WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 7, 2008
Print ISSN: 1109-2777
E-ISSN: 2224-2678








Issue 1, Volume 7, January 2008

Title of the Paper:  Fault Diagnosis for a Rolling Bearing used in a Reciprocating Machine by Adaptive Filtering Technique and Fuzzy Neural Network


Authors: Huaqing Wang, Peng Chen

Abstract: This paper presents a method of fault diagnosis for a rolling bearing used in a reciprocating machine by the adaptive filtering technique and a fuzzy neural network. The adaptive filtering is used for noise cancelling and feature extraction from vibration signal measured for the diagnosis. A fuzzy neural network is used to automatically distinguish the fault types of a bearing by time domain features. Using the signals processed by adaptive filtering, the neural network can quickly converge when learning, and can quickly distinguish fault types when diagnosing. The spectrum analysis of an enveloped time signal is also used for the fault diagnosis. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rice husking machine are shown in order to verify the efficiency of the method. All diagnosis results of the spectrum analysis and the fuzzy neural network show that the method proposed in this paper is very effective even for cancelling highly correlated noise, and for automatically discriminating the fault types with a high accuracy.

Keywords: Fault diagnosis, adaptive filtering, fuzzy neural network, rolling bearing, Reciprocating Machine, signal processing

Title of the Paper: Identity-based Constant Round Group Key Exchange Protocol via Secret-Share


Authors: C. J. Cao, J. F. Ma

Abstract: Group key management is one of the basic building blocks in securing group communication. A number of solutions to group key exchange have been proposed, but most of them are not scalable and require a number of rounds linear in the number of group members. We formally present a constant-round Identity-based protocol with forward secrecy for group key exchange, which is provably secure in the security model introduced by Bresson et al. Our protocol focuses on round efficiency and the number of communication round is only two. And, the protocol provides a batch verification technique, which simultaneously verifies the validity of messages from other group participants and greatly improves computational efficiency. Moreover, in our protocol, it is no necessary of always-online key generation center during the execution of the protocol compared to other Identity-based protocols.

Keywords: provable security, identity-based, group key exchange, constant round, secret-share.

Title of the Paper: Use of Response Surface Methodology and Exponential Desirability Functions to Paper Feeder Design


Authors: Hsu-Hwa Chang, Chih-Hsien Chen

Abstract: Applying parameter design to a system that has a binary-type performance, an efficient metric is to employ the operating window (OW) which is the range between two performance limit thresholds. Paper feeder design is a typical problem of the OW method. The wider OW, the higher performance of the system is. This study uses an approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and desirability functions to optimizing the OW design of a paper feeder. The approach employs an ANN to construct the response function model (RFM) of the OW system. A novel performance measure (PM) is developed to evaluate the OW responses. Through evaluating the PM of the predicted OW responses, the best control factor combination can be obtained from the full control factor combinations. A simulated example of a paper feeder design is analyzed. Performing the approach to parameter design problems, engineers do not require much background in statistics but instead rely on their knowledge of engineering.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Exponential Desirability Functions, Operating Windows,  Response Surface Methodology, Response Function Model, Paper Feeder Design

Title of the Paper: Principal Component Analysis for Greenhouse Modelling


Authors: Nathalie Pessel, Jean-Francois Balmat

Abstract: This paper presents a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study for neuronal modelling of a complex system. The PCA transforms a set of correlated variables into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables without lose the original information. Thanks to this first stage it is possible to design a simplified structure of the model. The right choice of the architecture is crucial for the application of neural nets in process identification. The proposed study allows to validate the association of the principal component analysis with neuronal model for a real multivariable process modelling: an experimental greenhouse. The object is to estimate the internal climate (temperature and hygrometry) by reducing the number of the input variables. Thus, we compare two different structures of neural network. Several tests and results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Principal component analysis, neural networks, multivariable system modelling, model reduction.

Title of the Paper: Cross Evaluation using Weight Restrictions in Unitary Input DEA Models: Theoretical Aspects and Application to Olympic Games Ranking


Authors: Joao Carlos Correia Baptista Soares De Mello, Eliane Goncalves Gomes, Lidia Angulo Meza, Luiz Biondi Neto

Abstract: There is no official method to establish a final ranking for the Olympic Games. The usual ranking is based on the Lexicographic Multicriteria Method, the main drawback of which is to overvalue gold medals. Furthermore, it does not take into account the results of the Winter Games, which are also part of the Olympic Games. This paper proposes a method based on DEA, in which the outputs are the number of all three medals (gold, silver and bronze) that each country won at both the Salt Lake City and Sydney games; a constant input is considered for all countries. Theoretical aspects of this model are explained hereinbelow. Restrictions based on the importance of each medal are defined for this model. A weight average for each output, based on a modified Cross Evaluation model, is developed and is used as the coefficient in the weighted sum that establishes the final ranking.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis – Cross evaluation – Weights restrictions – Unitary input – Ranking.

Issue 2, Volume 7, February 2008

Title of the Paper:  Determination of 3 - RPR Planar Parallel Robot Assembly Modes by Jacobian Matrix Factorization


Authors: Georges Fried, Karim Djouani, Diane Borojeni, Sohail Iqbal

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for the determination of 3 − RPR planar parallel robot assembly modes. In this approach, the parallel robot is considered as a multi robot system. The segments are then regarded as serial robots moving a common load. The proposed approach is based on a parallel robot Jacobian matrix factorization. This factorization is an extension of global formalism developed by Fijany. This approach allows to determine several parallel robot Jacobian matrices, which are used for the assembly mode determination of a 3 − RPR planar parallel robot. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the simulation.

Keywords: Parallel Robot, Kinematic Model, Jacobian Matrix, Assembly Modes.

Title of the Paper: A Chaos-based Unequal Encryption Mechanism in Wireless
Telemedicine with Error Decryption


Authors: Chin-Feng Lin, Cheng-Hsing Chung, Zhi-Lu Chen, Chang-Jin Song, Zhi-Xiang Wang

Abstract: In this paper, we have developed a chaos-based unequal encryption mechanism which can be applied in the wireless telemedicine with error decryption. The main idea for using chaos sequence is to increase the unpredictability compared with other kinds of random sequences. An essential feature of this unequal encryption scheme is that a bit stream mapping of 1D chaotic scrambler and a permutation scheme are allocated to the medical information that requires higher level encryption. In addition, a bit stream mapping of 1D chaotic scrambler is provided to messages that can meet high speed encryption. Simulation results show when a correct deciphering parameter is put in, these signals will be completely recovered. As long as there is an input parameter error, for example, with 0.00000001% initial point error, these signals will not be recovered.

Keywords: chaos, unequal encryption mechanism, wireless telemedicine.

Title of the Paper: Wavelet Real Time Monitoring System: A Case Study of the Musical Influence on Electroencephalography


Authors: Chien-Yue Chen, Wing-Kwong Wong, Cheng-Deng Kuo, Yun-Tzai Liao, Ming-Da Ke

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a real time monitoring system, and to study the effect of music on electroencephalography (EEG). We used this system for real time acquisition and signal analysis of the electroencephalogram of volunteer who was listening to different types of music (techno and classical). The δ, θ, α and β brain waves were observed and analyzed by using wavelet transformation. The analogue EEG signal was measured by biomedical signal machine, converted to digital signal using data acquisition module, and then input to a computer. The graphical user interface was developed using LabVIEW and the signal wavelet transformation algorithms were implemented using MATLAB programs. The advantages of this system are its modularity and capability to observe dynamic variation of any biomedical signals. By using this system, we found that when the music type was changed, the variation in volunteer’s brain wave can be monitored in real time by the wavelet-based real time monitoring system.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG); Brain wave; Continuous wavelet transform (CWT)

Title of the Paper: Track Fusion with Incomplete Covariance Information


Authors: Jiahong Chen, Jiuqiang Han, Zhonghua Zhang, Xinman Zhang

Abstract: This work solves a practical decentralized track fusion problem where the global fusion center can not receive the real-time covariance information from local systems because of the limited communication bandwidth. The algorithms of track-to-track fusion were revisited, especially the recent new researching results, and the proper algorithms for the linear systems with incomplete covariance information were analyzed. The approximate optimal track fusion (AOTF) algorithm was proposed for steady or “slowly varying” system based on the optimal decentralized track fusion algorithm (OTF). This new designed algorithm has preferable performance than the maximum-likelihood-based fusion methods either in tracking error or in computational load, at the same time, the communication bandwidth needed is very small. Simulation results confirm its effectiveness

Keywords: Decentralized Track Fusion, Incomplete Covariance Information, Communication Bandwidth, “Slowly Varying” System, Linear System

Title of the Paper: Pricing Strategy of Ecological Industry Chain Based on Game Theory


Authors: Hai-Jie Yu, Xiang-Yang Li, Yan-Xin Wang

Abstract: The pricing decision of three stages ecological industry chain of which is consisted of manufacturer producing mainproduct and byproduct, mainproduct seller and byproduct buyer is studied. Four kinds of pricing decision were discussed: manufacturer stackeberg equilibrium, mainproduct seller-manufacturer-byproduct buyer stackeberg equilibrium, buyer stackeberg equilibrium, alliance of mainproduct seller and byproduct buyer stackeberg equilibrium. Computational instances show that the system profit of manufacturer stackeberg equilibrium equals that of alliance of mainproduct seller and byproduct buyer stackeberg equilibrium, and is larger than that of other two equilibriums. Leader can obtain more profit than follower. The profit of buyer stackeberg equilibrium is less than other three equilibriums because both of mainproduct seller and byproduct buyer makes the price decision with manufacturer independently in the situation. Moreover, it is possible that the deal in the chain can not be made in buyer stackeberg equilibrium. Alliance of mainproduct seller and byproduct buyer should be the good way by which the system profit can be improved.

Keywords: Ecological industry chain; Game theory; Pricing decision; Stackelberg model

Title of the Paper:  Unmanned Helicopter Flight Controller Design by Use of Model Predictive Control


Authors: Jianfu Du, Yaou Zhang, Tiansheng Lu

Abstract: Helicopters are strongly coupled, multivariate, time-delay nonlinear plants. The design of a stable control system for autonomous flight is a challenging task. But because of wide applications, the research on helicopters is booming. In this paper, we will research on a small scale unmanned helicopter. Firstly, kinematical model and dynamical model are presented. Then we design a flight controller which includes an attitude controller and a position controller. As for attitude control, a novel control method, model predictive control (MPC), is applied. The advantages of MPC are that it can deal with the limits of the actuators and the existing time-delay of the plant. Its performance was verified in real flight experiments. The results show that the controller performs well in position control mode.

Keywords: MPC, unmanned helicopter, flight control, helicopter modeling

Title of the Paper: An Inverse Dynamic Model of the Gough-Stewart Platform


Authors: Georges Fried, Karim Djouani, Diane Borojeni, Sohail Iqbal

Abstract: In this paper a new formulation of the inverse dynamic model of the Gough-Stewart platform is proposed. This approach is based on the methodology developped by Khalil. The platform is considered as a multi robot system moving a common load. Using a global formalism, the Jacobian and inertia matrices of each segment are computed in a factorized form. This paper provides a basis for parallel algorithm development for a dynamic control under the real time consraint. The proposed sheme is validated by the simulation results.

Keywords: Parallel Robot, Gough-Stewart Platform, Kinematic Model, Jacobian Matrix, Inverse Dynamic Model

Title of the Paper: Narrowband Interference Rejection in GPS receiver using Adaptive Lattice Predictor


Authors: Wei-Lung Mao

Abstract: The global positioning system (GPS) provides accurate positioning and timing information useful in many applications. An adaptive lattice predictor for the anti-jamming purpose will be proposed. The adaptive filter is applied here to accurately predict the narrowband waveform based on an effective and computationally efficient stochastic-gradient algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed fixed-point adaptive canceller achieves a better performance on narrowband interference rejection in GPS receiver.

Keywords: Adaptive Lattice Predictor, Stochastic-gradient Algorithm, Narrowband Interference Rejection, Global Positioning System(GPS)

Title of the Paper: Modified PSO Algorithm Based on Flow of Wind for Odor Source Localization Problems in Dynamic Environments


Authors: Wisnu Jatmiko, Petrus Mursanto, Benyamin Kusumoputro, Kosuke Sekiyama, Toshio Fukuda

Abstract: A new algorithm based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO in order to control autonomous vehicles for solving odor source localization in dynamic advection-diffusion environment have been developed. Furthermore an improvements of the MPSO for odor source localization, which follows a local gradient of the chemical concentration within a plume is investigated. Another popular biomimetic approach in odor source localization problem is anemotaxis. An anemotaxis-driven agent measures the direction of the fluid’s velocity and navigates “upstream” within the plume. In this paper, the combination of chemotaxis “MPSO”-based algorithm and anemotaxis will be described. This method is well known in the animal kingdom as odorgated rheotaxis (OGR). On the other hand, in real world, the odor distribution is multi peaks especially in obstacle environments. For that reason, a new environment with obstacle will be developed. The purpose of developing the environment is to bridge the gap between very complex, hard-to-understand real world problems (odor dispersion model) and overly simplistic-toy-problem (dynamic bit matching or moving parabola). Simulations illustrate that the new approach can solve Advection-Diffusion odor model problems in such a dynamic odor with obstacle-filled environments.

Keywords: MPSO, Anemotaxis, Chemotoxis, OGR, Advection-Diffsuion, Odor Source

Title of the Paper: Evolutionary Algorithms and Simulated Annealing in the Topological Configuration of the Spanning Tree


Authors: A. Sadegheih

Abstract: In this paper, the author proposes the application of a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve the network planning problem. Compared with other optimisation methods, genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are suitable for traversing large search spaces since they can do this relatively rapidly and because the use of mutation diverts the method away from local minima, which will tend to become more common as the search space increases in size. Genetic algorithm and simulated annealing give an excellent trade-off between solution quality and computing time and flexibility for taking into account specific constraints in real situations. Simulated annealing is a search process that has its origin in the fields of materials science and physics. Simulated annealing, alternatively attempts to avoid becoming trapped in a local optimum. The problem of minimum-cost expansion of network is formulated as a genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. Optimal solution in linear programming is spanning tree. But GA and SA solutions show those are both spanning tree and no spanning tree.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing, Evolutionary Algorithms, Spanning Tree, Linear Programming, Network.

Issue 3, Volume 7, March 2008

Title of the Paper: Optimal Power Capturing of Multi-MW Wind Generation System


Authors: Kong Yigang, Wang Zhixin

Abstract: Recently, an increasing number of multi-MW (1MW and up) wind generation systems are being developed and variable speed-variable pitch (VS-VP) control technology is usually adopted to improve the fast response speed and obtain the optimal energy, which means to obtain the maximum power at low wind speed and the rated power at high wind speed. However, the power generated by wind turbine changes rapidly for the continuous fluctuation of wind speed and direction, and wind energy conversion systems are of strong nonlinear characteristics for many uncertain factors and external disturbances. Based on modeling and analyzing of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the hydraulic variable pitch mechanism (HVPM), this paper presents an adaptive fuzzy proportional integral derivative (AFPID) control strategy to capture optimal power. Simulation results show that the controller can improve the wind turbine performance than conventional PID controller.

