritage. It is then crucial for professional to undertake the responsibility in ensuring the timber houses still in a fair condition. In judging the building condition, it is good to have a more concrete evaluation, so that the reliable recommendation can be made within short period of time. The Prioritize Ranking System is deem fit for this purpose. The streamline methodology of the system is using the numerical coding for the survey pro forma. From the prioritize ranking, the data is then used as to foresee the condition of the house; either dilapidated, fair or good. Furthermore, the system enable the surveyor to identify the severity index of each defects and list the element to be repaired in order of priority. The system is tested to the small-scale timber traditional house namely Telapak Naning. The finding of the survey is found true in reflecting the current state of the house.

Keywords: Building Survey, Prioritise Ranking System, Timber Defects

Issue 2, Volume 5, February 2009

Title of the Paper: Low-Cost Solar Radiation Sensing Transducer for Photovoltaic Systems


Authors: S. Gagliano, D. Neri, N. Pitrone, N. Savalli, G. Tina

Abstract: Measurements of solar irradiance are critical for evaluating solar energy potential in a given location and for calculating the efficiency of a solar system (Photovoltaic and solar thermal). In order to maximize the energy collected by a given Photovoltaic System tracking the position of the sun in order to expose a solar panel to the maximum radiation level at any given time is needed: to do so the maximum insulation direction must be determined. On this regard it is worth to investigate a low-cost solar radiation sensing transducer, which consists of a structure of green light emitting diodes: this device should be designed not only to individuate the direction corresponding to maximum insulation, in order to every timed expose the solar panel to maximum radiation, but also to measure the beam and the diffuse solar radiation. In this paper some preliminary experimental results regarding testing and calibration of a prototype developed in the Idrilab laboratory in Catania (Italy) are reported.

Keywords: Photovoltaic System, Tracking System, Solar Radiation, Diffuse solar radiation, Sensing transducer, low-cost

Title of the Paper: Ecological Limitations and Sustainable Regional Development in Khorassan Province


Authors: Majid Yasouri

Abstract: Severe shortage of water resources resulted from unauthorized and excessive exploitations, population growth, and increase of demand in different sectors have made the role of this vital material in regional development more significant. On the other hand, inadaptability of potentials and capacities and the restriction of water resources as well as the exploitation procedure have increased the development challenges of the province due to inappropriate settlement of the population and activities. For decreasing the imbalance and providing the grounds for stable regional growth and development and preserving the basic resources of development, the environment should be reconstructed and the spatial structures and population and activity settlement to be reviewed.These attributes, as well as improper settlement of the population and inappropriate activity and exploitation of the regional resources, have caused severe shortage of water resources (15 critical plains, 44 prohibited plains and 17 free plains). The low rate of rainfall and its unsuitable distribution have resulted in a higher degree of evaporation, transpiration and natural isolation as well as severe dispersion of habitats and spatial disorders. The natural environment, population settlement policy, production activity and infrastructures affect the spatial structure of the Khorassan province and are together causing severe imbalance in the region and destroying basic resources of development. Therefore, establishing a balance in rate of water consumption and revived water in the region in tandem with the land use(land preparation) policies is one of the most important measures which are necessary to be taken in the later phases of optimal exploitation of water resources(increase of the irrigation yield.

Keywords: Sustainable development , environmental challenges, Khorasan, water, Ecological, limitations

Title of the Paper: How does a New Set of Earned Value Management Schedule Control Work? A Case Study in IRAN


Authors: Morteza Shokri-Ghasabeh, Navid Akrami

Abstract: One of the most effective project time and cost controlling systems is called Earned Value Management (EVM). This system is applied worldwide in different projects of many kinds. Australia, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden and Japan were the pioneers of applying this system and new reports show that other countries are joining this list. EVM metrics are the three primary concepts of planned, accomplished and actual work, which are integrated measures of time and costs. A number of researchers have found that the time metrics didn't judiciously refer to the schedule performance of a project. One of the recent improvements to the EVM is the application of new time metrics (Schedule Variance (time) (SV(t)) and Schedule Performance Index (time) (SPI(t))), which are based on time units instead of monetary units. A 15-month Iranian pipeline project, called “Ardak-Mashad Water Supply”, was controlled by the EVM in this paper. The stages of applying the EVM in this project are described and the difficulties that the EVM team encountered are also presented. In addition, the paper attempts to clarify the application of common time EVM metrics and compare them with the new set of time metrics to interpret the schedule performance of a project. All satisfactory results of the EVM application, are displayed in this paper.

Keywords: Earned value management, Pipeline Project, Project control

Title of the Paper: Optimal Water Network with Zero Wastewater Discharge in an Alumina Plant


Authors: Chun Deng, Xiao Feng

Abstract: Zero wastewater discharge has been the ultimate goal of green water utilization in process industries. To make the water network with zero wastewater discharge economically beneficial, the system should be optimized. Alumina industry is a heavy water consumption industry, hence studying water re-use and zero wastewater discharge (ZWD) for water system in alumina plants is very important. This paper analyzes a practical water system of an aluminum plant on the basis of graphical method for ZWD water system. The water system of aluminum plant features great amount of water loss and consists of several operation with fixed flowrate constraints. On the concentration-mass load diagram, the optimal water supply line considering water loss for the water system with ZWD is constructed. The optimal regeneration water flow rate and optimal regeneration concentration are targeted. Base on these targets and local recycling scheme, the optimal water using network with ZWD considering fixed flowrate constraints is obtained. The alumina plant accomplishes the goal of zero wastewater discharge and the freshwater saving rate achieves 62.7%.

Keywords: Integration, wastewater minimization, zero discharge, water system, alumina plant, fixed flowrate, fixed mass load

Title of the Paper: New Magnetosphere for the Earth in Future


Authors: Tara Ahmadi

Abstract: All of us know the earth magnetic field come to be less and this problem can be a serious problem in future but now we find other problems that can destroy our planet life or in minimum state can damage it such as FTE theory , solar activities , reversing magnetic poles, increasing speed of reversing that last reverse, reducing magnetic strength ,finding leaks in magnetosphere ,etc. some of these reasons will be factors for increasing the solar energy that hit to the Earth and perhaps changing in our life and conditions of the Earth. In this paper , I try to show a way to against to these problems and reduce their damages to the Earth perhaps The Earth will repair himself but this repair need many time that humans could not be wait. In the past time magnetic field was reversed but now we are against to the other problems that can increase the influence of reversing magnetic field for the Earth and all these events can be a separated problem for us, these problem may be can not destroyed humans life but can be cause of several problems that occur for our healthy and our technology in space. This way is building a system that produce a new magnetic field that will be in one way with old magnetic field this system will construe by superconductors and a metal that is not dipole. This paper explain all the problems in addition to the way of repair their damages on the Earth and show the suitable shape of system that can help us for future programs.

Keywords: The Earth's Magnetic Field-Gadolinium Material-Solar Winds-Reversing Magnetic Poles-Superconductor Elements-Environment Changing-FTE Theory

Title of the Paper: Regional Estimation of Site-specific Seismic Response by Spatial Zoning at an Inland Urban Area, Daegu, in Korea


Authors: Chang-Guk Sun, Jin-Soo Shin, Heon-Cheol Chi

Abstract: Most of earthquake-induced geotechnical hazards have been caused by the site effects relating to the amplification of ground motion, which are strongly influenced by the local geologic conditions such as soil thickness or bedrock depth and soil stiffness. In this study, an integrated GIS-based information system for geotechnical data, called geotechnical information system (GTIS), was constructed to establish a regional counterplan against earthquake-induced hazards at an urban area, Daegu, in Korea. To build the GTIS for the area of interesting, pre-existing geotechnical data collections were performed across the extended area including the study area and a walk-over site survey was additionally carried out to acquire surface geo-knowledge data. For practical application of the GTIS used to estimate the site-specific seismic response across the area of interesting, seismic microzoning map of the characteristic site period was created and presented as regional synthetic strategy for earthquake-induced hazards prediction. In addition, seismic zonation of site classification according to the spatial distribution of the site period was also performed to determine the site amplification coefficients for seismic design and seismic performance evaluation at any site in the study area.

Keywords: Seismic zonation, Site effects, Seismic hazard, GIS, Site period

Title of the Paper: Analysis and Interpretation of Environment Sequence Models of the Hassi R'Mel Field in Algeria


Authors: R. Baouche, A. Nedjari, S. El Adj, R. Chaouchi

Abstract: With a surface area of 400,000 km2, the Triassic Province in Algeria represents a vast Saharan territory, in which significant hydrocarbon layers are exploited on the Triassic and Cambrian–Ordovician levels. The Saharan Triassic consisted of varied continental environments, namely, fluvial, flood plain, lake, Sebkha, and wind. At the top of Formation I, the lower series of strata of the Triassic, there are intercalations of volcanic rocks represented by dolerites. Sedimentation interspersed with periods of no deposition is thought to have occurred during the Triassic continental; resulting in a deposition of ground-level strata and the development of a more or less intense paedogenesis. This paedogenesis is found at the origin of important unequal discontinuities which can be used for sequential cutting and is also significantly influenced by climate. In such a context, and during the periods of no deposition, physicochemical phenomena related to the climate and type of bedrock occur, leading to the formation of a more or less advanced ground related to the elapsed time between two phases of sedimentation; this phenomenon is known as paedogenesis. Formation II is characterized by the eruptive on the level of the lower member IIa at the base and constituted primarily of dolerites but the roof is primarily by a channel in a fine sandy filling. The member IIb is characterized by fluvial facies of channels prevailing and evolving to the top in a complex of playa or evaporates. This complex is characterized by a negative polarity at the bottom with a broad separation of the curves of neutron/density. Formation III is characterized primarily by an evaporate facies of sebkha type halite which separates by electro halite benches, with weak Gamma Ray and lower than 10 API. The sonic signal is relatively constant around 70 µs/ft. This work therefore attempts to refine the above models by using a well log-based modeling approach (gamma ray, neutron, sonic, density and resistivity) to examine the evolution of successions. The stratigraphy obtained using the results of faciologic analysis established for this purpose on the level of the Hassi R’Mel field is also used.