Keywords: Doubly-fed induction generator, Hydraulic variable pitch mechanism, Optimal, Adaptive fuzzy proportional integral derivative, Variable speed-variable pitch, Wind turbine

Title of the Paper: Engineering Education and Infinite Superposition


Authors: Irwin W. Sandberg

Abstract: Attention is focused on continuous-space shift-invariant systems with continuous system maps and inputs and outputs that are elements of L?(Rd). It is shown that infinite superposition can fail in this important setting. It is also shown that continuous shift-invariant linear mappings need not commute with the operation of integration (even when the two composite operations are well defined).

Keywords: linear systems, superposition, commutativity, shift-invariant systems, bounded measurable inputs

Title of the Paper: Enhancing Geophysical Signals from Archaeological Sites Trough the Use of Wavelet Transforms


Authors: Guangrong Shen, Apostolos Sarris, Nikos Papadopoulos

Abstract: Various levels and types of noise are responsible for hindering the valuable information obtained through shallow depth geophysical exploration of archaeological sites. Wavelet transform techniques were tested as a method for decomposition of the original geophysical data in order to eliminate the noise levels inherent to the geophysical measurements. Unsupervised classification techniques were employed for the final fusion of different datasets originating from various surveys or processing procedures. The resulting images were able to enhance the subsurface targets, eliminating the noise levels and exploiting fully the properties of the geophysical techniques used.

Keywords: wavelets, classification, fusion, geophysical prospection, archaeological data, Sikyon, Greece.

Title of the Paper: Construction and Operation of a Knowledge Base on Intelligent Machine Tools


Authors: Seung Woo Lee, Jun Yeob Song, Hwa Ki Lee

Abstract: Machine tools lie at the heart of almost all manufacturing systems, and their performance has a massive influence on both the performance and productivity of systems. In accordance with the development of computer systems, intelligent technologies have been applied to manufacturing systems, thereby raising the need for more intelligent machine tools. Intelligent machines respond to external environments on the basis of decisions that are made by sensing the changes in the environment and analyzing the obtained information. This study focuses on the construction of a knowledge base which enables decision making with that information. Approximately 70% of all errors that occur in machine tools are caused by thermal errors. In order to proactively deal with these errors, a system which measures the temperatures of each part and predicts and compensates the displacement of each axis has been developed. The system was built in an open- type controller to enable machine tools to measure temperature changes and compensate the displacement. The construction of a machining knowledge base is important for the implementation of intelligent machine tools, and is expected to be applicable to the network-based, intelligent machine tools which look set to appear sooner or later.

Keywords: Machining Knowledge Base, Intelligent Machine Tools, Thermal errors, Offset compensation, Open controller, Multiple linear regression models, Neural Network

Title of the Paper: Human Body Model Based Inertial Measurement of Sit-to-Stand Motion Kinematics


Authors: Josip Music, Roman Kamnik, Vlasta Zanchi, Marko Munih

Abstract: In the paper a method for measuring kinematics of sit-to-stand motion using inertial sensors and human body model is presented. The proposed method fuses data from inertial sensors and data from threesegment human body model using Extended Kalman filtering technique and in this way alleviates some of the drawbacks associated with inertial sensors. Dynamic human body model is constructed based on principles of Lagrangian dynamics and incorporates shank, thigh and HAT (Head-Arms-Trunk) segments. The moments required in obtained model equations (ankle, knee and hip moments) are calculated based on the EKF last best estimate and Newton-Euler inverse dynamic approach. Outputs from the EKF are segment angles (orientations), angular rates of change (angular velocities) and angular accelerations. The performance of the method is verified by the measurements acquired with Optotrak optical motion analysis system. Obtained results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Inertial sensors, human dynamic body model, Kalman filter, standing-up

Title of the Paper: Mobile Sensors Networks under Communication Constraints


Authors: Simone Gabriele, Paolo Di Giamberardino

Abstract: The paper deals with the problem of computing optimal or suboptimal motion for a network of mobile sensors. The use of moving sensors means that for each point of the field under measurement asynchronous discrete time measures are given instead of continuous time ones, being possible to fix in advance the maximum time interval between two consecutive measures for the same point. The constraints here considered are on the full coverage of the field, with respect to the measurements, within the prefixed time interval and on the communication connections, between any pair of moving sensors, at any time. A solution, based on a local distributed approach, is proposed and compared with a centralized approach previously proposed, and here recalled, by the same authors. Some simulations show the effectiveness of the both solutions, putting in evidence advantages, disadvantages and differences.

Keywords: Sensor network, dynamic configuration, optimal motion, network communications.

Title of the Paper: An Axis-shifted Crossover-Imaged Clustering Algorithm


Authors: Nancy P. Lin, Chung-I Chang, Nien-Yi Jan, Hao-En Chueh, Hung-Jen Chen, Wei-Hua Hao

Abstract: With low computation time, the grid-based clustering algorithms are efficient clustering algorithms, but the size of the predefined grids and the threshold of the significant cells are seriously influenced their effects. In grid-based clustering system, the data space is partitioned into a finite number of cells to form a grid structure and then performs all clustering operations on this obtained grid structure. The ADCC algorithm is the first one to use axis-shifted strategy to reduce the influences of the size of the cells and inherits the advantage with the low time complexity. But it still uses the cell-clustering twice, the Axis-shifted Crossover-Imaged Clustering Algorithm, called ACICA+, is proposed to use cell-clustering only once and still has the same results. The main idea of ACICA+ algorithm is to shift the original axis in each dimension of the data space after the image of significant cells generated from the original grid structure have been obtained. Because the shifted grid structure can be considered a dynamic adjustment of the size of original cells and the threshold of significant cells, the new image generated from this shifted grid structure will be used to revise and replace the originally obtained significant cells. Finally the clusters will be generated from this crossover image. The experimental results verify that, indeed, the effect of ACICA+ algorithm is less influenced by the size of the cells than other grid-based algorithms. Finally, we will verify by experiment that the results of our proposed ACICA+ algorithm outperforms than others.

Keywords: Data Mining, Grid Structure, Crossover Image, Cell, Shifted Grid, Cater-Corner Significant Cell

Title of the Paper: Static Output-Feedback Simultaneous Stabilization of Interval Time-Delay Systems


Authors: Yuan-Chang Chang, Song-Shyong Chen

Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of simultaneous static output-feedback stabilization of a collection of interval time-delay systems. It is shown that this problem can be converted into a matrix measure assignment problem. Sufficient conditions for guaranteeing the robust stability for considered systems are derived in term of the matrix measures of the system matrices. By using matrix inequalities, we provide two cases of obtaining a static output-feedback controller that can stabilize the system, , i.e., both P=I and P≠I cases are considered where I is a identity matrix and P is a common positive definite matrix to guarantee the stability of the overall system. The sufficient condition with P=I is formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). When P≠I is considered, the sufficient condition becomes a nonlinear matrix inequality problem and a heuristic iterative algorithm based on the LMI technique is presented to solve the coupled matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: Matrix measure; Robust control; Output feedback; Interval systems; Linear Matrix Inequality

Title of the Paper: Studies of Mechanical Vibrations and Current Harmonics in Induction Motors using Finite Element Method


Authors: P. Pao-La-Or, S. Sujitjorn, T. Kulworawanichpong, S. Peaiyoung

Abstract: This paper illustrates a numerical approach to magnetic field modeling for a squirrel-cage induction motor fed by various voltage sources: i) an ideal sinusoidal source, ii) a PWM voltage- source-inverter (VSI), and iii) a six-step VSI. A two-dimensional nonlinear time-stepping finite element method (FEM) is used for electromagnetic field approximation when the motor is under a full-load steady-state revolution. To solve this time-dependent problem, the numerical backward-difference integration is applied. Due to the saturation characteristic of the magnetic materials, the combined Newton-Raphson (N-R) with bi-conjugate gradient (BCG) method is employed to handle the nonlinearity and to solve the linearized equations. The approach has been applied to evaluate the mechanical vibrations of the motors in associate with the geometry of the rotor slots. Also, the effects of nonsinusoidal supply voltages on the current harmonics have been investigated.

Keywords: Mechanical Vibration, Electromagnetic Force, Computer Simulation, Finite Element Method, Induction Motors, Current Harmonics, Rotor Slots

Title of the Paper: A New Type Compositive Hybrid Power System-E.T.Driver and its Application in HEV


Authors: Dong Yue-Hang, Zhang Yong, Yin Cheng-Liang, Zhang Jian-Wu, Chen Li

Abstract: Hybrid power system is one of the kernel technologies of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The performance of HEV is greatly determined by the capability of hybrid power system. The hybrid power system has already developed from discrete structure into integrative structure in past ten years. The research of compositive hybrid power system is a very important and a new research field now and in the future. The Electrical Transmission Driver (E.T.Driver) is a compositive hybrid power system. The basic principle, constitution and the characteristics of E.T.Driver, which is based on Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), have been introduced. The effect of E.T.Driver on gear shift quality, driving smoothness and riding comfort for HEV has been studied during gear shift course. A simulation model to analyze the gear shift application and gear shift strategy of E.T.Driver during gear shift course in HEV has been established by using the simulation software of ITI Company in Germany. The results of simulation and experiment show the proposed control strategies and special structure of E.T.Driver greatly improve the gear shift quality and driving smoothness during the gear shift course.

Keywords: electrical transmission driver (E.T.Driver); hybrid electric vehiclesHEV; gear shift quality; driving smoothness; modeling

Title of the Paper: Emerging Issues in IT Governance: Implementing the Corporate IT Risks Management Model


Authors: Mario Spremic, Matija Popovic

Abstract: Most organizations in all sectors of industry, commerce and government are fundamentally dependent on their information systems (IS) and would quickly cease to function should the technology (preferably information technology – IT) that underpins their activities ever come to halt [15]. The IT developments may have enormous implications for the operation, structure and strategy of organizations. IT may contribute towards efficiency, productivity and competitiveness improvements of both inter-organizational and intra-organizational systems [1]. Successful organizations manage IT function in much the same way that they manage their other strategic functions and processes. This in particular means that they understand and manage risks associated with growing IT opportunities as well as critical dependence of many business processes on IT and vice-versa. IT risk management issues are not only any more marginal or ‘technical’ problems and become more and more a ‘business problem’. Therefore, in this paper a Corporate IT Risk Management model is proposed and contemporary frameworks of IT Governance and IT Audit explained. Also the methodologies for their implementation (CobiT, ISO 27000 ‘family’, ITIL) is shown and explained.

Keywords: IT Governance, IT Audit, IT Risk Management, Corporate IT Risk Management Model, CobiT

Title of the Paper: Web Metrics for Managing Quality and Auditing Croatian Hotel Websites – Cluster Analysis


Authors: Mario Spremic, Bozidar Jakovic, Mirjana Pejic Bach

Abstract: Intensive use of e-business can provide number of opportunities and actual benefits to companies of all activities and sizes. In general, through the use of web sites companies can create global presence and widen business boundaries. Many organizations now have websites to complement their other activities, but it is likely that a smaller proportion really know how successful their sites are and in what extent they comply with business objectives. A key enabler of web sites measurement is web site analytics and metrics. Web sites analytics especially refers to the use of data collected from a web site to determine which aspects of the web site work towards the business objectives. Advanced web analytics must play an important role in overall company strategy and should converge to web intelligence – a specific part of business intelligence which collect and analyze information collected from web sites and apply them in relevant ‘business’ context. This paper examines the importance of measuring the web site quality of the Croatian hotels. Wide range of web site metrics are discussed and finally a set of 8 dimensions and 44 attributes chosen for the evaluation of Croatian hotel’s web site quality. The objective of the survey conducted on the 30 hotels was to identify different groups of hotel web sites in relation to their quality measured with specific web metrics. Key research question was: can hotel web sites be placed into meaningful groups by consideration of variation in web metrics and number of hotel stars? To confirm the reliability of chosen metrics a Cronbach's alpha test was conducted. Apart from descriptive statistics tools, to answer the posed research question, clustering analysis was conducted and the characteristics of the three clusters were considered. Experiences and best practices of the hotel web sites clusters are taken as the prime source of recommendation for improving web sites quality level.

Keywords: web metrics, hotel web sites, web analytics, web site audit, web site quality, cluster analysis

Title of the Paper: Multiple Noise-Enhanced Stability Versus Temperature in Asymmetric Bistable Potentials


Authors: Romi Mankin, Erkki Soika, Ako Sauga

Abstract: We explore the problem of noise-enhanced stability occurring in an asymmetric double well potential when Brownian particles are driven by trichotomous noise and thermal noise in a dynamical regime where inertial effects can safely be neglected. In the stationary state, we exactly calculate the spatial density profile of the particles and the occupancy ratio between two potential wells. We show that, by conveniently choosing the system parameters, the occupancy of a metastable state is a double peaked function of thermal noise intensity. Thus, thermal noise may facilitate the occupation of the potential minima with an energy above the absolute minimum at certain finite values of temperature. The effect is more pronounced in case the kurtosis of the trichotomous noise tends to −2, i.e., in the case of dichotomous noise.

Keywords: Noise-enhanced stability, stochastic dynamics, trichotomous noise, metastable state, thermal noise, bistable potential

Title of the Paper: Modelling of Rough-Fuzzy Classifier


Authors: Krupka Jirí, Jirava Pavel

Abstract: The paper reflects the trend of the past years which is based on the diffusion of various traditional approaches and methods to the way of tackling new problems, in this case to the classification. Two components of the computational intelligence are applied in a classification model. It means rough and fuzzy sets on the basis of which the data classification hybrid model is proposed. In the second part the current knowledge in the investigated field are summarized and briefly explained. The algorithm for uncertain data operations and conditioned rules generation is introduced too. We have brought in an original toolbox called RSTbox for data processing and automatic rules generation. Proposed model and toolbox are carried out in MATLAB, tested on more data files, and compared to others, already known classification methods.

Keywords: Classification, rough sets theory, fuzzy sets theory, rules generation, hybrid model, evaluation

Title of the Paper: Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Retinal Diseases in Medical Imaging


Authors: Marius Cristian Luculescu, Simona Lache

Abstract: Bordering on important domains – engineering, medicine and informatics, involving not only knowledge regarding the biosystems structure and functionality, but also knowledge and skills from technical and IT systems, the paper presents the results of some researches on biological human visual structures concerning the diagnosis of visual diseases, namely the macular ones. This highly important transdisciplinary topic combines aspects from biosystems (human visual system), image acquisition and processing (medical imaging), artificial intelligence techniques (neural networks) and information management (databases). Starting from classical or digital retina images, using neural networks image recognition algorithms, the Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system identifies macular diseases with high precision. Images are stored in databases together with patient personal details and treatments and diagnosis information. The software includes image processing modules, databases and artificial neural networks that can be trained for recognizing images of new diseases or for improving sensitivity and specificity of the system. The Computer-Aided Diagnosis reduces the doctor’s level of incertitude regarding some diseases, improves the initial and evolutional identification precision of disease, allows monitoring the health status of the patient during new treatment methods, stores images in digital format and generates diagnoses databases that can be explored in research, medical practice and specialized teaching. Using such a system increases the quality and accessibility of medical services.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, neural networks, image processing, ophthalmology, macula, retina

Issue 4, Volume 7, April 2008

Title of the Paper: Grid Resource Discovery Based on Semantic


Authors: Yuefeng Fang, Kun Gao, Xiaoyong Wang

Abstract: An important aspect of Grid computing is publication resource service and discovery resource service. Grid computing is based on this kind of mechanism. A Grid service is an extended Web service that conforms to the Open Grid Service Infrastructure (OGSI) specification. The shortcoming of current Web service technology only provides syntactic description. In this paper, we analyze the limitations for current Web Service standards and point out that semantic description is the basis for automatic service discovery. We propose a novel semantics based Grid Service framework which support publishing and discovery of Grid Service very well. The experimental result demonstrates that the framework has good performance.

Keywords: Grid Services, Web Service, Semantic Web, Grid Computation

Title of the Paper: Predicting performance of Grid based on Rough Set


Authors: Kun Gao, Zhongwei Chen, Meiqun Liu

Abstract: In dynamic environment, the performance is restricted by various components, so we can not determine the contribution to performanc using traditional method. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the performance in Grid Computing environment. We use the concept of Reduct in Rough Set theory and history record collected during a period of time to predict the applications runtime that the traditional methods can't obtain. We use the novel method in Data Ming Grid. The approach is based on frequencies of attributes appeared in discernibility matrix. The theoretical foundation of rough sets provides an intuitive solution to the problem of application run time estimation on Data Ming Grid. The results of the experiment show that the use of Rough Set theory can process uncertain problem in distributed and dynamic environment, and obtain better result than traditional methods.

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Distributed computing, soft computing

Title of the Paper: An Algorithm for Improving the Accuracy of Z-Coordinate Determination for USBL Systems


Authors: Mikhail Arkhipov

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to resolve the problem of low Z-coordinate determination accuracy for ultra-short baseline (USBL) acoustic systems in which the location measurement of the underwater objects is based on the determination of the distance to the object and the angle object position. The antenna with five receiving elements and different spatial orientation of receiving bases is proposed. It is assumed that the receiving antenna may have the significant inclinations and the orientation of the USBL antenna which is controlled by measuring of the pitch and roll angles. The problem of the low precision Z-coordinate determination is resolved by means of utilizing various spatial orientations of the receiving bases in a modernized five element USBL system. The computer simulation results of the proposed algorithm are presented to demonstrate reliable operation of the algorithm for different angular antenna positions and various locations of the object. The results of the calculation of the errors of the determination of the object coordinates and accuracy evaluation of modernized USBL system are presented.

Keywords: Ultra-short baseline (USBL) system, underwater object, transponder, carrier coordinate system, local coordinate systems, pitch and roll angles.

Title of the Paper: Research on Agent Communication Model and Its Application in Electric System


Authors: Taowei Wang, Qin Wang, Kun Gao, Yibo Ren

Abstract: It is important of Agent communication for the reality of coordination, cooperation and consistency in multi-Agent system. In this paper, an architecture of Agent communication is given. In order to decrease the working capacity to maintain the communication protocol, using the KQML as the basic Agent communication language, the paper proposes an Agent communication model based on dynamic modification to communication protocol where a new protocol is added or modified without changing the protocol software’s source code. Based on study of the multi-Agent technology and electric system structure characteristics, the paper presents the layered software architecture of electric system and implementation model. Furthermore, according to the difficulty to debug of the communication protocol in actual electric system, the proposed Agent communication model can be used for decreasing the working capacity to maintain the system’s communication protocols, and the results show that the model enhances the system’s adaptability and stability.

Keywords: Agent, Multi-Agent system, Agent communication language, KQML, Protocol rule database, Protocol Agent

Title of the Paper: Research and Implementation on Genetic Algorithms for Graph Fitness Optimization


Authors: Jin Min, Wang Qin, Xi Lifeng

Abstract: Graph fitness optimization is a difficult problem in data fitness. Genetic algorithms (GAs), which can yield accurate results if they start with suitable parameters, have been used to solve difficult problems with objective functions which usually are multi-modal, discontinuous, and nondifferentiable. In this paper, we design a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize effect on self-affine fractal interpolation function (AFIF) and give result. The software was tested on realistic graphs. The validation and effectiveness of the method to be able to find the optimal fractal function are presented and demonstrated.

Keywords: Graph Fitness; Optimization; Genetic Algorithm; Fractal; AFIF

Title of the Paper: Image Retrieval Method Based on Entropy and Fractal Coding


Authors: Liangbin Zhang, Lifeng Xi, Bishui Zhou

Abstract: In content-based image retrieval system, describing and extracting image’s feature is a key question. An image can be characterized by its fractal codes, and fractal codes can be used as the image’s feature to retrieve the images effectively. This paper proposes a novel image retrieval method using information entropy and fractal coding. First, each image in the database is classified by computing information entropy which is compared with a given threshold estimated from the inquired image. Second, the inquired image’s fractal codes are generated via Jacquin method, which is applied to the same kind of database images with fractal tenth iteration decoding. Finally, the image retrieval result is obtained by matching the similar Euclidean distance between the inquired image and the iterated decoded image. Experimental results show that compared with the direct image pixels similar matching strategy, our scheme not only reduces retrieval complexity and retrieval time, but also guarantees the retrieval rate. Thus our proposed method is effective and feasible.

Keywords: Fractal coding; Image information entropy; Image retrieval; Similar

Title of the Paper: Research on Key Technology for Building High-Efficiency Informational Supervision Platform to Realize Global Logistics


Authors: Wang Xiaoyong, Xiao Siyou, Fang Yuefeng, Li Jifang

Abstract: The paper focuses on building key technology of global logistics on high-efficiency informational supervision Platform, such as common sharing of global information in the process of production, transportation and storing or withdrawal based on internet technology, collection of real time information about goods and vehicles by ZigBee node, the connection of nodal operation and logistical management platform by the network and common sharing of internet to realize the intelligent management process in the goods production, transportation and delivery center, namely the goods tracing in the global logistics system.

Keywords: High-efficiency logistics; ZigBee ; Wireless Network Platform ;key technology; informational supervision platform; global goods tracing system

Title of the Paper: An Application of L-System and IFS in 3D Fractal Simulation


Authors: Deng Fang, Xi Li-Fneg

Abstract: L-system and IFS are used to the plant’s simulation. In this paper the theories of L-system and IFS were concisely described. The excellence and short of constructing Fractal image with L-system or IFS were discussed. So a method was put forward in this paper. At last the three-dimension tree model ceatrs successfully based on L-system and IFS.

Keywords: L-system, IFS, Fractal Simulation, OpenGL

Title of the Paper: Investigation on Spectrum of the Adjacency Matrix and Laplacian Matrix of Graph Gl


Authors: Shuhua Yin

Abstract: Let Gl be the graph obtained from Kl by adhering the root of isomorphic trees T to every vertex of Kl, and dk−j+1 be the degree of vertices in the level j. In this paper we study the spectrum of the adjacency matrix A(Gl) and the Laplacian matrix L(Gl) for all positive integer l, and give some results about the spectrum of the adjacency matrix A(Gl) and the Laplacian matrix L(Gl). By using these results, an upper bound for the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix A(Gl) is obtained:

and an upper bound for the largest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix L(Gl) is also obtained:

Keywords: Adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, complete graph, spectrum

Title of the Paper: A Novel Architecture for Data Mining Grid Scheduler


Authors: Meiqun Liu, Kun Gao, Zhong Wan

Abstract: In order to improve the performance of Data Mining applications, an effective method is task parallelization. The scheduler on Grid plays an important role to management subtasks so as to achieve high performance. We introduce an additional component that we call serializer, whose purpose is to decompose the tasks into a series of independent tasks according the directed acyclic graph (DAG), and send them to the scheduler queue as soon as they become executable with respect to the DAG dependencies. The experimental result demonstrates that the architecture has good performance.

Keywords: Scheduling Architecture, Knowledge Grid, Data Mining.

Title of the Paper: Research on Asynchronous Motor Vector Control System based on Rotor Parameters Time-Varying


Authors: Aimin Yang, Junping Wu, Wenxiang Zhang, Xianhong Kan

Abstract: On the basis of the asynchronous motor equations in the M
-T reference frame rotating at synchronous speed, the paper, in detail, analyses the affect of the rotor parameters, including reluctance and inductance, to the performance of the Flux-Observation based Vector Control. Considering the time-varying of rotor parameters along with the running state in the real experimental systems and the AC motor model included in the SimPowerSystems of Matlab can not change its own rotor parameters with time, an AC model is built, which can simulate real-time changes of its rotor parameters, making use of S-Function in MATLAB. Based on the model, a whole Vector Control simulation system is established, and for the first time, respectively it is implemented that the simulation and analysis of the system on the condition of both neglecting and considering the time-varying of rotor parameters. It is indicated that, from the simulation results, the variations of the rotor parameters resulting from the Skin Effect make the dynamic performance of AC Vector Control get worse. At the same time , A control system based on the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor produced by Texas Instruments is designed, the design of control circuit and control soft is accomplished. The paper adopts VC++ soft to compile the observation interface of Pc. The experimentation indicates the control system can implement the scheme and the control performance is fine.

Keywords: Asynchronous Motor; Vector Control; S-Function; Dynamic Simulation; simulation model; rotor parameters

Title of the Paper: Three Life Insurance Model Research--Family Unite the Insurance Model


Authors: Jianxin Bi

Abstract: Interest rate is assumed for the constant in some insurance references. They include the calculation of spouse allied scheme insurance premium and reserve and calculation of family combined insurance premium under the constant interest rate.Interest randomness in life insurance has received considerable attention in recent literatures on actuarial theory and its applications. In order to avoid the risk induced by interest randomness, we consider the force of interest function as a Wiener process. In this paper, we build an actuarial model for family combined insurance under fixed interest and random rate of interest differently. First, the family condition in the future is analyzed. In analyzing about muliti-life function, introducing the situation of three element, especially while considering the death order, consider a person dies before other two people (state of jointly surviving). Second, two kinds of association situations and two models are considered here. The first place is the couple and only children; the second place is couple own. At the last, the actuarial present value on the life insurance and annuity are calculated.

Keywords: life insurance, actuarial, survival function, random rate, multi-element life functionWiener processs

Title of the Paper: The Numerical Analyze of the Human Behavior in a Vibrational Medium


Authors: Barbu Daniela Mariana, Lache Simona, Barbu Ion

Abstract: The vibration environment is a common man-made artificial surrounding with which humans have a limited tolerance to cope due to their body dynamics. This paper studies the dynamic characteristics of a standing human body system in a vibration environment. The main result is a multi degrees of freedom lumped parameter model that synthesizes two basic dynamics. First consists in global human dynamics, the apparent mass phenomenon, including a systematic set of the model parameters for simulating various conditions like body posture, backrest, footrest, muscle tension, and vibration directions and the second in local human dynamics, represented by the human pelvis/vibrating seat contact, using a cushioning interface. The model provided an analytical tool for human body dynamics research. It also enabled a primary tool for seat and cushioning design. Combining the geometry and the mechanical characteristics of a structure under large deformation into a lumped parameter model enables successful analysis of the human/seat interface system and provides practical results for body protection in dynamic environment. This paper focuses on our contributions of the numerical and experimental models in this area.

Keywords: Human Body, Vibration, Modeling, Simulation, Experimental Research, Body Protection.

Issue 5, Volume 7, May 2008

Title of the Paper: Management Flight Simulators; A New Approach to the Development of Decision Support Systems


Authors: George Papageorgiou, Andreas Hadjis, Kristina Abrosimova

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the System Dynamics methods and the existing knowledge and practices for the development Management Flight Simulators. Management Flight Simulators constitute the ultimate cybernetic method for learning and testing strategies prior to implementation. The main issues and trends in the field are identified, and new views to the development of System Dynamics simulation models are suggested. Having gone through a review process of relevant sources, a conceptual framework for the development of System Dynamics Management Flight Simulators is proposed. The proposed framework would be particularly useful for researchers in the field but also for practitioners and developers of decision support systems.

Keywords: System Dynamics, Management Flight Simulators, Microworlds, Modeling and Simulation, Cybernetics, Decision Support Systems

Title of the Paper: A Design of Index Library using Management Information Modeling in Moving Picture Contents


Authors: Young Jun Kim

Abstract: This is a system for extracting a specific portion of content. When a desired portion is extracted so that contents service can be provided a plurality of users extract a beginning time and an ending time of a specific frame in case of moving picture content and carry out a temporal indexing operation. When searching for the specific portion after extracting a beginning point and an ending point of the specific portion in case of still picture content and carrying out a spatial indexing operation, the plurality of users retrieve and display the specific portion from an indexed database. Therefore, the plurality of users can carry out the indexing operation for one file to organize a search database without correcting an original file and can extract the specific portion of content. Moreover, because the specific portion of content can be extracted and the extracted specific portion can be displayed and edited, all file formats can be controlled irrespective of a file format.

Keywords: Contents management, index library, moving picture contents, still picture contents, semantic unit, temporal controller, spatial controller.

Title of the Paper: Optimal Sliding-mode Control Scheme for the Position Tracking Servo System


Authors: Jiang Jing, Ye Yingying, Fang Yanxian

Abstract: Systems having structural uncertainties or a known complicated structure are difficult to control. Modeling of the uncertainties or handling the deterministic complexity are typical problems frequently encountered in the field of systems and control engineering. The dynamic characteristics of such systems are usually very complex and highly nonlinear. A new design approach of an optimal sliding-mode variable structure controller with integral compensation is presented for the position tracking servo control system in this paper. The method for obtaining switching function, integral gain and control function is also given. It can achieve accurate servo tracking in the presence of the disturbance and the plant parameter variation. Simulation results show that the new control algorithm exhibits the better control performance than the classical control method, and the rapidness and robustness of the system are improved. Moreover, its realization is simple and convenient.

Keywords: Nonlinear system, variable structure control, sliding mode, switching function, control function, integral gain.

Title of the Paper: Linear Time-Varying Systems: Theory and Identification of Model Parameters


Authors: Kyarash Shahriari, Stanislaw Tarasiewicz, Olivier Adrot

Abstract: A strategy is proposed to model the complex industrial systems using linear time-varying system (LTV S). The proposed methodology is independent of model structure and the model may take any classic linear structure such as finite impulse response, input-output relation structures etc. To take into account the error between system and model due to model order reduction, variation of system behavior in time and perturbations, model’s parameters are considered varying but bounded variables characterized by intervals. The output of this model is characterized by a function of the piecewise linear parameters which contains all possible system’s responses taking into account modeling error as well as the perturbations.

Keywords: Time-Varying System, Identification of Model Parameters, Interval Analysis.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Management Innovation on Telecommunication Industry System


Authors: Weiwei Wu, Qiang Chen, Bo Yu, Hui He

Abstract: Management innovation is one of the important factors to promote the development of the industry system except capital, labor and technology. But a little attention is paid to the effects of management innovation on telecommunication industry system, which results in two questions: what’s the contribution of management innovation on industry development? And how does management innovation affect industry development? This paper addresses the two main research questions by taking China’s telecommunication industry as an example. The Cobb-Douglas production function model is improved to measure the contribution of management innovation, and the mode of management innovation affecting industrial development is also explained. The results show that management innovation exerts great influences on telecommunication industry system with its contribution degree increasing gradually, and management innovation is the core element relating labor, capital and technology in industry development. Based on these, dynamic models for the industry system are constructed, and conclusions and implications are given in the final part of the paper.