Keywords: Reservoir characterization, paleosols, sequence environments, Triassic Province, Sahara, Algeria

Title of the Paper: Rerouting Electric Power Transmission Lines by using Satellite Imagery


Authors: T. Luemongkol, A. Wannakomol, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper presents an application of satellite image technology for rerouting electric power transmission lines. Satellite images produced by using ENVI software were used as our major tool. Information from remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) can be extracted by using photographs from LANDSAT ETM and topographic map. In this paper, areas of Nakhon Ratchasima province, north-east of Thailand, were examined for a case study. The main objective for rerouting electric power transmission lines is to remove all transmission portions located nearby or passed through a community.

Keywords: Power transmission line, extra high voltage system, satellite image technology, power system planning

Title of the Paper: Industrial and Commercial Depth-Damage Curve Assessment


Authors: Ming-Daw Su, Jui-Lin Kang, Ling-Fang Chang

Abstract: Because of geographic location, Taiwan encounters frequent flood attack due to typhoon or storm events. Flood hazards usually cause major damage of assets and casualties where with the high density of population and economical activities. Flood risk management becomes one of the important tasks for government. The damage assessment is the basis of flood risk management and disaster mitigation. The depth-damage curve has been employed as a major tool for assessing flood damages. Because flood damages may depend on the types and uses of structures as well as the content in it, the depth-damage curves will have different characteristics varied with land uses and region. This paper develops depth-damage curves for industrial and commercial sectors based on the damage data collected after the flood event of Nari typhoon (2001). Because different economic activities may possess different damage characteristics, the industrial and commercial activities are categorized as manufacturing, service, wholesale, and retail. Each category is further divided into two sub-groups of small and large-scales. A depth-damage relationship is developed for each category and subgroup for application in assessment of regional flood damage.

Keywords: Flood, Flood Damage, Damage Assessment, Depth-Damage Curve

Title of the Paper: Drip Irrigation using a PLC based Adaptive Irrigation System


Authors: S. Shahidian, R. Serralheir, J. L. Teixeira, F. L. Santos, M. R. Oliveira, J. Costa, C. Toureiro, N. Haie, R. Machado

Abstract: Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the daily water application to the plant needs. The dramatic development of Programmable Logic Controllers, PLCs, and their rather affordable price has made it possible to use them as stand-alone irrigation controllers. In this paper a PLC is used to adapt the daily irrigation amount to actual ETc, using a Hargreaves-Samani type equation. This equation only requires temperature values to calculate Evapotranspiration. Once the ETc is calculated, then the PLC manages the irrigation according to the characteristics of the field, the irrigation equipment and the growth stage of the crop. First year results are very encouraging and indicate a 12% saving in irrigation water. It was also found that heat flux form the soil can influence canopy temperature.

Keywords: PLC, irrigation, automation, Hargreaves, irrigation controller, Evapotranspiration, heat flux, crop coefficient

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Therapy Room Surfaces in Acute Mental Health Hospitals


Authors: Bilge Sayil Onaran

Abstract: This article is based on the innovations about the recycling of materials and the design principles of sustainable surface materials in acute mental hospital therapy rooms. The use of recycled, reusable and local materials in interiors is a contemporary issue for the sustainability of the environment itself. The use of sustainable materials is crucial for designing healthy building interiors and for human health. With this in mind, the aim of this article is to examine the latest developments about the design principles of sustainable materials in mental hospital therapy rooms, placing an emphasis on patient comfort and providing them a homelike environment in order to accelerate the healing process.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environment, Architecture, Interior Architecture, Sustainable Materials, Surface Materials, Healthy Buildings, Mental Hospital, Therapy Room

Issue 3, Volume 5, March 2009

Title of the Paper: An Approach to Wicked Problems in Environmental Policy Making


Authors: Nasser Ayoub, Rafael Batres, Yuji Naka

Abstract: In environmental policy making, the objectives are part of the decision-making problem. Policy making for sustainable development involves problems with lack of clear and definitive problem formulation which are to be solved by various stakeholders who judge the solutions with different values. In addition, risks and uncertainties involving future events and risks and uncertainties associated to the costs, benefits or effectiveness of a given policy add complexity to the decision making. Because of these characteristics, modeling and assessment methods alone are not enough to provide an adequate decision making support. In other words, policy making involves the existence of “wicked problems. This paper presents an approach to support the solution of wicked problems in policy making for sustainable development.

Keywords: Policy making, policy design, design rational, wicked problems, ontologies

Title of the Paper: The Industrialization Prospect Analysis of Water Resource Heat Pump Based on Scenario Planning


Authors: Lucheng Huang, Xin Li, Xiaoyang Fu

Abstract: Based on the theory of scenario planning, this paper analyzes the factors which may influence the industrialization process of water resource heat pump technology from policy, substitute energy, technology itself and application fields. With grading by experts from the importance and uncertainties factors view points in water resource heat pump, two key uncertainties factors in these factors are found out. Then based on the two factors, in combination with other determinate factors, the various scenarios of water resource heat pump technology in direction of the industrialization process are painted. Finally, as these scenarios, some suitable strategies about how to promote the industrialization of water resource heat pump technology in China are put forward in this paper.

Keywords: Scenario planning Water resource heat pump Response strategies

Title of the Paper: Reverse Logistics Processes of Multi-Type End-Of-Life Buildings/construction Sites: An Integrated Optimization Framework


Authors: A. Xanthopoulos, D. Aidonis, D. Vlachos, E. Iakovou

Abstract: A significant problem that has emerged in the field of construction and demolition waste management (C&D), involves the integrated optimization of the entire C&D waste supply chain. The critical decisions to be made include among others: (i) the determination of the optimal deconstruction depth for each EOL construction site before the demolition process, and (ii) the design of an effective transportation and recovery network for shipping deconstruction products and waste from deconstruction/demolition sites to potential recyclers/customers and waste disposal sites. In this context, we propose a novel integrated model for optimizing the reverse logistics processes of multi-type end-of-life buildings/construction sites in a single planning period. An additional innovative feature of the proposed methodological approach is that the final recipients/recyclers may provide different pricing policies in a stepwise manner, depending on the quantity of materials that they receive. Finally, a specific case study is presented in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision-making model, while few interesting managerial insights regarding the behavior of the optimal solution are obtained and discussed.

Keywords: Construction and Demolition Waste Management, Reverse Logistics, Mathematical Programming, Multiple Construction Sites, Different Types of End-of-Life Buildings, Single Planning Period, Stepwise Pricing Policies

Title of the Paper: Development of Rating System for Sustainable Building in Malaysia


Authors: Zuhairuse Md Darus, Nor Atikah Hashim, Elias Salleh, Lim Chin Haw, Abdul Khalim Abdul Rashid, Siti Nurhidayah Abdul Manan

Abstract: Existing environmental assessment methods attempt to measure improvements in the environmental performance of buildings relative to current typical practice or requirements. The assumption is that by continually improving the environmental performance of individual buildings, the collective reduction in resource use and ecological loadings by the building industry will be sufficient to fully address the environmental agenda. The choice of the term ‘green building assessment’ is seen as a useful term to convey this intent. Several environmental methodologies and methods for evaluating environmental performance of buildings are being currently developed. In a global scale it is worth mentioning SB (Sustainable Building) Tool, formerly known as GB Tool (Green Building Tool) which is an international project coordinated from Canada, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) a method developed in the USA with a world wide application and CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency), a method developed in Japan. In Europe, some of the most frequently used include BREEAM (Building Research Establish Environmental Assessment Method) in the UK and also it is worth mentioning the HQE (High Environmental Quality) developed in France during the last decade and the VERDE method developed recently in Spain (Maria Sinou 2006). In this paper several method will be discuss and will become main references for developing Sustainable building Tool for Malaysia.