Keywords: Management innovation, Telecommunication industry system, Production function, Dynamic model

Title of the Paper: An Application of Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP for Multi-criteria Evaluation Model of Fourth Party Logistics


Authors: Jao-Hong Cheng, Shiuann-Shuoh Chen, Yu-Wei Chuang

Abstract: In the global tide, modern businesses face a high uncertainty and heavy variation of degree in the dynamic environment. Organizations have to maintain their competitive advantage by applying IT continuously; therefore, the condition forces business models to differ greatly from before. When businesses want to achieve supply chain integration, they may outsource their parts of businesses to fourth party logistics (4PLs) company. 4PLs company plays the role of integrator, which provides both information technology and supply chain integration capabilities. It not only creates different values of each segment in the supply chain, but also elevates the effects in supply chain management for business. Therefore, how to select an appropriate 4PLs company is an important decision for business. Through this study, we can understand these evaluation criteria and their weights, so as to aid the selection of 4PLs for businesses.

Keywords: Fourth Party Logistics, Supply Chain Integration Capabilities, Information Technology Capabilities, Fuzzy Delphi Method, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

Title of the Paper: Electromagnetic Torque Analysis of a DFIG for Wind Turbines


Authors: Jurica Smajo, Dinko Vukadinovic

Abstract: Electromagnetic torque of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is a consequence of the rotor and stator supply. The stator voltage has a fixed amount and frequency. The rotor voltage of the DFIG as a part of a wind turbine has a variable amount and frequency. The aim of this paper is an investigation of the torque-speed characteristics of the DFIG depending on the amount of the stator and rotor voltage space vectors and angle δ between them. A mathematical model of DFIG for steady-state modes in a known double-axis dq reference frame concerned with stator voltage vector has been made. Expressions concerning DFIG power from both the rotor and the stator side have been derived. Expressions regarding torque values have been obtained from the generator active power and mechanical rotational speed. Torque consists of asynchronous and synchronous torque components, whereas DFIG has been observed as a hybrid between asynchronous and synchronous machine. The asynchronous torque and the synchronous torque depend on the amount of the stator and rotor voltage space vectors. The synchronous torque depends on the angle between stator and rotor space vectors δ, while asynchronous component do not depend on the angle δ.

Keywords: DFIG, Electromagnetic torque, Wind turbine, Renewable energy

Title of the Paper: Oesophageal Voice Acoustic Parameterization by Means of Optimum Shimmer Calculation


Authors: B. Garcia, I. Ruiz, A. Mendez, M. Mendezona

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm which works with oesophageal voice and aims to automatically calculate different measurements of shimmer parameter. The evaluation has required a novel processing for the detection of the periodicity cycles and instants in order to calculate amplitude perturbations of vocal signals. The designed algorithm performs the calculusof pitch in an automatic way with a mean maximum inaccuracy of 0.46% for oesophageal voices which is a novelty. The shimmer calculation process has been optimized in order to obtain a higher variation range in pathological cases. Thus, it will allow using such parameter as reference in diagnosis and rehabilitation processes, reaching a 51,741% of shimmer increment for oesophageal voices.

Keywords: Oesophageal voice, Acoustic signal analysis, Acoustic measurements, Amplitude perturbation

Title of the Paper: Knowledge Organization Using Shapes Extraction from Web Pages in an Auto-Adaptive System


Authors: Camille Havas, Othalia Larue, Mickael Camus

Abstract: Computer Science has always been on a quest for autonomy. Neural networks are quite competitive, however common machines do not satisfy their expectations. Complex systems and auto-adaptive systems are emerging. In this paper a simple shape recognition is combined to a powerfull knowledge organization. Here we explain the development of a new type of agent in the Camus and Cardon system: the web agent. This agent is able to extract the images from web pages and will soon be able to associate the extracted shapes to the extracted words from the web pages. This project is developed with the Oz/Mozart system and based on the Camus and Cardon multi-agent system. A new type of agent has been created for this purpose. Experiments are discussed at the end of the paper. The system is able to understand its environment and to make autonomous decisions based on this environment.

Keywords: auto-adaptive system, multi-agent system, ontology, neural network, knowledge organization, shape recognition, Oz/Mozart

Title of the Paper: DEA Advanced Models for Geometric Evaluation of used Lathes


Authors: Joao Carlos Correia Baptista Soares De Mello, Eliane Goncalves Gomes, Lidia Angulo Meza, Fabiana Rodrigues Leta

Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary study of the quality of lathes using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a multicriteria tool. Its purpose is to aggregate several measurements that show geometrical errors to obtain one single measurement that will be free of subjective opinions. Due to the small number of DMUs, additional techniques other than the DEA CCR model (super efficiency, cross-evaluation, inverted frontier and weights restrictions) are reviewed and used to differentiate between otherwise identical efficiency scores. The specificity of this problem required some changes in the above-mentioned methods. The models were applied to four lathes at the Fluminense Federal University Machine Shop.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Machine tools; Decision aid

Title of the Paper: PC-Base Impedance Measurement System for Piezoelectric Transducers and its Implementation on Elements Values Extraction of Lump Circuit Model


Authors: Yeong-Chin Chen, Lon-Chen Hung, Shuh-Han Chao, Tseng-Hsu Chien

Abstract: Tonpiltz transducer are the popular elements for sonar array. The transducer of the simplify electrical equivalent circuit is discussed, and a method for determining element values at or near resonance is described. Meanwhile a PC-base impedance measurement system is developed to estimate the elements value of transducer’s lump circuit model. An example illustrates the application of the method in the design of a matching transformer for a high power acoustical transmitter.

Keywords: PC-base, Impedance measurement system, Piezoelectric transducers, Elements values extraction, lump circuit model

Title of the Paper: Research on Vector Decoupled system of the Machine based on Internal Model Current Control


Authors: Wenxiang Zhang, Xianhong Kan, Aimin Yang

Abstract: On the basis of the dynamic asynchronous motor model in the d—q reference frame rotating at synchronous speed, the article, taking alternating current machine as example, introduces internal model control into current control on basis of the alternating inductive machine mathematical models under synchronous rotating coordinate, and designs the parameters of adjustor. Considering the machine magnetism saturation to different extent caused by load change in real course and so-caused nonlinear change of machine parameters,Internal Model Control method was introduced, based on which and rotor flux oriented vector control, the stator current controllers were detailedly designed. Considering the parameters nonlinearity caused by different extent flux saturation along with the variations of torque load in the real experimental systems, robustness of the current internal model controller to such nonlinear parameters was analyzed. Based on the model, a whole Vector Control simulation system and experiment setup were established, and subsequently the simulation and experimental studies were carried out respectively with and without flux saturation. It was indicated that, from the results, the current internal model controllers could provide good steady-state and dynamic decoupled performance under both model matching and model mismatching.

Keywords: asynchronous, vector transformation, decoupled control, field-orientation, internal model current control, Systematic modeling

Title of the Paper: Factoring of Multiple Function Wavelet Production Sampling


Authors: Zhongwei Chen, Kun Gao, Guowei Huang

Abstract: Importance sampling methods of wavelet products can deal with some direct rendering applications with only two functions. For multiple functions sampling that are more useful in global rendering, we present a wavelet-based factor method to simplify multiple function integral into triple function product issues. Then an optimal wavelet product representation is introduced. Major algorithms with pseudo code are in detail to reduce computation by a strategy for hierarchically sampling a wavelet tree.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Integral; Wavelet Product; Importance Sampling; Dynamic Rendering

Title of the Paper: A Novel Solution for the Hausdorff Measure Computation of Sierpinski Carpet


Authors: Qili Xiao, Lifeng Xi, Jifang Li

Abstract: The computation of the Hausdorff measure of fractals is the basic problem in fractal geometry. However, this is very difficult. The genetic algorithm is one of optimization algorithms to resolve complicated problems of wide scope, and has great capabilities in self-organizing, self-adaptation and self-learning. Lifeng Xi professor put forward to the thought of computing the Hausdorff measure of fractals using the genetic algorithm several years ago. In this paper, we mainly discuss the realization of the genetic algorithm on the Sierpinski carpet with compression ratio 1/4 in detail, including the encoding and decoding method, generation of the initial population, fitness computation, and genetic operators. Finally the Hausdorff measure of the Sierpinski carpet with compression ratio 1/4 is obtained. Experimental results show that the genetic algorithm is an effective and universal method of calculation of the Hausdorff measure.

Keywords: Sierpinski carpet; Hausdorff measure; genetic algorithm

Title of the Paper: Use of Ferrofluids for Bushing Cooling and On-Line Monitoring


Authors: Silvius Dorel Nedelcut, Victor Proca, Dorina Mioara Purcaru

Abstract: This paper reviews all the advantages of the on-line monitoring and presents an equipment for on-line monitoring of bushings, which is the own contribution of specialists who are the authors of this paper. The paper presents a study of the temperature field, using the finite element method. For carrying out this study, the 3D modelling of the above mentioned bushing was performed. The analysis study is done taking into account the extreme thermal stresses, focusing at the level of the first cooling wing section of the ceramic insulator. This fact enables to justify the tan variation in time, depending on the transformer loading and the environmental conditions. With a view to reducing the variation of dielectric losses in bushing insulation, the use of ferrofuids instead of mineral oils is proposed.

Keywords: Monitoring, dielectric losses, ferrofluids, bushing

Title of the Paper: A Rapid MPPT Algorithm Based on the Research of Solar Cell’s Diode Factor and Reverse Saturation Current


Authors: Liu Li-Qun, Wang Zhi-Xin

Abstract: An efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is important to increase the output efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) generate system. The conventional method have some problems in that it is impossible to quickly acquire the generation power at the maximum power (MP) point, i.e., the efficiency of electric power generation is very low, and the amount of electric power generated by solar cell is always changing with weather conditions. Normally, the different solar cells have different diode factor (n) and reverse saturation current (Io). Theoretical and simulative results show that the approximately linear relationship exists between the optimal output current and the short-circuit current, and if the weather conditions are sameness, a piece of solar cell have same photocurrent under different diode factor n and reverse saturation current Io conditions. A new combined perturb and observe (PO) method is described in order to acquire the actual diode factor and reverse saturation current. This paper describes a rapid maximum power point tracking method which is based on the actual n and Io. An expiatory program is applied to acquire the actual maximum power point. The correctness and validity of expiatory coefficients is verified through simulation. The simulation results verified the correctness and validity of MPPT algorithm.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Renewable energy, Photovoltaic (PV) system, Diode factor, Reverse saturation current, Photocurrent

Title of the Paper: Application of Computer Simulation for the Design of a New High Voltage Transducer, Aiming to High Voltage Measurements at Field, for DC Measurements and Power Quality Studies


Authors: Hedio Tatizawa, Geraldo F. Burani, Paulo F. Obase

Abstract: This paper shows the development of an improved high voltage transducer for field application, for DC measurements and for use in power quality studies. This paper shows the application of computer simulations using PSPICE program Student version [1], where many different approaches and solutions are analyzed, aiming to the damping of voltage oscillations in the capacitive divider output, caused by inductances present in field measurements, besides of the inherent undamped behavior of the capacitive divider, and for reducing the electromagnetic interferences during the measurements.

Keywords: Capacitive divider, high voltage, PSPICE, switching transients, high voltage measurements, atmospheric impulse voltages

Title of the Paper: Speaker Recognition Techniques for Remote Authentication of Users in Computer Networks


Authors: Adriano Petry, Sidcley S. Soares, Gilberto F. Marchioro, Analucia S. M. De Franceschi

Abstract: This work shows the main characteristics of a system designed to improve security in Internet transactions using a biometric measure: the speech. First, it is given a general overview of the proposed system, developed using Java and C++ programming languages. After that, the main characteristics of the system building blocks are shown, focusing on the techniques for speaker recognition, database, client/server communication and management, and user interface application. The processing load is distributed in this system. The client side is basically responsible for speech acquisition and feature parameters extraction. The server side is responsible for voiceprint generation (on the training phase) or similarity measure between a voiceprint and some feature parameters (on recognition phase). In order to reduce the amount of data transmission, this distributed architecture presents the advantage of transmitting only the feature parameters over the network, instead of the complete wave signal. The acceptance or rejection of a speech identity is based on a pre-defined similarity threshold. Tests using speech database composed of 50 different speakers presented equal error rate (EER) of approximately 1.3%. At the end, the main results obtained from the interaction of the system with several different users are discussed. Besides that, accuracy test results are shown, and future works are addressed.

Keywords: Speaker recognition, Speech processing, Biometrics, Authentication, Computer networks, Internet security

Title of the Paper: Fuzzy Forecasting Applications on Supply Chains


Authors: Hakan Tozan, Ozalp Vayvay

Abstract: Demand forecasting; which sound basis for decision making process, is among the key activities that directly affect the supply chain performance. As the demand pattern varies from system to system, determination of the appropriate forecasting model that best fits the demand pattern is a hard decision in management of supply chains. The whiplash effect can be express as the variability of the demand information between stages of the supply chain and the increase of this variability as the information moves upstream through the chain. The usage of proper demand forecasting model that is adequate for the demand pattern is an important step for smoothing this undesirable variability. This paper evaluates the effects of fuzzy linear regression, fuzzy time series and fuzzy grey GM (1,1) forecasting models on supply chain performance quantifying the demand variability (i.e. whiplash) through the stages of a near beer game supply chain simulation model expanded with fuzzy parameters.

Keywords: Forecasting, Supply chain, Fuzzy regression, Fuzzy time series, Grey fuzzy

Issue 6, Volume 7, June 2008

Title of the Paper: Survey: Detection, Recognition and Source Localization of Odor


Authors: Ahmet Kuzu, Seta Bogosyan, Metin Gokasan

Abstract: This study aims to provide a review for odor detection, recognition and source localization and ongoing approaches taken to address the problem. To this aim sensor structures and chemical detection process are introduced. Next, recognition techniques of odor from detected chemicals are explained. To introduce source localization problem, the odor dynamics is introduced and models of odor diffusion mechanisms are discussed from different aspects. Next, forward and inverse problems for source location are defined and demonstrated in relation to several applications. A discussion of commonly utilized estimation methods to solve the localization problem in the literature is provided; Triangulation Method, Least Squares Method, Maximum Likelihood Method, PQS are briefly discussed. Finally, a case study for mobile odor tracking is presented with simulation results.

Keywords: odor, tracking, plume source localization, diffusion, estimation, PQS (Process Query System)

Title of the Paper: A Graph Based Method for Faster Display for Distribution Networks


Authors: Mansoor Al-A'Ali

Abstract: This paper presents our logical display approach for Distribution Networks based on the concept of Microsoft graphs. We demonstrate that by using Microsoft graphs we do not have to redraw the circuits after each switching operation or after a change in the status of the circuit. This work is a follow up on our previously published research on the concept of logical display algorithms which greatly enhances the speed of switching and display operations as well as making the displayed circuit much more readable and traceable by the control engineers [1], [2] [3] & [20]. We demonstrate that by using Microsoft graph concept we can speed up the different switching and tracing operations by a significant percentage. This contributes to solving the current problems faced by control engineers in such a way to enable them to tend to network problems more promptly.

Keywords: Distribution, network systems, algorithms, logical display, Graphs

Title of the Paper: Neural and Adaptive Control of a Rigid Link Manipulator


Authors: Dorin Popescu, Dan Selisteanu, Livia Popescu

Abstract: In this paper a comparison of classical, adaptive and neural control strategies for a robotic manipulator with two revolute joints is presented. The conventional computed-torque method is presented, as a starting point for the design of the adaptive and neural control techniques. Two adaptive control strategies, a non-model based neural control strategy and a model based neural control strategy are implemented. Computer simulations are performed for the control of a rigid manipulator with two revolute joints, in order to verify the performances of the control strategies and to make some useful comparisons. If a classical controller already controls a robot the advantage of proposed structure is that extension to a model based neural controller for performances improvement is easy.