Keywords: Building Performance, Sustainable, Building Rating, Practice, Assessment

Title of the Paper: Development of Sustainable Campus: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Planning and Strategy


Authors: Zuhairuse Md Darus, Abdul Khalim Abdul Rashid, Nor Atikah Hashim, Zaidi Omar, Masran Saruwono, Noraziah Mohammad

Abstract: Malaysia and 178 countries in the world has signed and agreed on acceptance and implementation of sustainable development on the Agenda 21. It was reconfirm again in Johannesburg in 2002. The Malaysian Government commitment can be seen in the Five year development scheme from the sixth up to the ninth Malaysian Plan which from the year 1990 to 2010. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) as one of government agency will also committed to implement the sustainable development. It started in the year 1994 when the Institute of Environmental and Development known as LESTARI was established. This paper will generally looking at the initiative and strategy taken by University Kebangsaan Malaysia in planning and developing the sustainable campus. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia target to achieved the sustainable campus status in year 2020.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, commitment, Environment, Facilities, Strategy

Title of the Paper: Continuing Professional Development (CPD), Education and Training as Part of Technology for the Learning Process in Malaysian Built Environment


Authors: Zuhairuse Md Darus, Fadzil Hassan, Masran Saruwono, Zaidi Omar, Zulkiflee Samad, Fadhil Muhamad, Noraziah Mohammad

Abstract: Problems associated to the performance, delivery and quality of product or services emanating from ineffective performance of the human resource in the Malaysian built environment are a continuing debate. Critics have been frequent in associating these shortcomings with inadequacies within the continuing professional development (CPD), education and training provisions offered to the human resource.
This paper presents the investigations on the underpinning concepts of CPD), education and training which identify their differences and similarities. This was on the premise that understanding the similarities and differences are very important as they significantly influence how the technology is disseminated and roles that must be to be played by the parties responsible for their design and delivery. The findings suggest the need to understand similarities and differences in the application of the meanings of education, training and CPD are important; but more importantly, they must all be underpinned with learning. It is imperative that that the parties responsible for the education, training, learning, development must appreciate learning. This must be conceived collectively applied within the design and delivery to the provisions to be effective.

Keywords: Built environment, human resource, education, training, continuing professional development (CPD), learning

Title of the Paper: Analysis and Comparison of Regenerative Technologies of Waste Lubricant


Authors: Yu-Lung Hsu, Cheng-Haw Lee, Victor B. Kreng

Abstract: Lubricant is one of the important resources that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. In response to economic efficiency and environmental protection, there is a growing trend of regeneration and reuse of waste lubricant. However, the technologies shall be compared to provide a useful reference for the use of waste lubricant. The major aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the regenerative technologies, thus laying a basis for the governmental bodies in policy-making of lubricant recovery as well as for industrial operators in deciding the recovery methods.

Keywords: Regenerative Technologies, Waste Lubricant

Title of the Paper: Development of a Simplified Model for the Estimation of Hydrological Components in Areas of Maquis Vegetation in Greece


Authors: George Baloutsos, Athanassios Bourletsikas, Evangelos Baltas

Abstract: Gross rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and interception losses were measured and studied for seven years (1996 – 2002) in an evergreen schlyrophylous species (maquis) stand of eastern Mediterranean region and specifically of southern – western Greece. The monthly values were analysed and compared with the corresponding values of gross rainfall through the year. Throughfall, stemflow and interception losses were regressed, on a single rain event scale, against a number of meteorological variables. All the regression equations were found significant for at least 0.05 probability level. The models were tested with the data of 2003 by means of comparison of predicted and observed values of these components. All models yielded satisfactory estimates, especially from rainfall events greater than 10 mm.

Keywords: Rainfall, Throughfall, Stemflow, Interception Losses, Hydrological Modeling

Title of the Paper: Performance of Photovoltaic Thermal Collector (PVT) with Different Absorbers Design


Authors: Adnan Ibrahim, M. Y. Othman, M. H. Ruslan, M. A. Alghoul, M. Yahya, A. Zaharim, K. Sopian

Abstract: Much effort has been spent on the development of hybrid PVT, in order to improve it efficiency of both, thermal and cell. The combination of thermal and cell efficiencies, which is commonly known as “total efficiency of the PVT”, is influenced by many system design parameters and operating conditions. Due to that, seven new design configurations of absorber collectors are designed, investigated and compared. Simulations were performed to determine the best absorber design that gives the highest efficiency (total efficiency). In these simulations, the system is analyzed with various parameters, such as solar radiation, ambient temperature, and flow rate conditions. It is assumed that the collector is represented as a flat plate thermal collector with single glazing sheet. Based on these simulations, spiral flow design proved to be the best design with the highest thermal efficiency of 50.12% and corresponding cell efficiency of 11.98%.

Keywords: Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT), thermal and cell efficiency, absorbers collector, Design

Title of the Paper: Experimental and Simulation Study on Malaysian Activated Carbon as Adsorbent in a Dual Purpose Solar System


Authors: M. A. Alghoul, M. Y. Sulaiman, K. Sopian, M. Yahya, A. Zaharim

Abstract: Tests to compare and understand the adsorption capability of some locally produced activated charcoal (coconut shell) samples with methanol were taken under laboratory conditions. An experimental test rig was set up. Data obtained from the experiments were fitted to Dubinin-Radushkevitch ( ) and Dubinin-Astakhov ( ) equations. The results obtained and can be used to select the most favorable pair. Activated carbon AC-5060 shows the best adsorption capacity for methanol and the highest coefficient of performance (COP). This is chosen as the adsorbent in a dual purpose solar adsorption system. The adsorption system is subjected to parametric analyses. The parameters such as second adsorber bed temperature, condenser temperature, and mass of ice are varied and performance evaluated. Malaysian activated carbon is not significant for ice making in the dual purpose adsorption systems at condenser- adsorption temperature equal or higher than 35oC. The most efficient way to improve the dual purpose system under the hot climate is to search for enhanced adsorbent material in terms of adsorption capacity and thermal conductivity.

Keywords: Malaysian activated carbon, adsorption properties, and Equations, coefficient of performance (COP), dual purpose adsorption system.

Issue 4, Volume 5, April 2009

Title of the Paper: Runoff Pollution Treatment Using an Up-Flow Equipment with Limestone and Geotextil Filtration Media


Authors: Daniel Castro-Fresno, Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez, Andres H. Fernandez-Barrera, Miguel A. Calzada-Perez

Abstract: Runoff drags pollutant from different urban surfaces causing diffuse pollution in natural or artificial water bodies. To solve this problem, several solutions have been developed to purify the run-off water before the final spill, but still it is necessary to improve the applicability and efficiency of these systems. The project that is presented in this paper is focused on developing a System for Catchment, Pre-treatment and Treatment (SCPT) of contaminated runoff coming from impervious surfaces. The concept of SCPT is an on-line, up-flow filtration system, with the main elements of pervious pavements, which are being geotextiles and open grade gravel. The objectives of this research are to determine the influence of the main factors that affect SCPT efficiency and to evaluate the effects of SCPT long term use in its operational behavior.

Keywords: Runoff, up-flow, filtration, non-point pollution, SUDS, BMP, water quality

Title of the Paper: Cell-based Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing for Spatial Groundwater Allocation


Authors: E. Sidiropoulos, D. Fotakis

Abstract: A genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing approach is presented for the guidance of a cellular automaton toward optimal configurations. The algorithm is applied to a problem of groundwater allocation in a rectangular area consisting of adjacent land blocks and modeled as a cellular automaton. The new algorithm is compared to a more conventional genetic algorithm and its efficiency is clearly demonstrated. Also, comparison is made to a simulated annealing scheme. Finally, the proposed genetic algorithm is combined with simulated annealing to yield a new hybrid. The presented cell – based algorithm is different from related algorithms of the literature, as it relies on local interactions among land blocks. Moreover, it offers a framework for application to more general and detailed problems.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, cellular automata, groundwater, optimization, resource allocation, land use

Title of the Paper: Modification of an Absorption Column


Authors: Davorin Kralj, Anita Kovac Kralj, Mirko Markic

Abstract: Energy management is becoming an important goal of entrepreneurial activity.The increasingly limited energy resources demand managers of organisational systems to perform alternative measures in managing organisational systems. This article discusses the use of solution heat in absorption, integrating absorption with distillation, and improving the distillation column, so that steam is unnecessary for heating the reboiler. This method of absorber modification is based on the use of solution heat. It is composed of two steps: 1) First step - Analysing the existing heat integration of the process 2) Second step - Modification of the absorption column, by usefully utilizing solution heat during the process. This analysis of solution heat in an absorber requires profitable integration during the process, and energy efficiency. The technique is based on the pinch-analysis method by using a grand-composite curve. Pinch analysis does not guarantee a global optimum solution, but it quickly proposes good ideas for heat integration during the process.

Keywords: Solution heat, integration, pinch analysis, absorber, emission

Issue 5, Volume 5, May 2009

Title of the Paper: Design of Experiments: Production of CO2 from Aquilariella Malaccensis Woods via Pyrolysis-Combustion Process


Authors: S. K. Kamarudin, A. Othman, Z. Yaakob, S. R. S. Abdullah, A. Zaharim

Abstract: CO2 is the main source used in conventional radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of the archaeological wood. However, the production of CO2 by combustion for conventional radiocarbon dating normally produces minimal amounts of CO2,, making it difficult to proceed to subsequent processes. Thus, the objective of this paper is to introduce an integrated-combustion process on degraded wood that will maximize the production of CO2. Karas or Aqualaria Malaccensis was taken as case study. 23 response surface central composite design method was successfully employed for design of experimental (DOE) and analysis of the results. The number of experimental runs was determined using the Design-Expert 6.10.0. Karas wood was studied at different temperatures in a horizontal laboratory tubular quartz reactor. The effect of temperature, concentration of inert gas supplied during pyrolysis reaction and residence time taken during the production of CO2 from thermal and oxidative reactions were studied. The woods were pyrolysed in a thermogravimetry analyser (TGA) at different heating rates for the active pyrolysis occurrence. From the TGA results, it were observed that at lower temperature regime (less than 3000C) decompositon of wood, mainly H2O, CO2 and CO were evolved and at higher temperature regime, the main decomposition products were oil, H2O, hydrocarbon gases and lower concentration of CO and CO2. The results indicated that the production of CO2 increased with the continuous supply of oxygen at high temperature of pyrolysis and high flow rates of argon within a short period of residence time.