Keywords: robotic manipulator, neural control, computed torque control, adaptive control, trajectory tracking.

Title of the Paper: A Heuristic Algorithm for the Scheduling Problem of Parallel Machines with Mold Constraints


Authors: Tzung-Pei Hong, Pei-Chen Sun, Shin-Dai Li

Abstract: This paper addresses the scheduling problem of parallel machines with mold constraints. Each machine has to load one kind of molds to process a specific job in the production environment. Because it takes lots of time to change one mold to another on a same machine for producing jobs with different types, it will be efficient to put all similar jobs together as a batch production. This way will, however, result in the total tardiness of jobs increasing due to the different due dates of jobs. This kind of problems is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we build a model to describe the problem and present a heuristic algorithm to solve it.

Keywords: Scheduling, parallel machines, mold constraints, heuristic.

Title of the Paper: Improved Three-Step Input Shaping Control of Crane System


Authors: Sirri Sunay Gurleyuk, Ozgur Bahadir, Yunus Turkkan, Hakan Usenti

Abstract: Shaping command input is performed for reducing residual vibrations in motion control of dynamical structures. System inputs are changed so that the structure reaches to planned motion in minimum duration without residual oscillation. Shaping input is obtained by convolving desired input with an impulse sequence. Main goal of the input shaper design is to define impulse amplitudes and their instants from the dynamical behavior of uncontrolled response. Zero Vibration (ZV), Zero Vibration and Derivative (ZVD) and Extra Insensitive (EI) are the most common shaper types. Improving the robustness respect to modeling errors requires more impulses. These increase control duration and make difficult to solve constraint equations directly. Required parameters can be determined from the derivation of constraint equations. This paper presents Three-Step (TS) input shaping technique. A solution space for three-impulse shaping is given including both positive and negative shapers. It is shown here that ZVD and EI shapers are the special solution points in TS shaping space. The duration of the shaper less or more than ZVD’s can be obtained in the defined space. Some of the new shapers give better robustness than ZVD. Experimental results from a prototype planar crane system are used to support the numerical results.

Keywords: Vibration, Input shaping, Three-step shaper, Planar crane, Robustness, Command generation

Title of the Paper: An Approach for Generation of Perception Frames based Fuzzy Neural Network from Data


Authors: Aleksandar Milosavljevic, Leonid Stoimenov, Dejan Rancic

Abstract: In this paper we present an approach for generation and initialization of fuzzy neural networks (FNN) from data. Fuzzy neural networks are concept that integrates some features of the fuzzy logic and the artificial neural networks theory. Based on analysis of several different fuzzy neural networks models, uniform representation method is presented, and two basic types are identified: FNN based on perception frames, and FNN with independent rules. Presented algorithm supports generation of fuzzy neural network based on perception frames through following steps: clustering of a training set, identification of input variables perception frames, generation of rules using training set, and training for adaptation using gradient descent method.

Keywords: Fuzzy neural networks (FNN), Rule generation, Perception frames, Generalized neurons

Title of the Paper: A Reversibility Enforcement Approach for Petri Nets Using Invariants


Authors: Hanife Apaydin Ozkan, Aydin Aybar

Abstract: Petri net model which is one of the most common modelling method of discrete event systems, is considered to enforce reversibility in this work. Reversibility guarantees that the intial state is reachable from any state in the reachability set of given Petri net. An approach, enforcing reversibility, is presented in this work. In this approach, the minimal T-invariants and the firing sequences coressponding to the determined T-invariants are determined. Then, a set of markings, which is a subset of reachability set, is constructed by using those firing sequences. In this set, any state can reach to the initial state. Furthemore, the algorithms are developed for the presented enforcement approach and implemented by using Matlab.

Keywords: Discrete event systems, Petri nets, Invariants, Reversibility

Title of the Paper: A Static Algorithm to Solve the Air Traffic Sequencing Problem


Authors: E. Romano, L. C. Santillo, P. Zoppoli

Abstract: This work contributes to the development of microscopic traffic performance models in the airport. It enhances the existing models and develops new ones. An important contribution of this research is the empirical work, i.e. estimating models using statistically rigorous methods and microscopic data collected from real traffic. With the ever increasing congestion at airports around the world, studies into ways of maximizing infrastructures capacity and minimizing delay costs while meeting the goals of the airlines are necessary. The methodology applied for the calculation of runway capacity start from the traffic data elaboration of the Naples International Airport: we have been determined this aim from the airline pattern in the above airport. The hourly capacity is calculated as the inverse of the headway of consecutive aircraft operation; this is drawn with an average of the time headway in the “critical periods”. The determination of the “capacity periods" it happens in three phases: in the first one we are drawn by the sample the stationary periods; in the second we are considered, of these, only those with the lowest averages time headway, these are called "critical" periods; subsequently we are examined only that (critical periods) had time length less than the 60 minutes and that have an average of time headway that it is almost attested around to a constant value. The stationary periods, as it says the same definition, are characterized by the relatives constant time headway, in other words there aren’t meaningful phenomenon of increase or diminution of the traffic flow. The critical periods are static periods that are found on the traffic flow curve defined "critic", this curve we have obtained to envelop some values that mark the lower limit of the diagram defined time length vs. averages of the static periods. Defined the critical periods we have been determined the experimental headway curves and we compared with those theoretical. Of such experimental curves we have been considered the characteristics values: the average and the standard deviation. In this way we have determined a matrix of the average time headway both for operations flight that for type of airplane. The following step has been that to define and to implement the analytical model. We suggest a mathematic algorithm that is able to optimize, a posteriori, the flight operation under the delay restraint. The algorithm determines the best sequence of aircrafts that minimizes the delays and it maximizes the runway capacity. The proposed methodology, even if determine an evident improvement of the runway capacity, in the respect of thresholds of acceptable average delays (constrain), represents an initial methodological phase that will desirably conclude in the determination of a "dynamic" model, that is able to assist the inspectors' job in way real-time, assigning, opportunely, an excellent sequence of the successions of flight operations.

Keywords: scheduling, simulation, airport capacity, aircraft sequencing

Title of the Paper: Neural Networks Complemented with Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems for Predicting Nitrogenous Effluent Variables in Wastewater Treatment Plants


Authors: Narcis Clara

Abstract: This work focuses on the prediction of the two main nitrogenous variables that describe the water quality at the effluent of a Wastewater Treatment Plant. We have developed two kind of Neural Networks architectures based on considering only one output or, in the other hand, the usual five effluent variables that define the water quality: suspended solids, biochemical organic matter, chemical organic matter, total nitrogen and total Kjedhal nitrogen. Two learning techniques based on a classical adaptative gradient and a Kalman filter have been implemented. In order to try to improve generalization and performance we have selected variables by means genetic algorithms and fuzzy systems. The training, testing and validation sets show that the final networks are able to learn enough well the simulated available data specially for the total nitrogen.

Keywords: Environmental modeling, Wastewater treatment plant, Total nitrogen, Total kjedhal nitrogen, Neural networks, Genetic algorithms, Fuzzy systems

Title of the Paper: Modular RFID Parking Management System based on Existed Gate System Integration


Authors: Ming-Shen Jina, Kuen Shiuh Yang, Chung-Lun Lee

Abstract: In this paper, a Modular RFID Parking Management System that integrates the existed gate system and RFID is proposed. This system includes Modular Gate-PC Controller and Embedded Gate Hardware, RFID System, Modular Parking Management Platform. Most systems in Modular RFID Parking Management System are modulated and can be substituted for any other similar system or hardware. The proposed Modular Parking Management Platform is independent of the operation system on PC and can be embedded in any other modulated parking system or hardware. The real test and verification proves that the proposed Modular RFID Parking Management System can certainly reduce the total cost of RFID parking system infrastructure without re-modifying the existed hardware.

Keywords: RFID, Parking Management, Embedded, System Integration, Modular.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Decision-making Behavior Based on Complex Adaptive System


Authors: Chang-Rui Yu, Yan Luo

Abstract: This paper focuses on the decision-making behavior based on the complex adaptive system. Firstly, the paper reviewed the related work of the complex adaptive system and the edge of chaos in complex systems in different fields. Secondly, a general decision model of an agent is established and the condition that an agent is just at the edge of chaos is defined. Thirdly, making use of Langton’s coefficient widely used in the research on cellular automata, the paper defines the edge of chaos that describes the decision behavior of agent. Finally, the paper conducts an evolutionary artificial life experiment. Then the connection between the behavior at the edge of chaos and the individual adaptability is illustrated.

Keywords: Decision-making, Complex adaptive system, Edge of chaos, Agent.

Title of the Paper: Some Aspects Regarding the Adaptive Control of a Flying Wing- Micro Air Vehicle with Flexible Wing Tips


Authors: Boscoianu Mircea, Pahonie Radu, Coman Adrian

Abstract: The problem of automatic development of controllers for high maneuverable flexible flying wing micro air vehicles for the situations in which the exact characteristics are not known, has a strong motivation for research because of the low cost of the bio-inspired emerging technologies, the evolution and the integration facilities of micro sensors, the use of soft computing techniques in adaptive control. The aim of future micro air vehicles (MAVs) is to obtain an enhanced agility and functionality and these demands should perform over an extended flight envelope, an increased range of operating conditions with dramatic variations and highly nonlinear critical aerodynamic phenomena. This paper open new opportunities for the future research in the field of low cost flying wing MAV (FW-MAV) category.

Keywords: micro air vehicle (MAV), flying wing MAV (FW-MAV), morphing, adaptive control.

Title of the Paper: Generalized Modus Ponens Using Fodor's Implication and a Parametric T-norm


Authors: Ion Iancu

Abstract: Using Generalized Modus Ponens reasoning, we examine the values of the inferred conclusion by using Fodor's implication in order to interpret a fuzzy if-then rule with a single input single output and the t-norm t(x,y)=max((1+λ)(x+y-1)- λxy), λ≥-1, for composition operation. This t-norm is important to use because for λ=-1 and λ=0 it gives the commonly used t-norms t1(x,y)=xy and t2(x,y)=max(0, x+y-1), respectively.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Fuzzy implication, Generalized modus ponens, t-norm, t-conorm, Strong negation

Title of the Paper: An Alternative Poincaré Section for Steady-State Responses and Bifurcations of a Duffing-Van der Pol Oscillator


Authors: Jang-Der Jeng, Yuan Kang, Yeon-Pun Chang

Abstract: To apply effective methods to analyze and distinguish all kinds of response patterns is an important issue of nonlinear dynamics. This paper contributes to develop an alternative Poincaré section method to analyze and identify the whirl responses of a nonlinear oscillator. This integration for analyzing high-order harmonic and chaotic motions is used to integrate the distance between state trajectory and the origin in the phase plane during a specific period. This response integration process is based on the fact that the integration value would be constant if the integration interval is equal to the response period. It provides a quantitative characterization of system responses as the role of the traditional stroboscopic technique (Poincaré section method) to observe bifurcations and chaos of the nonlinear oscillators. However, due to the signal response contamination of system, the section points on Poincaré maps might be too close to distinguish, especially for a high-order subharmonic vibration. Combining the capability of precisely identifying period and constructing bifurcation diagrams, the advantages of the proposed method are shown by the simulations of a Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. The simulation results show that the high-order subharmonic and chaotic responses and their bifurcations can be effectively observed.

Keywords: Poincaré section method, Chaotic motion, Response integration, Bifurcation, Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator

Title of the Paper: Optimal Torque Distribution Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Urban Buses


Authors: Yuangjun Huang, Chengliang Yin, Jianwu Zhang

Abstract: A novel parallel hybrid electric urban bus (PHEUB) configuration consisting of an extra one-way clutch and an automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) is taken as the study subject. Feed-forward computer simulation model of the PHEUB was developed in the system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink environment. The bench test results for the key components of the hybrid powertrain are treated as reliable reference in the modeling. A logic threshold torque distribution control strategy incorporating with an instantaneously optimization algorithm is proposed for the investigated PHEUB. The aim is to optimize the fuel economy and balance the battery state-of-charge (SOC), while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements at all times. Simulation results for the behaviors of the engine, motor and battery illustrates the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of battery SOC at a low level. The presented control strategy has been applied to the experimental hybrid bus and it is shown from the monitoring and testing that the control functions are practical.

Keywords: Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Modeling and simulation, Optimal Control strategy, Logic torque distribution control strategy, Operating mode control.

Title of the Paper: Context and Location Aware Public/Personal Information Service based on RFID System Integration


Authors: Ming-Shen Jian, Kuen Shiuh Yang, Chung-Lun Lee

Abstract: In this paper, a Context and Location Aware Public/Personal Information Service based on RFID System Integration (CLAPIS) that integrates the existed RFID systems is proposed. This system includes Embedded Service Middleware Platform, and End User RFID Handheld Facilities. The Embedded Service Middleware Platform which runs on the PC or PDA provides modulated API and can be substituted for any other similar system, hardware, and Internet service. The End User RFID Handheld Facilities gives and suits the three possible utilization conditions such as: end user RFID tag, end user device with RFID System, and hybrid end user RFID handheld facilities. The real test and verification prove that the proposed CLAPIS can certainly reduce the construction cost of local area public/personal service system. Users of three possible utilization conditions are all completely served. The recyclable RFID Device/Tag can further reduce the payment and is more environmental.

Keywords: RFID, Information Service, Context Aware, Location Aware, System Integration.

Title of the Paper: Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems, based on Sensor Networks and Artificial Intelligence


Authors: Constantin Volosencu

Abstract: The paper presents a short survey of three topics: modern sensor networks, distributed parameter systems and estimation techniques, especially using artificial intelligence tools, to be involved in the new domain of identification of distributed parameter systems, based on sensor networks and artificial intelligence. As smart and small devices the modern sensors are capable to be implemented in large distributed parameter systems. Sensor networks, with hundred and thousands of ad-hoc tiny sensor nodes spread across a geographical, are acting as a distributed sensor in a distributed parameter system. Sensor network topics, sensor network architectures and sensor network applications are presented. Examples of distributed parameter systems with large application in practice as the process of heat conduction, applications related to electricity domain, motion of fluids, the processes of cooling and drying, phenomenon of diffusion and other applications are presented. The identification techniques are useful for applications ranging from control systems, fault detection and diagnosis, signal processing to time-series analysis. Methods to estimate linear back box models and models of artificial intelligence, as fuzzy logic and neural network are presented. The artificial intelligence tools may be used for identification of nonlinear complex systems as the distributed parameter systems are. A case study of malicious nod detection based on a neural autoregression method in the process of plane heat propagation is developed.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, system identification, distributed parameter systems, neural networks.

Title of the Paper: Innovative Device for Measuring Forces Specific to Various Manufacturing Processes


Authors: Mihaiela Iliescu, Gabriela Tont

Abstract: Forces that occur into various manufacturing processes usually are worth to be known because of their key role in determining geometrical precision of the manufactured parts, in influencing technological system’s rigidity and in reducing energy consumption. The innovative device for measuring these forces is characterized by the shape and dimensions of the elastic element that proves good signal decoupling and the possibility to use it in various manufacturing processes types. The device’s prototype was obtained and tested so that, its rigidity characteristics and calibration equations to be determined. Experimented while manufacturing, both in machining and metal forming process, and aided by a LabVIEW data acquisition system, the device made possible the exact determination of each force’s component as well as of whole process force’s modulus.