Keywords: Archaeological wood, Karas (Aqualaria Malaccensis ), DOE, Integrated pyrolysis-combustion, ANOVA

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Local Nusselt Number Between Steady and Pulsating Jet at Different Jet Reynolds Number


Authors: Rozli Zulkifli, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Shahrir Abdullah, Mohd Sobri Takriff

Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the effect of pulsating frequencies exiting from a hot circular air jet on the local heat transfer of a flat impingement aluminium plate. The velocity profile of a steady heated circular air jet and pulsating air jet at frequencies of 10 and 20 Hz was measured in the first part of the study. The same set-up was used to measure the heat flux of the pulsating jet impinging on a flat aluminium plate. The heat flux of the heated air jet impinging on the plate was measured using a heat flux micro-sensor at radial positions between 0 to 12 cm away from the stagnation point. Measurement of the heat flux was used to calculate the local heat transfer coefficient and local Nusselt Number for steady air jet and for air jet pulsating frequencies of 10 and 20 Hz. The Reynolds number used were 16 000, 23 300 and 32 000. Results obtained show that the local Nusselt number calculated at all measurement point for pulsating jet were higher than the local Nusselt number for steady jet. The results for pulsating jet Nusselt number was higher than the steady jet Nusselt number for the value of frequencies measured are due to the higher localised heat transfer. The higher Nusselt number obtained at localized radial positions can be due to the higher instantaneous velocity as was shown from the velocity profile plotted in the first part of the experiment. The relationship between the two results shows that higher flow velocity and turbulence intensity gives higher localized heat transfer.

Keywords: Pulsating air jet, jet frequency, Nusselt number, Reynolds number, heat transfer coefficient

Title of the Paper: Salt Removal Potential of Turfgrass in Golf Courses in the Mediterranean Basin


Authors: Jose Beltrao, Alcinda Neves, Joao Carrasco De Brito, Jose Seita

Abstract: In Mediterranean climates available water is the limiting factor of plant productivity. Hence, due to the lack of water in the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses – are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non-conventional water resources, like treated wastewater, drainage water and brackish water resources are gaining increasing role in the planning and development of water supplies in the irrigation of golf courses. Generally all these non-conventional water resources are saline. Hence, the application of excessive amounts of freshwater in saline soils and the heavy use of fertilizers are techniques used to mitigate soil salinity and to increase the salt tolerance of turfgrass in golf courses. However, the intense use of these conventional techniques has attracted public attention due to the environmental pollution and the contamination of groundwater resources. In recent years, a new environmentally safe and clean technique, whereby the salt (ion) removing species are planted in the salt-affected soils, has been introduced to mitigate the salinity problems. The salt removal potential of several turfgrass cultivars was evaluated for their efficiency to remove salts (ions) from the soils under this study. Hence, chloride concentration of leaves was the studied indicator, once that chlorides are the most representative salts in this region, due to seawater intrusion. Plant collection was conducted in several golf courses in Algarve, the southern region of Portugal. Results of this study show that Lolium perenne ‘Brighstar’ tissues accumulated the largest amounts of chloride leaves, followed by the Cynodon dactylon chance hybrid ’Tifway 419’. Hence, both could become potential cultivars, which could be used to control and to combat salinity in the golf courses of the Mediterranean regions in order to rehabilitate saline soils, in association to other techniques.

Keywords: Soil salinity, conventional techniques, phytoremediation, salt removing turfgrass cultivars, chlorides, salt extraction

Title of the Paper: Solar Chemical Heat Pump Drying System for Tropical Region


Authors: M. Ibrahim, K. Sopian, W. R. W. Daud, M. A. Alghoul, M. Yahya, M. Y. Sulaiman, A. Zaharim

Abstract: Solar assisted chemical heat pump drying system for tropical region has been studied. A simulation has been done under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four mean components, solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, chemical heat pump units and dryer chamber. The monthly efficiency for evacuated tube solar collector has been predicted to be between the range (59 – 64%) with the deference between mean collector temperature and ambient temperature 20 ?C. The solar fraction as a function of solar collector area has been studied. It was found that as the collector area increases the loss increases and hence the solar fraction increases. A monthly coefficient of performance for heating (COPh) for chemical heat pump has been predicted and the maximum value of 1.8 as function for solar collector area 10 m2 and storage tank size 0.2 m3 were found. Any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation which in the final decrease the coefficient of performance as well as decrease the efficiency of drying.

Keywords: Evacuated tube collector efficiency, solar fraction, collector area, chemical heat pump, coefficient of performance, drying

Issue 6, Volume 5, June 2009

Title of the Paper: Systems Thinking and Modern Green Trends


Authors: Davorin Kralj

Abstract: Experience show that the environment protection and permanent development as a part of entrepreneur’s philosophy is not carried into effect enough; this is so because of administrative workers, who were used to make decisions independently without collaboration of other experts. System thinking and multi view approaches, which are a must for a successful establishment of a sustainable business and modern green trends, are of great importance. Congenial and stimulating atmosphere, promoting relaxed free and unimpeded activities, work satisfaction and satisfaction with co-operation with others, are all elements distinguishing excellent performance. The successful development and implementation of processes innovation in an organizational system can produce a significant saving in the amount of business and environment resources and therefore a smaller environmental impact When implementing changes, employees should be motivated adequately. The perpetual changes met within the competitive environment require changing of management processes and present a constant and continuous demand for improvements in business operations.

Keywords: Environment, green trends, management, sustainable business, systems thinking

Title of the Paper: Environment Global Protection to the Polluting Action of Refrigerants


Authors: Ioan Sarbu, Olga Bancea

Abstract: In this paper are approached principal aspects of the environmental pollution, by working fluids of the refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat-pumping systems and a new utilization strategy of these refrigerants is described, in accordance with the international legislation. The refrigerants will be selected in order to be the best adapted for the desired application, based on few criteria which take into account the thermodynamic and thermophysical properties, the technological behavior, the cost and the use constraints. Also, the paper presents a study of the Romanian line up to the environment, refrigeration and air-conditioning EU legislation with the recommendation of using ammonia as a very eco-efficient alternative.

Keywords: Working fluids, pollution, environment protection, nonecological refrigerants, substitutes

Title of the Paper: Advanced Thematic Mapping: GIS/Neural Networks Application for Tracking Isoseismic Lines


Authors: Vincenzo Barrile, Giuseppe Armocida, Francesco Di Capua

Abstract: Possibility of making queries on a spatial database, in order to obtain a decisional support is one of the most interesting features of GIS systems. This is possible through the expression of information which are implicit into database and useful for Geoprocessing operations in order to make a sort of data clustering. However, it is not sufficient to represent a priori non-modeling interactions, even if they are present into the informative layers. Case study presented in this paper just concerns this category, taking into account tracking of isoseismic lines on a well-known geographical area. It is very useful in order to generate an affordable map for seismic risk. Proposed procedure, exploiting Neural Networks, can retrieve information about isoseismic lines propagation, starting from information related to examined territory, hypocenter of considered earthquakes, and seismic intensity calculated by standard procedures. Preliminary results we obtained have been used in a GIS software in order to create an Artificial Intelligence informative layer (called OverlayAI). Experimentation carried out shows a preliminary nature and needs further tests and refinement; however, it illustrates useful results to realize an operative plan based on perception of seismic risk in a defined territory.

Keywords: GIS, OverlayAI, Thematic map, Neural Network, isoseismic lines, earthquakes, seismic hazard

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of SOC under Different Vegetation Stand Types and Forest Site Status in South China


Authors: Egbuche Christian Toochi, Su Zhiyao

Abstract: Forest soils and the nutrients within it are impacted by spatial activities. The concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC) was evaluated in different forest management location sites in relation to the environmental condition and management status of each forest site. Three distinct forest soils were collected in three locations (0-25 and 25-50cm profiles) of different forest management regimes in Guangdong Province, China. SOC concentrations, as well as physical and chemical soil properties were measured in the laboratory in relation to industrial, urban and protected forest locations. SOC concentration was highest at the Deqing forest site (30.24±1.35 and 26.65± 2.49) as a state regulated management system than in the industrial and urban sites. SOC was significantly highest in the Deqing site (48 g/kg). Duncan’s test of SOC density revealed a critical statistical difference between Deqing and the other sites. Soil metal concentrations at the Dongguan industrial site showed significant differences in high amount of copper, lead and cadmium (15.1±2.67, 42.30±4.91 and 35.09±5.89). SOM concentration evaluated as sequestration parameter at the Deqing site (47g/kg) was statistically different from the others. Pearson’s correlation and multiple comparison analysis on chemical and physical properties indicated critical differences (0.01 level) between the Deqing site (SOC, SOM, TotN, AvK) and the Guangzhou site (SOM, TotN, Avk and AvP) compared to the Dongguan site. The Deqing and Guangzhou forest sites showed attributes of better forest management systems. We strongly recommend an active effluent discharge policy, a Nutrient sensitive zones policy, a land Use policy, a Compulsory industrial implementation best management practices policy; and an Implementation and mitigation option policy.

Keywords: Land and land use, Climate change, Urban and Industrial pollution, SOC Concentration, Forest Management Regimes, Forest stand types, Environmental knowledge, South China

Title of the Paper: Estimating Daily Evapotranspiration in Puerto Rico using Satellite Remote Sensing


Authors: Eric. W. Harmsen, John Mecikalski, Melvin J. Cardona-Soto, Alejandra Rojas Gonzalez, Ramon Vasquez

Abstract: A technique is presented in which satellite solar insolation estimates are used to predict daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) using the Penman-Monteith (PM), Preistly-Taylor (PT) and Hargreaves-Samini (HS) methods for Puerto Rico. For this approach, average, minimum and maximum daily air temperatures were obtained from a regression procedure that depends on surface elevation and day of the year. The air temperature was adjusted using actual daily temperatures from several locations in Puerto Rico. Dew point temperature was assumed to be equal to the daily minimum temperature, and a value of 1.9 m/s was assumed for wind speed. As an example, ETo was estimated for March 5, 2009 using the three methods, with the Penman-Monteith method producing the lowest values. This paper also presents a comparison between estimated and observed solar radiation from April 1 through June 21, 2009, which indicates a need for calibration of the solar radiation remote sensing product. As a practical example application of the use of the methodology, the Hargraeves-Samani ETo was estimated for a crop season. The crop evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by multiplying the ETo by a crop coefficient (Kc). The goal of the analysis, which considered five different crops and seven locations, was to determine the cumulative seasonal water consumptive use. Determination of the seasonal water consumptive use is valuable for determining water supply infrastructure for farms and irrigation districts. This research represents a preliminary step in the development of an ETo product for PR. This product is a potentially valuable tool for conducting water resource studies and for supporting irrigation scheduling efforts

Keywords: GOES, satellite, remote sensing, Penman-Monteith, Priestly-Taylor, Hargreaves-Samani, evapotranspiration

Issue 7, Volume 5, July 2009

Title of the Paper: Helping Architects to Design their Personal Daylight


Authors: B. Beckers, D. Rodriguez

Abstract: This communication is based on a seven years experience of teaching day lighting to graduate architects coming from very different latitudes and climates. We first created didactic software to help them controlling sun paths. Later, we developed it gradually to support the common part of the problem: the geometrical one. With the same knowledge and tool, the students imagined very different projects, which reflected their different sensitivities and ideas about light, especially in its chromatic aspect. Their works confirmed us the evidence that the justified preoccupation about ecology and sustainability must not obviate the fact that good architecture is, first of all, an art. The software, “Heliodon”, developed by Benoit Beckers and Luc Masset, offers synthetic and original representations that allow the architect to develop its design freely, but controlling simultaneously space and time aspects. It complements commercial rendering software and is a fundamental component of a personal theory about light ambiances and color. The results are very original projects that blend aesthetic expression, geometrical control and environmental conscience. With this teaching, every architect is expected to discover his personal daylight. In the near future, the contributions of architects and urban designers will also be fundamental in order to extend the studies of solar radiation to large urban areas. The collaboration between geographers, climatologists and physicists will be crucial in order to define the appropriate numerical mockups at different scales.

Keywords: Architecture project, daylight, solar radiation, geometry, projections, simulation

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of MPE Rainfall Product at Hourly and Daily Temporal Resolution within a Hydro-Estimator Pixel


Authors: Alejandra M. Rojas-Gonzalez, Eric W. Harmsen, Sandra Cruz Pol

Abstract: A rain gauge network (28 rain gauges) was installed in western Puerto Rico (PR) within a 4km x 4km GOES satellite pixel. Located within the pixel is a well monitored sub-watershed of 3.55 km2, referred to here as the “testbed subwatershed” (TBSW). The rain gauge network was established to evaluate rainfall estimates from the GOES-based Hydro-Estimator (HE), NEXRAD radar and the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) radar network, which has a high spatial resolution (? 200 m). Furthermore, the rain gauge network will provide a high temporal and spatial resolution rainfall dataset to be input into a distributed hydrologic model in the TBSW. The focus of this work is to evaluate the performance of the Multisensor Precipitation Estimation (MPE) product at 1-hour and 1-day temporal resolution within the 4km x 4km HE pixel for 2007. The MPE product is popular within the hydrologic modeling community due to its resolution and mean field bias correction computations in its coverage. Results for 2007 indicate that the highest rainfall measured by the rain gauges within the HE pixel area were September with an average and standard deviation of 241.75 mm and 73.3 mm, respectively; and August with 223.7 mm and 64.66 mm, respectively. While for the same months the MPE, produced a total monthly rainfall accumulation and standard deviation of 247.36 mm and 64.4 mm for September, respectively, and 233.68 mm and 36.54 mm for August, respectively. The mean and standard deviation daily field bias for these months were 1.08 and 1.5 for September, respectively, and 0.93 and 1.6 for August, respectively. The bias changed, when considering an hourly analysis, to 1.98 average and 5.45 standard deviation for August and 1.49 average and 3.01 standard deviation for September. Nevertheless the month that produced the largest mean bias was November with 2.24, and 2.6 standard deviation for daily rainfall accumulations; and a mean bias of 3.92 and 8.16 standard deviation for an hourly time step. In this study percentages of detection and false alarms were determined at two time scales.

Keywords: Multisensor Precipitation Estimation, NEXRAD products, rainfall variability, mean field bias

Title of the Paper: Are there Accessible Environments in Athens, Greece Today?


Authors: Konstantina Theresia Vozikis

Abstract: This paper aims to reveal the general goals of Universal Design and Universal Access according to the normative situation in the European Community, focusing on the existing situation in Greece. As Athens was the last European city where (Para-) Olympic Games took place, the results of a comparative study are presented, revealing accessibility conditions to buildings of public use in Greece’s capital. Using a study carried out in 1984, the changes regarding Universal Access over the last two and a half decades are investigated. Building categories such as ministries, hospitals, higher-degree educational buildings, museums, cinemas and theatres were visited and re-evaluated with the help of a specific protocol in 2004 and 2009. In the end, the degree of improvement is discussed and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: Universal design, universal access, buildings of public use, disability, survey, Athens

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Modeling Pollution from Heavy Traffic in Tbilisi Streets


Authors: Teimuraz Davitashvili

Abstract: Using mathematical simulation, distribution of concentration of harmful substances NOx at Rustavely Avenue, the crossroad of David Agmashenebeli and King Tamar Avenue, where traffic is congested, and for the whole territory adjoined to the crossroad have been studied. In addition, there have been investigated influences of traffic-lights at streets' intersections on the growth of concentration of harmful substances. Mathematical model of air pollution from traffic is presented. Results of numerical calculations are given.

Keywords: Air pollution, mathematical simulation, influences of traffic-lights

Title of the Paper: Evaluating the Effects of UHI on Climate Parameters (A Case Study for Mashhad, Khorrasan)


Authors: S. Ghazanfari, M. Naseri, F. Faridani, H. Aboutorabi, A. Farid

Abstract: Urban expansion, pollution growth, and development of major industrial activities in metropolitan areas impacted local climates of major towns. Transforming big cities into heat islands is one of the most important results of micro-climate change. In this study, variation of some of the important climate factors (such as precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and percentage of cloudiness) was reviewed in order to study micro-climate changes. The city of Mashhad selected for this study, as metropolitan area. The study performed by comparing the climate parameters of this city with the neighboring regions, which placed at the same climate categories. According to the effective role of rainfall in the urban weather modification and decreasing of pollutions, rainfall variation will be more important and sensitive. The result of this research shows that rainfall variation follows the change of temperature trend. A significant correlation between temperature and precipitation changes showed the effect of heat island on urban climate parameters. The urban heat island phenomenon increases the hot season rainfalls when we have decreasing effects on cold season.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, Air pollution, Microclimate change, climate parameters, Metropolitan areas

Issue 8, Volume 5, August 2009

Title of the Paper: A Sedimentological Approach to Refining Reservoir Architecture using the Well Log Data and Core Analysis in the Saharan Platform of Algeria


Authors: R. Baouche, A. Nedjari, S. El Adj

Abstract: Improved reservoir characterisation in the mature oil applied to Gourara Field of Sahara in Algeria, aimed at maximising both in-field and near-field hydrocarbon potential, requires a clearer understanding of sub-seismic stratigraphy and facies distributions. In this context, we present a regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Oued Namouss Field based on extensive sedimentological re-interpretation of core and wireline log data, combined with core analysis and published literature. This framework is used to place individual reservoirs in an appropriate regional context, thus resulting in the identification of subtle sedimentological and tectono-stratigraphic features of reservoir architecture that have been previously overlooked. We emphasise the following insights gained from our regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic synthesis: (1) improved definition of temporal and spatial trends in deposition both within and between individual reservoirs, (2) development of regionally consistent, predictive sedimentological models for two enigmatic reservoir intervals (the Formations I and II), and (3) recognition of subtle local tectono-stratigraphic controls on reservoir architecture, and their links to the regional structural evolution of the Province. We discuss the potential applications of these insights to the identification of additional exploration potential and to improved ultimate recovery. In this research a procedure was developed to assess and quantify uncertainties in hydrocarbon estimates related to depositional facies, petrophysical data and gross reservoir volumes. This procedure was applied to the Gourara Field, which is a mature gas field in the Oued Namous Basin, Algeria. The aim was to investigate the reasons for an unexpectedly high hydrocarbon recovery factor.