Keywords: elastic element, manufacturing force, calibration equations, rigidity characteristic

Title of the Paper: Applications of Fault Detection Methods to Industrial Processes


Authors: Ioana Fagarasan, S. St. Iliescu

Abstract: Components of industrial processes are often affected by un-permitted or un-expected deviations from normal operation behaviour. The fault detection task consists of determination of the fault present in a system and the time of detection. In addition to fault detection follows the fault identification by determination of kind, location and time of detection of a fault. These procedures are based on the observed analytical and the heuristic knowledge of the process. In this paper a comparison between different methods of fault detection and some examples of the fault detection and identification procedure for industrial processes is provided. For some classes of processes the structure and some parameters are well known but for others only rough models are available. Therefore the methods for fault detection and diagnosis are mainly different.

Keywords: Fault Detection and Diagnosis, Industrial Processes, Symptoms, Residuals

Title of the Paper: A Methodology of Availability Assessment for Complex Manufacturing Systems


Authors: Gabriela Tont, Mihaiela Iliescu, Dan George Tont

Abstract: The degree in which a system is operational in a given horizon of time is the key indicator of service quality perceived by business users. The availability of critical systems is a function of the system reliability, maintainability and accessibility of support resources. Based on a comparative analysis, selecting an adequate method of availability assessment requires typical structures identification, reliability indices characterization and evaluation of non-reliability impact of the parts on system availability. Frequently used, binomial method leads to optimistic results due to bivalent states of components (operating/fault). For serial or parallel reliability structures, a realistic evaluation of system availability is obtained by applying polynomial or direct analysis based on reliability block diagram. A complex structure implies a successive assessment of structural components allowed by Monte-Carlo simulation providing accurate indices values. The paper presents a method of availability evaluation using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques which allows a comparative analysis of component impact on the system availability.

Keywords: availability, assessment, simulation, structures, complex manufacturing system, operational and reserve parts

Issue 7, Volume 7, July 2008

Title of the Paper: A Multilevel Approach of Reliability Optimization in Complex Systems


Authors: Gabriela Tont, Dan George Tont

Abstract: Reliability optimization of complex systems is aligning in the larger framework of solving business and technical issues by adopting solution and decision-making under the simultaneous multi-objective conditions. The optimization is a key problem in the conceptual design, the implementation and realization in context of use of system. The feasible directions of reliability improvement may be achieved by reducing system complexity, increasing reliability of components, using structural redundancy or adequate maintenance strategies.
The paper focuses on the opportunity of using continuous Markov chains, which allow modeling the behavior of complex systems under realistic time-dependent operational conditions, as an approach on managing and equipment stocks, a tool of reliability centered maintenance. The proposed simulation method is based on minimizing the stocking and failure costs of equipment under constraint of available acquisition and stocking sum. The case study, assessing two alternative situations of studied system, validates the effectiveness of method.

Keywords: Reliability, Optimization, Minimal Costs, Configuration, Validation Results

Title of the Paper: The Movement of Modular Walking Robot MERO in the Obstacles’ Area


Authors: Ion Ion, Luige Vladareanu, Ion Simionescu, Aurelian Vasile

Abstract: In the area of level-walking gaits, gaits can be categorized into two types according to the terrain condition : gaits on perfectly smooth terrain and gaits on terrain which contains forbidden areas (areas which are not suitable for foot placement).The main characteristic of the modular walking robots is that they are able to move away on not arranged, horizontal and rough terrain. The performance of walking robots is closely related to the adopted gait. The movement of the walking robots can be divided in two modes: condition of the static stability; condition of the dynamic stability. During walking, the legs move according to the gait and two forelegs are adjusted to avoid forbidden areas. Different methods of leg adjustments and body adjustments are integrated into the strategy. In the work are analyzed the possibilities of determination of the limit conditions for the stable displacement of the walking robots. In the work are analyzed the possibilities of determination of the limit conditions for the stable displacement of the quadrupedal walking robots. Finally, this strategy is verified by using computer graphics simulations.

Keywords: Modular Walking Robot, Walk, Gait, Support phase,Transfer phase, Stability margin

Title of the Paper: Some Aspects Regarding the Adaptive Control of a Flying Wing- Micro Air Vehicle with Flexible Wing Tips


Authors: Boscoianu Mircea, Pahonie Radu, Coman Adrian

Abstract: The problem of automatic development of controllers for high maneuverable flexible flying wing micro air vehicles for the situations in which the exact characteristics are not known, has a strong motivation for research because of the low cost bioinspiration emerging technologies, the integration of micro sensors, neural networks and adaptive control. The aim to obtain an enhanced agility and functionality demands that MAV should perform over an extended flight envelope, an increased range of operating conditions with dramatic variations and highly nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena.

Keywords: micro air vehicle (MAV), flying wing MAV (FW-MAV), morphing, adaptive control.

Title of the Paper: The Effect of the Cement Design Parameters on the Kinetic of Hydration for Composite Cements Produced According to EN 197-1


Authors: Dimitris Tsamatsoulis, Christina Stathoulopoulou, Louis Prelorentzos

Abstract: The effect of main cement parameters as the composition and fineness on the heat of hydration is investigated in the present study. Experimental data of heat of hydration that are received in a biggest period of one and half year are fitted in an exponential kinetic model. Four cement types complying with EN 197-1 are examined. The parameters of model are connected with the chemical and physical characteristics of the corresponding cements. It is demonstrated that the finely ground limestone, accelerates the hydration of clinker strengthening also his total degree of hydration. A large amount of pozzolane slows down initially the hydration, however after roughly seven days the pozzolanic reaction begins. Moreover a combination of two components, leads to a phenomenon of synergy. The cement fineness has a strong impact on the rate of hydration as well as on the total released heat. Consequently the mathematic models constitute a useful tool to predict the heat of hydration of any cement containing the same raw materials and can be utilized for design and regulation purposes with regard to the composition and fineness, specifically for the cements of low heat of hydration.

Keywords: Hydration, Kinetics, Cement, Clinker, Model, Simulation

Title of the Paper: A DS UWB Transmission System for Wireless Telemedicine


Authors: Chin-Feng Lin, Ching Yi-Li

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS UWB) transmission system for wireless telemedicine system. An essential feature of this system is that it offers larger power and schemes providing significant error protection for the transmission of medical information that requires higher quality of service (QoS). To realize maximum resource utilization, or minimum total transmission power, we also include an M-ary binary offset keying (MBOK) strategy into the system. Thus, in the proposed medical system, high power, a long length MBOK code, and scheme providing significant error protection schemes are employed for the transmission of medical messages that require a stringent bit-error rate (BER). In contrast, low power, short length MBOK codes, and less capable error protection schemes are provided for messages that can tolerate a high BER. A simulation is carried out to verify the proper functioning of the proposed system in a practical wireless telemedicine scenario.

Keywords: Wireless Telemedicine, DS UWB, power assignment mechanism, unequal error protection, MBOK.

Title of the Paper: Network Intrusion Detection Using Genetic Algorithm to find Best DNA Signature


Authors: Thaer Al_Ibaisi, Abd El-Latif Abu-Dalhoum, Mohammed Al-Rawi, Manuel Alfonseca, Alfonso Ortega

Abstract: Bioinformatics is part of computer science that joins between computer programming and molecular biology. DNA consists of long sequence of nucleotides which formulates the genome. Our method is to generate normal signature sequence and alignment threshold value from processing the system training data and encode observed network connection into corresponding DNA nucleotides sequence, then to align the signature sequence with observed sequence to find similarity degree value and decide whether the connection is attack or normal. Number of DNA sequences makes up each population, and then new generations are produced to select the Signature with best alignment value with normal network connection sequences. This paper ends up with accuracy value and threshold score for detecting the network anomalies that no known conditions exist for them to be discovered in addition for percentage of generating false positive and true negative alarms.

Keywords: Sequence alignment, Intrusion detection system, Sequence encoding, Alignment threshold.

Title of the Paper: Design Framework for Intelligent Supervision of Industrial Processes


Authors: Carlos Parra Ortega, Eliezer Colina Morles, Edgar Chacon Ramirez

Abstract: Timely faults detection in an industrial process is a key aspect for designing a framework for intelligent supervisory control. A way to perform supervisory control is by providing intelligence to the supervision mechanism in continuous processes exposed to faults in order to cope with the identification of a diversity of faults, classify them and to be able to anticipate the consequences derived by their occurrence. In this article we propose an extension of the multiresolutional models approach to construct a fuzzy logic-agent technology-event detection approaches-based supervisory framework. Also the suggested framework is validated by means of a discrete-event simulation program.

Keywords: Intelligent Supervisory Control, Multiresolutional models, Fault detection, Fuzzy Events Detection, Discrete-event simulation.

Title of the Paper: Neural Networks for Prediction of Nucleotide Sequences by using Genomic Signals


Authors: Paul Cristea, Valeri Mladenov, Rodica Tuduce, Georgi Tsenov, Simona Petrakieva

Abstract: The conversion of symbolic sequences into complex genomic signals allows using signal processing methods for the handling and analysis of nucleotide sequences. This methodology reveals surprizing regularities, both locally and at a global scale, allowing us to predict nucleotides in a sequence, when knowing the preceding ones. Such experiments have a major biologic significance, as they explore the possibility and the efficiency of error correction in processes like replication, transcription and translation.

Keywords: Genomic signals, Nucleotide Sequences, Time series prediction, Sequence prediction, Neural networks

Title of the Paper: Output Feedback Guaranteeing Cost Control by Matrix Inequalities for Discrete-Time Delay Systems


Authors: Eva Gyurkovics, Tibor Takacs

Abstract: This paper investigates the construction of guaranteeing cost dynamic output feedback controller for linear discrete-time delay systems with time-varying parameter uncertainties and with exogenous disturbances. A necessary and sufficient condition for a controller to have the guaranteeing cost property is given by a nonlinear matrix inequality. As a sufficient condition, a linear matrix inequality is derived, the solution of which can be used for constructing a control of the desired type. It is also shown that the resulted trajectory is input-to-state stable. A numerical example illustrates the application of the results.

Keywords: guaranteeing cost control, delay systems, discrete-time systems, matrix inequalities

Title of the Paper: A Coarse-to-Fine Algorithm for 3D Registration based on Wavelet Decomposition


Authors: C. Torre-Ferrero, S. Robla, E. G. Sarabia, J. R. Llata

Abstract: This paper introduces a coarse-to-fine algorithm for 3D registration that uses an alternative 3D Shape Representation: CIRCON (Cylindrical Image of Radial CONtours). Two point clouds can be aligned using their corresponding circon images for searching for correspondences. In order to accelerate this search, a coarse-to-fine approach based on wavelet image decomposition will be applied to the circon images. This permits to reduce, for each resolution level, the amount of indexes to be evaluated. The information obtained by the surface matching process is then used for calculating a coarse transformation (translation and rotation) between both surfaces; in such a way that two point clouds whose relative pose is unknown can be aligned.

Keywords: 3D registration, surface alignment, shape representation, coarse transformation, object recognition

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Sliding-Mode Load-Torque Observer: Its Stability Aspects


Authors: Wirote Sangtungtong, Sarawut Sujitjorn

Abstract: This article reveals the detailed analyses of the uniform stability and the transient stability of an adaptive sliding-mode load-torque observer. Using the Lyapunov’s direct method, the stability can be concluded only in some time intervals during transient state. Using the LaSalle’s invariance principle, it can be concluded that by the end of the transient state the observer definitely enters the stable steady-state.

Keywords: Asymptotically autonomous system; Invariant set; LaSalle’s principle; Load-torque observer; Lyapunov’s direct method; Quadratic inequality; Transient stability; Uniform stability.

Title of the Paper: Ripple-free Control Response by Using a Fractional Order Hold Device


Authors: Unai Ugalde, Rafael Barcena, Koldo Basterretxea

Abstract: In digital control, discrete-time signal reconstruction is usualy carried out by the zero-order hold (ZOH), although other options exist which exhibit interesting properties. A remarkable alternative is the fractional-order hold (FROH), which provokes no intersample ripple under steady state and, if properly tuned, can often place the discretized plant model z-domain zeros in more convenient locations than the ZOH. This zero placing technique, in turn, gives rise to closed-loop performance improvements for many cases. However, since it is formulated in the z-domain, it cannot anticipate continuous-time closed-loop behaviour. Besides, going through zero placement is burdensome, especially for high-order models. This work presents a new and simpler method which directly links the tuning of the FROH with some desired closed-loop features, bypassing zero placement. It is based on the frequency domain, which makes it possible to capture the continuous-time behaviour. The simulations performed have shown clear improvements over zero placement, in terms of time-domain performance figures, intersample behaviour, and the energy consumed in step responses.

Keywords: Frequency domain analysis, Sampled data systems, Digital control.

Title of the Paper: Harmonic Current Reduction in Railway Systems


Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of harmonic mitigation solutions in a Romanian traction substation which supplies a railway electric transportation line. The power line measurements were made using an ABB Power+ recorder and analyzer during a whole day. The quantities recorded have been the frequency, the total rms values of the voltage and current, the current and voltage harmonic distortion factors and the first fifteen current and voltage harmonics. The analysis of data shows that the harmonic distortion factor of the voltage is always less than IEEE 519 recommended limit thanks of high power of the transformer comparatively with the power of the load. In order to keep the current distortion within allowed limits, the proposed filter installation must lead to a significant diminution of 3rd and 5th harmonics and a less significant diminution of the superior order harmonics. In this concrete application, the proposed solution for harmonics mitigation is based on passive power filtering. The simulations carried out under Matlab Simulink environment show that the installation of two single tuned filters for third and fifth harmonics plus a high-pass filter for higher order harmonics would reduce harmonics levels and harmonic distortion factor to within acceptable limits even in the most unfavourable situations.

Keywords: Railway systems, Harmonics, Harmonic distortion factor, Power quality, Passive power filters

Title of the Paper: Using Simulation for Study the Possibility of Canceling Load Unbalance of Non-Sinusoidal High Power Three-Phase Loads


Authors: Manuela Panoiu, Caius Panoiu, Ioan Sora, Anca Iordan, Raluca Rob

Abstract: The electric arc furnace as a three-phase load represent one of the most important source of harmonic currents, reactive power and unbalanced conditions in electrical power systems. This paper work aims to achieve a study concerning the unbalanced regime and to propose a method for three-phase load balancing. It is well know that the electric arc is a nonlinear element. Thus, for modeling his behavior, it was use a model having parameters like of a real electric arc. For simulation it was use the PSCAD-EMTDC program dedicated to power systems. It was also performed a study for load balancing based on modeling the three phase electric arc furnace installation. For comparative studies it was made measurements in secondary furnace transformer.

Keywords: simulation, modeling, unbalanced load, electric arc, power quality

Title of the Paper: On Using B+-Tree for Efficient Processing for the Boundary Neighborhood Problem


Authors: Azzam Sleit

Abstract: A spatial data set is a collection of spatially referenced objects. The boundary neighborhood problem (i.e. BN problem) in spatial database systems is defined as finding all boundary neighbors for a given object based on special dimensions. This problem arises in several applications mainly in GIS systems such as finding all countries that surround a given lake or sea. Spatial objects can be represented and indexed by their minimum bounding rectangles (i.e. MBR’s) which give rough indication for the existence of an object. This paper proposes a solution for the BN problem, based on indexing the space using B+-tree.