Keywords: Famenian, Strunian Formations, Sequence stratigraphy, Reservoir architecture, Well log analysis, Algeria

Title of the Paper: Review of Sustainable Development Indicators. Case Study: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela - Statistical Information for Year 2005


Authors: Anna Gabriela Perez, Montserrat Hernandez Lopez

Abstract: This study is a review of sustainable development indicators, especially indicators framework proposed by the United Nations, and examines the particular case of the environmental quality matrix of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in 2005. This matrix was used for calculating a second generation sustainable development indicator: the environmental quality index. This analysis includes the study of the relationships between economic, social and environmental variables and the classification of Venezuelan states in homogeneous groups according to the similarity that they present with the available information regarding those variables.

Keywords: Sustainable development, environmental quality indicators, principal components, cluster analysis

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of the Bikeability of a Greek City: Case study "City of Volos"


Authors: Nikolaos Eliou, Athanasios Galanis, Apostolos Proios

Abstract: Driving a bike in a Greek city is not an easy case. There are no bicycle facilities available and the bicyclists and the car drivers are not used to each other in mixed traffic situations. The primary goal of the study was the evaluation of the road infrastructure and the ability of the bicyclists to bike safely in the city of Volos. The secondary goal of the study is the finding of the main problems of the bicycles in the city, the level of the bicycle use and the purpose of the bicyclists’ daily trips. The study took place in November 2008. 100 bicyclists participated in the study and answered a questionnaire of 8 questions, which consisted of more sub questions. 38 of the participants were students in the University of Thessaly and the rest citizens of the city. The bicyclists were of different age, sex and profession, in order to have a more independent sample. The questions concerned about the road safety of the bicyclists both in bikeways and in rest of the road network, the road safety level on the intersections’ crossing, the behavior of the car drivers to the bicyclists, the behavior and the safety measures of the bicyclists, the amount of the daily bike trips and their destination. Using a rating scale from 1 to 6, with 1 considering the worst and 6 the best grade, in the first 5 of the 8 questions of each questionnaire, the bicyclists put a grade to each question. Finally, calculating the summary of each questionnaire and the average of the whole sample, with a rating scale of 5 to 30, with 5 considering the worst and 30 the best road environment, we evaluated the bikeability level of the city.

Keywords: Bikeability, Bicycle facilities, Bikeways, Bicyclists’ safety, Bicyclists’ behavior, Drivers' behavior

Title of the Paper: Urban Planning and Economic Revitalization of Historic Centers: a MIS-GIS Application


Authors: Vincenzo Barrile, Giuseppe Armocida, Francesco Di Capua

Abstract: The historical centers constitute, in every respect, "places of the memory" and develop, at social level, a refined identifying function. All that involves the necessity for local Administrations, associations and experts interested in the local transformation processes in act to read the possible evolutions and identify effective intervention strategies. In particular the small historical centres of Calabria constitute an architectural historical and urban property which often melts with the natural and ambient values of territorial membership. The developed application (and still in continuous development) has as principal aim to support the processes of the recovery of the Calabrian historical centres and the exploitation of the local enterprises interested to extraction and production of the material necessary to the recovery with the last purpose to re-propose the typical solutions and the original typologies in order of an usable conservation and, then, "sustainable". From a structural point of view, the architecture of the application has organized in four levels, interconnected between them and climbable, that are the data base, the MIS component (Management Information System), the GIS (Geographic Information System) and at last, the multi-user interface (system manager, private and institutional stakeholders being due in matter). The so articulate application provides the necessary support both public administrations, planners, designers, and the sector enterprises.

Keywords: Historical centers, MIS-GIS, DBMS, Conservation, Recover

Issue 9, Volume 5, September 2009

Title of the Paper: GIS Application for Urban Archaeology: Archaeological City Map


Authors: Vincenzo Barrile, Giuseppe Armocida, Francesco Di Capua

Abstract: The Information System of Cultural Heritage (SITBA) conducted by the Municipality of Reggio Calabria (ITALY), captures, enhances and makes accessible to a wide audience the complex work of urban archeology conducted under the scientific direction of Professor Francesca Martorano, from Faculty of Architecture of the Mediterranean University. Through a careful and scrupulous examination conducted both on archival material that on literature was realizesd an instrument - a kind of modern "map" - which allows both to scholars and citizens more demanding and attentive, to know the location of archaeological sites in the city, Rhegion Greek, Latin Rhegium until the Byzantine city. The work, which is the first example in Calabria of information and dissemination of archaeological, and thus historical, land knowledge using tools, is directed to the discovery and exploitation of the urban history of Reggio Calabria through the inventory of archaeological sites and artefacts discovered so far in the municipality. This allowed the Municipality, to inhabitants of Reggio who love the roots of their city and tourists to have a modern instrument that indicates the archaeological discoveries in the fabric of the town and also inform on the location of those monuments that have not left any trace except in documents. SITBA has many aims, one of these very important is to present to the population the great archaeological property, identifying and exploiting the strong witness presence of archaeological evidences of town. Another important aim is to feed and populate Municipal Informative System (SITCO) In the note, in addition to describing the technical aspects, the integration problematic between and about different informative systems, adopted technology solutions as well as future developments of the project, it has considered appropriate to emphasize the importance and expectations generated by the project by the city Reggio Calabria.

Keywords: Geomatica, GIS, DBMS, Totem, Archaeology, Archaeological paper

Title of the Paper: On the Temporal Evolution of the Vertical Momentum Fluxes within the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer


Authors: Costas G. Helmis

Abstract: In the frame of the CBLAST-Low project, the vertical structure of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) was studied using remote and in situ sensing instrumentation at the southern coast of the Nantucket Island, MA, USA, during 2003. Since a Low-Level Jet (LLJ) was frequently observed at low heights, it is of interest to examine the modification of the vertical transport of momentum fluxes and the possible influence on the vertical structure of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Thus two cases of a LLJ development (the 3rd and the 7th of August 2003) were examined, regarding the momentum transport and the standard deviation of the vertical component of the wind profiles which is related with the TKE. According to this study an intense modification of the vertical profiles of momentum fluxes and TKE was evident mainly above the LLJ core, following the temporal evolution of the developed LLJ. This fact modifies the vertical turbulent structure of the marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer as well as the expected levels of TKE values.

Keywords: Momentum flux, Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Turbulent Kinetic Energy, SODAR, LLJ

Title of the Paper: Istro-Romanian Cultural Heritage: The Relevance of the Study of Endangered Cultures


Authors: Marghescu Georgeta

Abstract: The Istro-Romanian culture is on the brink of extinction. We are talking about the culture of one of Europe?s smallest ethno-linguistic groups living in the Istria peninsula, at the confluence of Croatia, Slovenia and Italy. The number of the group members is rapidly diminishing. The urgency of the research concerning Istro-Romanians culture is, therefore, obvious. So far the Istro-Romanians were researched especially from historical and linguistic points of views and a systematic study of their culture was never made. This paper comes as a possible answer to both the urgency of the research of this culture and, respectively, the need to create a basis for strategies to maintain the identity of the Istro-Romanians.

Keywords: Cultural Identity, Istro-Romanians, Environment, Way of life, Tradition and Modern

Title of the Paper: Community Identification Based on Multispectral Image Classification for Local Electric Power Distribution Systems


Authors: Tatiya Luemongkol, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper illustrated an approach of identifying community size in feeding area of local MV power distribution systems by using satellite image processing. Information of community size is essential and can be useful to estimate electric energy used by local customers. Infrared band of satellite images can be used for this purpose. ENVI and GIS ArcView software are both working tools in this paper. Satellite images of LANDSAT 7 covered a test area in Nakhon Ratchasima 2 distribution feeders were employed for test. The results obtained from the satellite image processing based on ISODATA unsupervised classification can be used in associative with GIS information of the power distribution feeder to visualize feeder load allocation in the community point of view.

Keywords: Multispectral, Satellite imagery, ISODATA, Unsupervised classification, Minimum square error

Title of the Paper: New Forms and Directions in Mathematical Modeling of Pluvial Erosion


Authors: Petru Cardei

Abstract: This paper presents theoretical results obtained under research contract about the pluvial soil erosion and landslide prognosis. The presented results refer to a reformulation of the USLE model in the spirit of theoretical physics, in order to modeling the pluvial soil erosion phenomenon as dynamic process. There are many problems to be solved in the direction of the USLE model formulation in the language of the modern physics: USLE formula must be express in variables which depends by space and time; the replacement of the particular physical quantities characteristic of this model with universal physics quantities (for example, like the hydraulic models for soil pluvial erosion); the application of the general principles of physics to modeling the transformation of the geometry of the eroded surface; introduction of the random elements in the model. Another research direction is currently redrafting USLE model in terms of vectors. This model divides the year into time units. The issue presented here is not exhaustive. In this paper is addressed only the first two problems. To check the results obtained, is used experimental data obtained using a mobile installation to estimate the risk of pluvial soil erosion. In aim to replacement the particular USLE model variables with universal (not particular) physical variables, is used the tool of the dimensional analysis. The results and their verification, show that the proposed formulation for USLE is plausible. With this material I hope to attract in this direction other researchers in the same category of phenomena. The new formulation can be a start to much new research.

Keywords: Soil, Erosion, Pluvial, USLE, model, physics, theory

Issue 10, Volume 5, October 2009

Title of the Paper: Measurements and Numerical Modeling of Wind Driven Circulation and Pollutant Transport


Authors: Asu Inan, Lale Balas, Murat Cetin

Abstract: Antalya Bay is located in the Mediterranean Sea of Turkish coasts. City of Antalya is one of the major tourism cities of Turkey with an increasing population. The sea outfall was constructed in the Antalya Bay. In this study, the currents and wind have been observed and measured. The wave height distribution, current pattern and pollutant concentration have been presented. Wind driven currents have been numerically modeled with the HYDROTAM 3 which is a powerfull tool to simulate hydrodynamics of a coastal area. The bacterial pollutant transport distribution due to the sea outfall of Antalya city was numerically modeled.

Keywords: Current, wave, pollutant, concentration, measurement, numerical modeling, Antalya Bay, sea outfall, coastal pollution, finite difference, finite element

Title of the Paper: Energy Conservation with Energy Efficient Lighting


Authors: Arvind Dhingra, Tejinder Singh

Abstract: The energy resources of the world are under severe pressure to cope up with the growing need of energy. The technological changes and changes in the lifestyle have increased the demand for energy tremendously. With the resources become scarce and energy costs growing, it becomes imperative for everyone to save energy or to use the available energy judiciously. The need is to either find new sources of energy or to use the energy available carefully. Lighting forms a major chunk of load on our electrical power system. With the resources become scarce and energy costs growing, it becomes imperative for everyone to save energy or to use the available energy judiciously. Energy efficiency in lighting involves building architecture, selection of proper luminaries and light sources. This paper presents the study of energy conservation measures adopted in a spinning unit. The payback period is also calculated.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Energy efficient luminaries, HID lamps, Compact Fluorescent lamps, T5 luminaries, Payback period

Title of the Paper: A GIS Based Model for the Optimisation of Municipal Solid Waste Collection: the Case Study of Nikea, Athens, Greece


Authors: Christos Chalkias, Katia Lasaridi

Abstract: Waste collection and transport (WC&T) constitutes a large fraction of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) management costs worldwide. In Greece currently this may account for 70-100% of the total MSW costs, most of it being spent on salaries and fuel. It is therefore crucial to improve the WC&T system through routing optimisation. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology provides an advanced modelling framework for decision makers in order to analyse and simulate various spatial waste management problems, including waste collection. In this study a methodology for the optimisation of the waste collection and transport system, based on GIS, was developed. A model in ArcGIS Network Analyst was developed in order to improve the efficiency of WC&T in the Municipality of Nikea (MoN), Athens, Greece via the reallocation of waste collection bins and the optimisation of vehicle routing in terms of distance and time travelled. Two scenarios were compared with the current empirical collection scheme: S1-collection vehicle routing optimisation, and S2-reallocation of bins and routing optimisation. Results demonstrate that both scenarios provided savings compared to the current situation in terms of collection time (3.0% and 17.0% for S1 and S2 respectively) and travel distance (5.5% and 12.5% for S1 and S2 respectively). Time and distance reduction relate to similar CO2 emissions and fuel consumption savings. These figures indicate that GIS based models can offer significant improvements to the WC&T system and, consequently, to its financial and environmental costs.

Keywords: Municipal solid waste (MSW), waste collection, GIS, Network Analyst, routing, route optimisation, modelling

Title of the Paper: Prediction Model of Chemical Pollutants Produced by the Road Vehicles


Authors: Stelian Tarulescu, Corneliu Cofaru

Abstract: The Brasov city is one of the biggest towns in Romania. In the central area of the Brasov city can be found the biggest concentration of the carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, the ozone and the volatile organic compounds. For intersections’ analysis there were collected data about road traffic and air pollution in the neighborhood of the road. After collecting the data, made tables with the traffic values and the values of the three pollutants were made, according to the intersections from the analyzed route (nine intersections). For calculus were used the equations corresponding to the determined polynomial curves, for each pollutant, using the values obtained experimentally. The working page of the prediction model was made by grouping the four analyzed situations (depending on season and hour interval).

Keywords: Pollution, vehicles, prediction, measurement, traffic

Title of the Paper: Air Quality Indices and their Modelling by Hierarchical Fuzzy Inference Systems


Authors: Petr Hajek, Vladimir Olej

Abstract: The paper presents the overview of current methods for air quality evaluation, i.e. air stress indices and, especially, air quality indices. Traditional air quality indices are determined as mean values of selected air pollutants. Thus, air quality evaluation depends on strictly given limits without taking into account specific local conditions and synergic relations between air pollutants and other meteorological factors. The stated limitations can be eliminated e.g. using systems based on fuzzy logic. Therefore, the paper presents a design of air quality indices based on hierarchical fuzzy inference systems. Tree and cascade hierarchical fuzzy inference systems of Mamdani type are proposed as alternative air quality indices. For selected localities, they provide both the resulting class of air quality and the degree of membership to each class.

Keywords: Air quality index, air quality, fuzzy logic, hierarchical fuzzy inference systems

Issue 11, Volume 5, November 2009

Title of the Paper: Spatial Data Infrastructure for Groundwater Integrated Management with Application in Three Case Studies in Romania


Authors: Cheveresan Maria Ilinca, Marin-Nelu Minciuna, Drobot Radu

Abstract: Groundwater resource represents a major component of the quantitative and qualitative integrated water resource management. In the context of the climate changes the surface water resources become scarce or too expensive even within complex hydraulic schemes. Consequently groundwater resource is extremely valuable for drinking water and other demands for clean water. In order to have an efficient management, an integrated approach is needed taking into consideration all aspects that are related to groundwater resource. GIS offers tools for such an objective like an Enterprise Geodatabase unitary structure. As EU member Romania has to adopt and apply EU regulations including technology (like spatial data formats). This paper presents a standard for storage of data regarding groundwater management at national level. Three different case studies based on this approach are presented in order to reveal the use of a common data source for different models and analysis.

Keywords: Geodatabase, integrated groundwater resource management, GIS, SDI, conceptual data model, pollution

Title of the Paper: Croatian Environment Information System - Estimation of Usage of Environmental Data and Information


Authors: Mira Zovko, Jasna Butuci

Abstract: To be successful, environment protection activities require reliable and timely data and information. Following that active approach in preservation of environment, Croatian Environment Agency (CEA) has prepared by-law on Environment Information System. This legal instrument has been adopted by the Government in June 2008 (Official Gazette 68/08) setting up structure, content, format, functionality and Environment Information System (EIS) maintenance manner, together with prescription of data flow mode (delivery terms, means and obligations). Responsibility for by-law implementation lays to the Croatian Environment Agency. As institution responsible for establishment, conduct, development, coordination and maintenance of EIS, in June 2008, Agency initiated research named: Estimation of usage of environmental data and information. Main goals of this research were to determine who is Agency’s audience, what is their field of interest, how Agency could make modification in presentation of environmental data and information and also to help to perform education more successfully. Also the research has defined the usage of data and information from all sources at the disposal of Agency, as well as usage from other sources established at the national level. Their responses proved to be of great value that would help Agency to make its information system more efficient. Research ended by the end of year 2008 with valuable information that has been used to improve Agency’s first approach to general public. By targeting specific environmental topics in the publication, this research provided clearer understanding of purpose in using environmental data and information. Also user profiles and their interest for specific environmental topic became more distinctive. All of these inputs are used to improve access to data and information about the environment and ultimately Agency’s publication The Environment in Your Pocket, which is intended for the general public.

Keywords: Environment, Environment information system, Environmental data, Data base, Indicator, Education

Title of the Paper: Integrated Land Use Transportation Modeling Needs and Legislative Mandates


Authors: Ardeshir Anjomani

Abstract: Integrated land use transportation models have been evolved as the primary metropolitan planning vehicle in the last several decades as the world development and urbanization continues. Urban regions continue planning for development of their urbanized areas using these modeling processes. Land use/demographic forecasting models provide the main input for the travel demand models, yet until recently the rigorous application of such models in the integrated land use transportation process was scanty except for the largest metropolitan areas. Such models require consideration of environmental factors and modeling of metropolitan economic systems. Theoretical and technological advancement of the last few decades has instigated a new wave of attention, research and further developments of the models and techniques from a variety of disciplines. This article briefly discusses the advancements and provides a guideline for their future improvements. It also discusses importance of role of national government and legislative mandates in ascertaining quality of planning process by reviewing some excerpts from U.S. legislation.

Keywords: Land-use planning, Integrated transportation models, Land-use and Demographic forecasting, Legislative mandates, Transportation planning, Metropolitan development, Environmental concerns, Economic development, Regional development, Regional policy

Title of the Paper: Ultrasonic Spectroscopy and Fractal Analysis in the Study on Progressive Aggregation of Humic Substances in Diluted Solutions


Authors: Jiri Kucerik, Martin Drastik, Oldrich Zmeskal, Anna Ctvrtnickova

Abstract: High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy was used to study progressive aggregation and structural changes in diluted aquatic solutions of humic substances over the concentration range from 0.001 g/L to 3 g/L. For this purpose, both sodium salts (fulvates) and protonized forms of fulvic acids and sodium salts of humic acids (humates) were used; the origin of humic substances covered wide range of sources. Obtained results confirmed previously published statement about the progressive aggregation of humic substances in diluted solutions. The method allowing the treatment of obtained data by fractal analysis was developed and tested. Determined dependency of fractal dimension on concentration revealed clear differences in mechanisms of aggregation of individual humic and fulvic samples. In fact the value of fractal dimension 2.5 was determined for the concentration 3g/L; diluting the solution caused increasing in fractal dimension value up to 3 for concentrations around 0.01 g/L. The increase was not the same for all samples, in fact the most significant fluctuation in this concentration range was observed for fulvic acids. It was found out that despite the prevalence of hydrophobic forces in stabilization of humic substances in diluted solutions, also the nature of the counterion represents one of the crucial factors playing role in conformation and stability of humates and fulvates. In accordance with previous observations based on the measurement of lignite humates, also humates, fulvates and fulvic acids originating from various sources showed the change in their aggregates properties around the concentration 1 g/L.