Keywords: B+-tree, Boundary Neighborhood Operator, Spatial Database, Rectangular Object

Title of the Paper: On the Optimal Multirate Control of Networked Control Systems


Authors: Zhang Xiang, Xiao Jian

Abstract: Optimal multirate control of the networked control systems is investigated in this paper. Under p – to – wσ communication sequence that sensors access communication medium and m – to – wρ communication sequence that actuators access communication medium, the plant of networked control system acts as a linear periodic time-varying system. Using lifting technology, a linear periodic time-varying system is transformed into a linear periodic time-invariant system and the linear quadratic performance index of a linear periodic time-varying system is transformed into that of a linear periodic time-invariant system. Controllability and observability of transformed system are analyzed. An optimal state feedback control and an optimal output feedback control are given. The simulation results show that the optimal multirate control strategies proposed in this paper are feasible.

Keywords: optimal multirate control; networked control systems; lifting technology; linear quadratic performance index; optimal state feedback control; optimal output feedback control

Title of the Paper: Multivariate Analysis Applied in Bayesian Metareasoning


Authors: Carlos Eduardo Bognar, Osamu Saotome

Abstract: As Bayesian networks are applied to more complex and realistic real-world applications, the development of more efficient inference approaches is increasingly important. This paper presents a method for metareasoning in Bayesian networks adopting prediction models to select algorithms for the inference tasks, when multiple schemes are used to calculate the propagation of evidence. The proposed method is based on multiple characterizations of Bayesian networks and prediction models to select the algorithm that will provide the best performance in future inferences. Logistic regression analysis is applied to determine when exact algorithms may be used for specific tasks. The prediction models of approximate inference algorithms are created by multiple regression analysis, based on experimental results using Variable Elimination, Gibbs Sampling and Stratified Simulation algorithms. These algorithms belong to exact method, stochastic and deterministic sampling methods, respectively. Experimental analyses compare some alternative models and show better results when multivariate analysis is applied.

Keywords: Bayesian, Metareasoning, Logistic Regression, Multiple Regression, Inferences, Prediction Models

Title of the Paper: System Dynamic Modeling and Optimal Torque Control Strategy for E. T. Driver based on AMT


Authors: Chen Li, Dong Yue-Hang, Yin Cheng-Liang, Zhang Jian-Wu

Abstract: Hybrid power system is one of the kernel technologies of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The performance of HEV is determined greatly by the hybrid power system. The integrative hybrid power system is a new and important research field now and in the future. The Electrical Transmission Driver (E.T.Driver) is a compositive hybrid power system. The special constitution of E.T.Driver, which is based on Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), can greatly improve the shift quality and driving smoothness of HEV during the gear shift course. A non-linear multi-rigid-body system dynamic modeling is developed for HEV system in power transmission during clutch engagement. Two kinds of input torque optimal control strategies of E.T.Driver are introduced and validated based on the dynamic simulation model and experiment data. A minimum value principle is used to optimize the input torque of E.T.Driver and to achieve an optimal dynamic performance of the non-linear system compromised in friction wear and shock intensity. It is found the shock intensity and slipping friction work can be reduced to a very small value or can be controlled to a satisfying degree according to the optimal input torque control strategies from the experiment data results.

Keywords: electrical transmission driver (E.T.Driver); parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV); gear shift quality; non-linear system dynamics; driving smoothness; optimal control

Issue 8, Volume 7, August 2008

Title of the Paper: Trajectory Planning based on Hand Operation for the Un-Redundant Arm of Service Robot


Authors: L. B. Yu, Q. X. Cao

Abstract: Any unfamiliar motions of the arm for service robot will make people anxious and human-like arm motion may be a solution. A virtual prototype of service robot with dual 6DOF (Degree of Freedom) arms named FISR (Family Intelligent Service Robot) has been developed. The application of service robot is not only performing human-like arm motion but also focusing on the hand operation such as grasping an object. So based on hand operation a formulation of elbow elevation angle is constructed to plan human-like arm motion for FISR. Furthermore a strategy about how to grasp a convex object is proposed.

Keywords: Elbow elevation angle, human-like trajectory, hand operation, un-redundant arm, service robot

Title of the Paper: Discrete Model of a TCSC for Automation and Planning Studies of the Electrical Transmission System in Colombia


Authors: Jorge. W. Gonzalez, Hugo Cardona, Idi Isaac, Gabriel Lopez, E. Ruiz

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a discrete Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor, TCSC, model using the software DIgSILENT PF. The discrete model is based on switchable inductances. The model was inserted in a practical large network of the Electrical Transmission System in Colombia (ETSC) for automation and planning purposes, as much in steady as transient analysis. The results of the studies with the discrete model were very satisfying and allowed to propose further automated solutions to the needs of expanding the ETSC.

Keywords: Automation of high voltage networks, control systems, power electronics, Thyristor controlled series capacitor.

Issue 9, Volume 7, September 2008

Title of the Paper: Amaranth Food Dye Photochemical and Photoelectrochemical Degradation: Experiments and Mathematical Modelling


Authors: Cristiano P. Silva, Sandro Marmitt, Claus Haetinger, Simone Stülp

Abstract: This paper studied the photochemical and photoelectrochemical degradation of food dye (red dye - amaranth). The investigation aimed at the assessment of alternative treatments, focusing the use of clean technologies. The photochemical and photoelectrochemical degradation experiments were performed in a compartment with UV radiation (mercury lamp – 125W). For the photoelectrochemical degradation, the best mathematical modelling indicated by the LAB Fit software was the exponential model. This behavior indicates a first-order reaction. On the other side, the best mathematical model for the photochemical degradation was the linear one. Therefore, the photochemical degradation indicates a zero-order reaction. For the amaranth dye, the photoelectrochemical method showed itself to be more efficient than the photochemical one. The photoelectrochemical treatment pointed to a 92% color reduction in the dye solution, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal reached up to 57%.

Keywords: food dye, photoelectrochemical degradation, azo group, kinetics, UV radiation.

Title of the Paper: Position Tracking and Flaw Visualization in Conductive Materials


Authors: Rafic Bachnak, Scott A. King

Abstract: The Eddy current technique has been successfully used in a variety of non-destructive evaluation applications including detection of cracks, measurements of material thickness, examining metal thinning, measurements of coating thickness, identification of materials, and detection of corrosion. This paper shows how positional and eddy-current data are combined to produce a C-scan of flaws in conductive materials. A system that consists of an eddy current probe, a position tracking mechanism, and basic data visualization capability was built and tested. Test results of the prototype are presented and briefly discussed. Improving the accuracy of the measurements using a three-mouse position sensing device is described.

Keywords: Position tracking, non-destructive evaluation, eddy current, visualization

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Corona Currents in an Electrostatic Discharge System in Normal Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature


Authors: Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Sorin Ioan Deaconu, Iosif Popa

Abstract: In this paper, have been studied the corona current spectras in a needles to plane geometry of electrostatic discharge system (EDS) in normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. The air between electrodes becomes conductive when the electric field strength exceeds a limit value. Were made an optical analysis of corona (for the same voltage – 10 kV, for positive, negative and alternative supply of EDS electrodes) and an electrical analysis (through current spectra) for current corona (for different gap distances between electrodes - 2 to 5 cm, different polarity - positive, negative, and alternative, and voltage supply - 4 to 10kV). The currents spectras indicates that the positive current has the most harmonics and has a lot of noise than negative or alternative corona.

Keywords: Corona currents, Electrostatic discharge system, Needles to plane geometry

Title of the Paper: Surface Roughness Statistic Models of Metallized Coatings in Grinding Manufacturing System


Authors: Mihaiela Iliescu, Mihnea Costoiu

Abstract: Metallizing process has known a continuous extent, lately, because of the sprayed coatings’ intensive application into various industrial fields. Metallized coatings have very important wear or, corrosion resistance characteristics and, when used for repairing worn parts, the prescribed surface quality specifications can be obtained only by grinding, after thermal spraying. Statistic models of grinded surface roughness are useful, specially, for optimizing the machining process. For adequate and, faster measurements, a LabVIEW data acquisition system was used to obtain grinded surface roughness values and, for obtaining statistical models needed, specialized regression soft-ware was considered.

Keywords: metallized coating, surface roughness, experiment design, regression analysis, statistic model


Title of the Paper: Increasing the Energetic Efficiency in Producing of Electric and Thermal Power in Thermal Power Plants by Using of Variable Speed


Authors: Sorin Ioan Deaconu, Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Iosif Popa

Abstract: In this work is presenting a theoretical analysis and an experimental application of the energetic efficiency increase by using of variable-speed AC electric drive systems in a thermal power plant that produces electric and thermal power. Are presented few possible drive systems, both at low voltage and medium voltage, and is analysed the influence upon the curent’s and voltage’s wave shape due to the distorsions introduced by the adjustable drives.
The presented application refers to the distribution system of the produced thermal power, composed by the pumping station of the primary heat carrier, the district heating stations and the automation system. The experimental results from the first operational year are used to optimize the system.

Keywords: Asynchronous motor, Static frequency converter, Harmonic distorsion generated by adjustable speed drives, District heating system, Pumping station, Testing, Energetic efficiency.

Title of the Paper: Static and Dynamic Abstract Formal Models for 3D Sensor Images


Authors: Ioan Jivet, Alin Brindusescu, Ivan Bogdanov

Abstract: The paper presents a perception oriented linguistic formal model for 3D sensors depth images. Both the static object extraction and short term dynamic evolution in the scene are analyzed. The target applications are subsystems in action involved in independent environment exploration and learning be it human or machine. Field of view depth images obtained with recently developed CMOS 3D sensors are analyzed in their capacity to provide immediate action oriented data. For the 3D scene images a selective segmented method is proposed in terms of salient objects in the depth image. The model as proposed uses a representation of the scene depth image in terms of object area and mean center location. An original abstract formal language representation is proposed. The extension of the context free grammar with attributes ads structure to the model. It is also shown that the generated language translates directly depth labeling into action planning on the environment. The performance of the proposed abstract representation method is analyzed in terms of estimated computation time and direct semantic relevance for a sample application. For applications of object motion detection and tracking the formal model was extended with attributes for direction and speed. The object position drift based on segment correspondence for speed determination is shown to be compatible to the formal model as proposed. Further development of the model for multi layered representations for more complex applications areas is also outlined.

Keywords: 3D sensor depth image, segmentation, formal language perception model, real time perception.

Title of the Paper: A Behavioral Approach to GNSS Positioning and DOP Determination


Authors: He-Sheng Wang

Abstract: In this paper, a behavioral framework is proposed to solve dynamic GNSS positioning problems, which in the mean time may also provide a way to determine the DOP (dilution of precision) of a moving object. The concept of beha-vioral framework was first proposed by Jan C. Willems in a series of papers (J.C. Willems, "From time series to linear system - part I, II, and III," Automatica Vol. 22, 1986.) as a generic tool for mathematical modeling of dynamical systems. In the proposed approach, a GNSS positioning problem is firstly described by a kernel representation and then the problem can be solved by a structured total least-squares (STLS) algorithm. STLS algorithm is a modified version of the traditional total least-squares (TLS) method. It can be shown that the STLS algorithm is able to provide better performance than the TLS al-gorithm for the problems that possess a particular structure. In the case of the present paper, it is shown that the GNSS posi-tioning problem has a Hankel structure (i.e., the geometric matrix of the pseudorange equation is Hankel), therefore the prob-lem can be solved by an STLS algorithm subject to a Hankel structure. On the other hand, a formula for calculating DOP of a dynamic positioning problem is also provided. The proposed method is able to calculate the DOP value for multiple time epochs, in compared with the conventional DOP formula which can only be derived at a single time epoch, so as to reflect the inter-dependency between consecutive time epochs.

Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); Behavioral Framework; Structured Total Least-Squares; Dilution of Precision; Kernel Representation; Total Least-Squares; Least-Squares.

Title of the Paper: Industrial PC-based Real-Time Controllers Applied to Second-Order and First-Order Plus Time Delay Processes


Authors: R. Barcena, A. Etxebarria

Abstract: Nowadays, the industrial processes are controlled mainly by using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Anyway, the more strict specifications imposed at present day are bringing about the gradual introduction of advanced control techniques (fuzzy, adaptive, …) in industry. In order to soundly implement such techniques, new hardware (DSP, Industrial PC, …) may be necessary. This paper describes a complete environment for a realistic experimentation on advanced controllers in order to facilitate its study and posterior implementation in productive processes. The experimentation environment is formed by an industrial PC that acts as real time controller and other PC or real actuators like process plants. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimentation provides a very useful tool for testing systems or subsystems at early stages of the development process. This can reduce the debugging process of the system, in addition to eliminate project risks, because hardware prototype is not necessary before carrying out testing and system integration. HIL experimentations work in real time and carry out input and output operations as a part of the real system in their operative environment. This enables the system or subsystem to be tested under work nominal conditions as well as at its intended operational boundaries.

Keywords: Real-time control, Rapid prototyping, Hardware-in-the-loop simulation, digital control, auto tuning controllers, pole placement.

Title of the Paper: Autonomic and Cognitive Possibilities for Information or Neural-Like Systems using Dynamic Links



Authors: Kieran Greer, Matthias Baumgarten, Maurice Mulvenna, Kevin Curran, Chris Nugent

Abstract : This paper will describe a vision for a new kind of information system that can dynamically self-organize and reason over its contents. The architecture is lightweight and would be suitable for an Internet-based environment, or alternatively, a mobile or pervasive sensitized environment. The lightweight architecture will rely on dynamic links, created through the query process, to self-organize. Results will show that the linking mechanism is reliable and can be combined with knowledge-based approaches, such as semantics, to provide extra functionality over what similar systems can currently provide. An overall architecture that could be called autonomic and cognitive will be suggested. This architecture could be used locally as part of a neural-like brain, or globally in a distributed information system. Autonomic features covered will be self-organization and self-supervision, while different levels of reasoning will allow for an overall cognitive model that may even be able to think for itself.

Key-Words: Autonomic, Reasoning, Cognitive, Dynamic, Link, Query.

Title of the Paper: Αpplication of Modeling and Computer Simulation for the Development of a Test Setup for Calibration of Power Quality Measurement Transducers for High Voltage Networks


Authors: Hedio Tatizawa, Erasmo Silveira Neto, Geraldo F. Burani, Antonio A. C. Arruda, Kleiber T. Soletto, Nelson M. Matsuo


Abstract: - The term power quality is, in general, closely related to the quality of the voltage. Considering the widespread presence of sensitive loads in the electric grid, and the increasing awareness of the consumers concerning the quality of the power supply, the control and measurement of power quality parameters, for instance, harmonics, inter harmonics, sags, swells, etc., are increasingly becoming much more important [1, 2, 3,4]. Most of the necessary calibration procedures for power quality monitors and power quality analyzers are already defined in the international standards, mainly in the IEC 61000 series [5] and ANSI/IEEE Standards.This paper presents results of a research intended to develop a methodology for the calibration of high voltage transducers for power quality measurements in high voltage networks, considering that such kind of proceduresare not yet established in the pertinent standards. In this research it is also considered that the conventional high voltage laboratory is not suitable for power quality tests, so some improvements are necessary on this subject. In this development, modeling and computer simulation using ATP – Alternative Transients Program [6] were used for to assess the frequency response of the test setup, and the design of the reactive compensation of the test circuit.

 Key-Words: - high voltage transducers, capacitive voltage dividers, power quality measurements, harmonics, IEC 61000 series, high voltage.