Keywords: Humic and fulvic acids, aggregation, IHSS, ultrasonic spectroscopy, fractal analysis

Title of the Paper: Development of Children Aged 1.5-3 Years in Relation with Nourishment in a Children's Nursery in Romania


Authors: Petrescu Cristina, Zavoianu Laurentiu-Marius, Suciu Oana

Abstract: In the present study we have investigated the anthropometrical indices (weight, height, thorax perimeter, cranial perimeter, body mass index) during infancy and their relation to nourishment (food intake, nutritive value of food). The study was performed on a group of 54 children (27 girls and 27 boys), aged between 1.5-3 years, in a children’s nursery in Tirgoviste, Romania. The methods consisted of a transverse epidemiological inquiry using the anthropometrical indices of infant children and a nourishment inquiry, using the list of food released from the storehouse over 10 days, twice (in October 2008 and February 2009). WHO Child Growth Standards (Geneva 2006) were also used to analyze children’s development. The relation anthropometrical indices – nourishment was investigated by aid of linear regression (SPSS 13 program). The anthropometrical indices indicate a decrease to below the minimum values for thorax perimeter and body mass index (BMI) in the age group of 2.5-3 years. According to WHO Child Growth Standards (Geneva 2006), BMIs for age group 2.5-3 years are < 50 percentages for 11.1% of total investigated children and 42.18% of children included in this age group. There are not significant differences of anthropometrical indices between sexes. Nourishment of children is deficient in milk, eggs, animal fats, vegetables, and excessive in meat, cheese and vegetable fats, with normal intake of protein, deficient in carbohydrates and excessive in fats in both periods of the nourishment inquiry. In the second period of nourishment inquiry, food intake is very increased in potatoes, fruits and sugar. There is a statistically significant relation between milk and potatoes with BMI. Milk and potatoes are significant nourishment predictors of children development. Nourishment predictors of anthropometrical indices depend on groups of food, children’s age and nourishment inquiry period. No predictor of cranial perimeter development is found. In conclusion, there is insubstantial association anthropometrical indices–nourishment depending on children’s age, group of food and season.

Keywords: Children aged 1-3 years, anthropometrical indices, group of food, relation, predictors

Issue 12, Volume 5, December 2009

Title of the Paper: Detecting Hornbeam Trees Phenological Specification of Deciduous Broad Leaf Forest in North of Iran


Authors: Sasan Babaei Kafaki, Asadollahe Mataji, Seyed Armin Hashemi

Abstract: Phenology has emerged recently as an important focus for ecological research .The research has performed in selected plots of Guilan Province, in the North of Iran. The each selected plot area is one hectare. We selected 6 plots of hornbeam trees from 480 to 1170 meters above sea level were determined in mountainous region .This study was performed on different altitudes and different aspects .the six sample plots were selected in study area. Phenological studies were fulfilled during four years as from January 2003 to December 2006 trees by using ground observations and IRS1C/1D - LISS-IIΙ data in each plot. The statistical analysis One (Way-ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences between the phonological characteristics in respect to the different site physiographical characteristics. Furthermore there were significant negative correlation between average precipitation and average air temperature and there of the phonological characteristics. The correlation between average air temperature and leaf mature and fall date was significantly negative .Appearance of flowers has usually been begun in this species at the same time of Leaf appearance and from its beside, in such as a way that it continues as from the first of the third week of April and will continue up to first week of May. Leaves in this species complete usually 15 to 20 days after germination .Fruits mostly become ripe about 70 days after appearance meaning as from the first of the second week of November up to the end of the third week. Leaves in this species begin to fall as from the beginning of the fourth week of November and will continue up to the end of first week of December and sometimes up to the end of the first half of the December, too. The green-up of vegetation has advanced in the spring by 1.2 days yr_1 and the dormancy delayed in autumn by 0.6 days yr_1.The results show that over the study period, the growing season duration has lengthened by 1.8 days yr_1 in study region.

Keywords: Leaved period, Air temperature, NDVI, Leaf abscission, Anthesis, Fruit ripe

Title of the Paper: Evaluation Biodiversity in Relation to Physiographical Factors in Mountain Forest in Iran


Authors: Seyed Armin Hashemi, Sasan Babaei Kafaki

Abstract: Species diversity is an important characteristic of bio –communities .Organisms diversity, diversity measurement and hypothesis test in relation to diversity causes are issues which the ecologist are interested in for long period .In this research, diversity of plant species in forest region, numbers of 60 sample plots in 256.00 square meters have been considered in random – systematic inventory was considered. In each sample plot, four micro-plots in 2.25 square meters in order to study on herbal cover, were executed that totally 240 micro-plots were considered. At each plot six diversity indices (Simpson's reciprocal (N2), Shannon's (H1), Hill's (N1),Pielou's(J/) ,Alatalo's (F), Molinari's (G) ) in relation to physiographical factors (slope, geographical aspect and altitude from the sea level) were studied. The results showed that species diversity was the greatest at north aspect and slopes less than 30% has the most amounts. Factor of altitude from the sea level did not have meaningful relation with species diversity. Through study on correlation of the numbers of species in sample plots with indices and also process and role of indices in different processors of analysis, Simpson's reciprocal index was suggested as suitable index in this type of studies.

Keywords: Diversity, Forest, Simpson's index, Slope, Aspect, Altitude

Title of the Paper: Linking Perceptions and Water Management: Reflections from Cyprus


Authors: Rania Papasozomenou, Dimitrios Zikos

Abstract: The predicted effects of climate change on regions with fragile ecosystems and high dependency on natural resources, such as the Mediterranean basin, call for an improved and holistic resource management Such a holistic approach would be enriched by the inclusion of the perceptions of the appropriators and the decision makers. The aim of this study is to identify the linkage between perceptions and water management at individual level, focusing on the case of Cyprus, an island characterised by strict top-down hierarchies and intense water shortage problems. To realise the aim, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with students of the University of Cyprus and locals of Panagia, a village adjacent to a protected area. Additionally, empirical results were obtained by experimental techniques employed by the authors. As such a policy experiment on irrigation in the above mentioned locations was conducted and used as a triangulation means. The preliminary results illustrate that the perceptions of the sample differ substantially. These differences shape to a large extend the way water is managed by individuals but also the notion of water management as a whole.

Keywords: Common pool resources, water resource, perceptions, water management, policy experiments, Cyprus

Title of the Paper: A Global Service Quality Index to Evaluate the Performance and Sustainability in Water Supply Utilities


Authors: Antonio A. L. S. Duarte, Gisela M. C. Rodrigues, Rui A. R. Ramos

Abstract: Water supply systems are a structural part of public utilities and as such are vital to the general wellbeing, public health, safe drinking water use, economic activities and environment protection. The principal objective of regulation is to protect the interests of users by fostering quality in the services provided by utilities and ensuring a fair balance in the charges levied, guaranteeing the essentiality, equity, indispensability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness principles. The use of performance indicators is widely recommended as a measure of the utility’s effectiveness and efficiency. In Portugal, the regulation of service quality is conducted by ERSAR (Portuguese Authority for the Regulation of Water and Waste), which has decided to define its own set of performance indicators that is less comprehensive than those adopted by the IWA (International Water Association). Currently, the adopted system does not provide a quantitative and integrated evaluation leading to an overall ranking of utilities’ performance and sustainability. The aim of this paper is to contribute for the improvement of the Portuguese performance assessment system, through the development and application of a complementary methodology to define a global index of service quality (GISEQ) for a given water supplier in order to achieve accurate performance rates. This methodology allows a truly quantitative evaluation in which each performance indicator represents a criterion to be considered and judiciously weighted, based on the results of an on-line questionnaire proposed to a selected set of academic and professional experts. The GISEQ values are calculated as a weighted linear combination of the normalised scores of each performance indicator, which is one of the most common aggregation procedures available in the context of multicriteria evaluation. The criteria normalisation process essentially based on fuzzy sets defined for each indicator, considering the established ERSAR or legislation standards. An innovative approach to weights definition was also performed as well as a sensitivity analysis of GISEQ values to different weighting methods.

Keywords: Water supply systems; performance indicators; multicriteria analysis; weighting methods; service quality index (GISEQ)

Title of the Paper: A Comparison of Two MPPT Techniques for PV System


Authors: Nazih Moubayed, Ali El-Ali, Rachid Outbib

Abstract: In the context of renewable energy, this study treats the case of the conversion of solar energy, which is one part of non pollutant energy, to electrical one. In this paper, two different methods are used to maximize the generated power. Thus, a comparison between the ‘perturb and observe’ control method and the ‘incremental conductance’ control method are given, analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Renewable energy, solar panel, photovoltaic cell, modeling and control


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