Issue 10, Volume 7, October 2008

Title of the Paper: The Study of Multimode Power Control System for MW Variable-Speed Wind Turbine


Authors: Dingguo Wu, Zhixin Wang

Abstract: - Wind energy is a viable option to complement other types of pollution-free generation. In the past constant-speed wind turbine is used for the limitation of the control technology and manufacturing technology. But this kind wind turbine has low efficiency and small operation range.
Recently, more and more people make their focus on studying the MW variable-speed wind turbine for its high efficiency in using wind energy and large operation range. In this paper, base on the study of the model for the variable-speed wind turbine, a multimode power control system is proposed. This control system is consisting of two controllers: the speed controller and the pitch controller. By judging the different power point, the control system use different controller to make the wind turbine run at different mode. Simulation results by using actual detailed parameters for wind turbine show the effectiveness and robustness of this control system.

Key-Words: - The shaft system model, feed-forward compensator, multimode power control system, loop-shaping, speed controller, pitch controller, wind turbine.


Title of the Paper: Accelerating Improvement of Fuzzy Rules Induction with Artificial Immune Systems


Authors: Edward Mezyk, Olgierd Unold

Abstract: -The paper introduces an algorithmic improvement to IFRAIS, an existing Artificial Immune System method for fuzzy rule mining. The improvement presented consists of using rule buffering during the computation of fitness of rules. This is achieved using a hash table. The improved method has been tested against two different fitness functions and various data sets. Experimental results show improvements in computing times in the order of 3 to 10 times maintaining same levels of accuracy.

Key-Words: - Artificial Immune System, Data Mining, Fuzzy Rules Inductio


Title of the Paper: Hydropower Plant Control using Holonic Structure Concept


Authors: Matei Vinatoru

Abstract : This paper will describe a vision for a new kind of information system that can dynamically self-organize and reason over its contents. The architecture is lightweight and would be suitable for an Internet-based environment, or alternatively, a mobile or pervasive sensitized environment. The lightweight architecture will rely on dynamic links, created through the query process, to self-organize. Results will show that the linking mechanism is reliable and can be combined with knowledge-based approaches, such as semantics, to provide extra functionality over what similar systems can currently provide. An overall architecture that could be called autonomic and cognitive will be suggested. This architecture could be used locally as part of a neural-like brain, or globally in a distributed information system. Autonomic features covered will be self-organization and self-supervision, while different levels of reasoning will allow for an overall cognitive model that may even be able to think for itself.

Key-Words: Autonomic, Reasoning, Cognitive, Dynamic, Link, Query.

Title of the Paper: Application of Artificial Intelligent Technique for Partial Discharges Localization in Oil Insulating Transformer


Authors: Anant Oonsivilai, Boonruang Marungsri

Abstract : Partial discharges in a power transformer are often a predecessor of serious fault, as Power transformers are fundamental apparatuses in electrical power system network. Thus, partial discharge measurement are a significant diagnostic tool to supervise the insulation state of a power transformer, as elementary Partial Discharges (PD) detection is not adequate to make a decision about intervening, so the localization is required to evaluate the risk and to plan rectification actions. Acoustic signals collected by piezoelectric sensors established outside of the transformer, supply the accurate position of PD as parameters. Conclusion demonstrates the efficacious of suggested solution for PD source localization in oil insulating power transformers using Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS).

Key-Words: Artificial Intelligent Technique, Partial Discharge, Localization, Oil Insulating Transformer, Acoustic Signal, Adaptive Tabu Search


Title of the Paper: A Plan of Lauding the Boxes for a Three Dimensional Bin Packing Model


Authors: Daniela Marinescu, Paul Iacob, Alexandra Baicoianu

Abstract : We consider the rectangular three dimensional bin packing problem with knapsack, where the bin is packed with a set of rectangular boxes, without gaps or overlapping. Starting from a solution of the three dimensional bin packing model, our objective is to determine an order of the loading the boxes in the bin so that a box will be packed in the bin only if there are no empty spaces down to this box and the origin of the box is in a fixed position, determinated by the boxes situated in the West and North neighborhood. By extension of the previous work regarding the two dimensional covering problem [12] and the three dimensional bin packing problem [15], we define three kind of adjacency relations between two boxes from a packing model, similarly with [13, 14]. Combining these relations we define an acyclic graph representation of the bin packing model. A plan for lauding of the boxes in the bin is obtained using a topological sorting algorithm of the vertices of this acyclic graph.

Key-Words: Artificial Intelligent Technique, Partial Discharge, Localization, Oil Insulating Transformer, Acoustic Signal, Adaptive Tabu Search


Title of the Paper: Characteristic Point Sequences in Local and Global Bifurcation Analysis of Filippov Systems


Authors: Ivan Arango, John Alexander Taborda

Abstract : We explain the set of rules behind of the LabView toolbox for bifurcation analysis of Filippov systems denominated SPTCont 1.0. This software can detect nonsmooth bifurcations in n-dimensional systems using integration-free algorithms based on the evaluation of the vector fields on the discontinuity boundary (DB). In this paper, we present the characteristic point sequences that the software detects to guarantee the existence of local and global non smooth bifurcations in planar Filippov systems (n = 2). These sequences can be extended to three dimensional or higher dimension Filippov systems. Boolean-valued functions are used to formulate the conditions of existence for each point defined in the sequences. Dynamics on DB and cycles are defined in function of the set of points. The full catalog of codim 1 local and global bifurcations is used to define the characteristic point sequence when the bifurcation parameter is varied. Finally, an illustrative example is analyzed using step-by-step routines of SPTCont 1.0.

Key–Words: Bifurcation theory, sliding bifurcations, piecewise-smooth systems, Filippov systems.


Title of the Paper:
Redundant Coverage for Noise Reduction in Dynamic Sensor Networks


Authors: Simone Gabriele, Paolo Di Giamberardino

Abstract : The paper deals with the problem of computing trajectories for a network of mobile sensors in order to maximize coverage within a fixed time interval avoiding collisions and maintaining communication network connectivity. A formulation of the field coverage problem is given in terms of optimal control and it is shown how the problem of a redundant coverage, useful for simultaneous multiple measurements and then noise reduction, can be handled within the same formulation. The redundancy is formally faced in terms of K-coverage, such that covering each point of the workspace with at least K different sensors. Global centralized solutions are computed after discretization and simulation results are reported to show the effects of the proposed approach.

Key–Words: Dynamic sensor network, noise reduction, heterogeneous sensors, K-coverage, optimal motion, network communications.

Title of the Paper: Accelerating Improvement of Fuzzy Rules Induction with Artificial Immune Systems


Authors: Edward Mezyk, Olgierd Unold

Abstract: - The paper introduces an algorithmic improvement to IFRAIS, an existing Artificial Immune System method for fuzzy rule mining. The improvement presented consists of using rule buffering during the computation of fitness of rules. This is achieved using a hash table. The improved method has been tested against two different fitness functions and various data sets. Experimental results show improvements in computing times in the order of 3 to 10 times maintaining same levels of accuracy.

Key-Words: - Artificial Immune System, Data Mining, Fuzzy Rules Induction

Title of the Paper: Aerosol Size Distribution using Sun-Photometer AOD data
of Five Wavelengths and Artificial Neural Network


Authors: Hamed Parsiani, Andres Bonilla

Abstract: Aerosol size distribution (ASD) is an integral parameter in regional atmospheric models [1].The LIDAR laboratory at UPRM will provide Puerto Rico a means of measuring ASD, and therefore
improve these models. This project intends to develop a method of obtaining ASD with the use of a Sunphotometer data, local CIMEL data obtained from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) [2], and an artificial neural network (ANN). The Sun-photometer used is an instrument that measures Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at five wavelengths of 380, 440, 500, 675, and 870 nms . A feed-forward, backpropagation artificial neural network was used to map the underlying pattern between AOD and ASD in southwestern Puerto Rico. After training, the network will produce ASD outputs based on new AOD inputs measured locally at UPRM with the Sun-photometer. It was determined that accurate predictions of ASD (MSE of 10-4) could be made depending on the size of the AOD data pool selected.

Key-Words: Aerosol Size Distribution, Aerosol Optical Depth, Artificial Neural Network, AERONET

Title of the Paper: A Hydro-Mechanical Jet Engine’s Speed Controller Based on the Fuel’s Injection Pressure’s Control


Authors: Alexandru Nicolae Tudosie

Abstract: - The paper deals with an automatic system meant to control an aircraft jet engine’s rotation speed, through the fuel injection’s control, based on a constant pressure chamber controller. One has established the non-linear mathematical model (based on the motion equations of the system’s parts), the linear model and the non-dimensional linear model, as well as the simplified model, the transfer function and the block-diagram. One has also performed a stability study and established the system’s stability domains, as well as some quality studies, for different engine-controller configurations.

Key Words: control, jet-engine, fuel injection, pressure chamber, actuator, fuel pump.

Title of the Paper: On Multipoint Spectral Analysis in Dynamic Sources Behaviour Identification and Evaluation


Authors: Silviu Nastac, Carmen Debeleac

Abstract: - The aims of this study deals with the identification an evaluation of the linkage between the vibratory intensive pollutant industrial sources and the vibration level at these industrial site proximities. This analysis acquires high significance when at the side of the site there are the civil constructions, with preponderant human activities, or habitable areas. Based on the virtual instrumentation developed in LabVIEW™ graphical programming package, and using the multipoint spectral analysis method, the authors succeeds to put into the evidence the influences or the absence of these, regarding the vibration sources and their effects on the potential sensitive destinations. The global evaluation method helps the identification and the analysis of this phenomenon. The instrumental tests were performed at the ASTRA Factory, Arad, Romania, on the forges sector, and on proximity zones.

Key-Words: - vibration, system identification, instrumental tests, multipoint spectral analysis.

Title of the Paper: On the Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Spring Actuator Using Thermal Analysis


Authors: Sonia Degeratu, Nicu G. Bizdoaca, Gheorghe Manolea, Ilie Diaconu, Anca Petrisor, Vasile Degeratu

Abstract: - Due to their unique properties and behavior, the Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) play an increasingly important role in the intelligent systems performance. Recent applications in structural actuation and sensing demand increased material capabilities. This paper reviews the main advantages and the properties of SMAs and presents the design strategy for a typical shape memory actuator configuration of intelligent systems, using as active element Ni-Ti SMA spring working against a conventional steel spring. It also includes the thermal analysis experiments, in order to determine the transformation temperatures for the studied SMA spring. For design optimization a comprehensive graphical interface (based on the thermal analysis results), which runs under Visual Basic, has been developed for this application. It provides a user friendly environment allowing intelligent system parameters configuration as well as choosing the most adapted analysis methods and data displaying.

Key-Words: - SMA, shape memory helical spring, biasing spring, austenite phase, martensite phase, transformation temperatures. 

Title of the Paper: Rainfall Estimation from Convective Storms Using the Hydro-Estimator and NEXRAD


Authors: Nazario D. Ramirez-Beltran, Robert J. Kuligowski, Eric W. Harmsen, Joan M. Castro, Sandra Cruz-Pol, Melvin J. Cardona

Abstract: Validation of the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) during heavy storms over Puerto Rico (PR) is reported. The HE is a high resolution rainfall retrieval algorithm based on satellite and numerical weather prediction model data. The accuracy of the HE and the NEXRAD rainfall estimates can be measured by decomposing the rainfall process into sequences of discrete (rain / no rain) and continuous (rainfall rate) random variables. Validation results are based on five heavy storms that seriously impacted human life and the economy of PR during the period 2003 to 2005. The average discrete validation results indicate acceptable hit rate values for both the HE and NEXRAD (0.76 vs. 0.87) and reasonable discrete bias ratios (1.04 vs. 0.73) but a very low of probability of detection of rain for both the HE and NEXRAD (0.36 vs. 0.52). The HE shows an overestimation on average whereas the NEXRAD exhibits underestimation in the continuous validation results (continuous bias ratio of 1.14 vs 0.70 for NEXRAD), which contributes to moderate overall errors for the HE and NEXRAD in terms of root mean squared error (2.14 mm vs. 1.66 mm) and mean absolute error (0.96 mm vs. 0.77 mm).The HE algorithm was designed to operate over US continental areas and satisfactory results have been reported. However, over tropical regions it was determined that warm clouds can generate substantial rainfall amounts that are not detected by the HE algorithm. It is known that precipitation processes in clouds with warm tops are very sensitive to the microphysical structure of their tops. Specifically, precipitation processes are more efficient when water droplets or/and ice particles grow to larger sizes. It has been shown that the uses of the reflected portion of the near-infrared during the daytime indicates the presence large cloud-top particles and suggest rain in warm-top clouds. It has been used the effective radius of clouds particles to detect raining clouds. However, the available algorithms to estimate the effective radius are designed to operate over ice clouds. We are in the process of developing an algorithm to extract the microphysical structure for rainy warm top clouds, and the first step of this algorithm is to estimate the remittance of near infrared window, which is described in this paper.

Key-words - Validation, NEXRAD, Hydro-Estimator, retrieval algorithm, rain rate, GOES, brightness temperature.

Title of the Paper: Frame Length Selection in Speaker Verification Task


Authors: Donato Impedovo, Mario Refice

Abstract: In this paper an approach based on the use of different frame lengths for the feature extraction process in the training and recognition phases of a speaker verification system is presented. It is able to sensibly reduce the ER and the degradation on performance related to the training/verification feature mismatch. The potentiality of the approach are investigated in an a-posteriori search of the best combination to be adopted. A prototype of an expert system is also presented in order to automatically search, in real time operating conditions, the optimal combination of parameters. Tests have been performed on a set of speakers whose speech productions were spanned over approximately 3 months.

Key-Words: - Speaker Verification, Text Dependent, Mismatch, Frame Length, CD-HMM.

Title of the Paper: A Model and Tool Features for Collaborative Artifact Inspection and Review.


Authors: Abdusalam Nwesri, Khairuddin Hashim

Abstract: Inspection offers an opportunity to detect and remove defects at various points during software development. Early detection will reduce the effect of propagation and amplification of defects into the later phases of software development. Collaborative inspection on the web aims to eliminate the time factor needed to assemble the inspection or review team at a physical location. Through the collaborative mode, software teams can perform software inspection and review from geographically separated places asynchronously. These newly introduced practices have proven that collaborative inspection and review of artifacts on the web is feasible. This paper provides a model for collaborative inspection and review including possible features of model and tool that will support collaborative inspection and review on the web.

Key-Words: Artifact, collaborative, software inspection, review.

Title of the Paper:  Computational Methods Used in the Study of Grafting 2-Chloroethyl Phosphonic Acid on Titania


Authors: Simona Funar-Timofei, Gheorghe Ilia

Abstract: The surface of TiO2 particles can be modified by phosphonic acids, this modification having several applications, like: photoelectrochemical cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO2, optical write-read-erase devices, enzymatic catalyses and plant growth regulator. Anchoring of organophosphorus derivatives on a titania surface is expected to involve both coordination of the phosphoryl oxygen to Lewis acid sites and condensation reactions between the surface hydroxyl groups Ti-OH and the P-OX and to lead to a strongly bind to the surface of transition metal oxides. This paper presents a theoretical study on grafting reactions of 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid of titanium oxide surface. Starting from experimental X-ray data of the rutile crystal, several possible complexes with 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid were built. The semiempirical PM6 quantum chemical approach was used in order to find out the way of anchoring the phosphonic moieties. The results thus obtained gave indications on the stability of the complex formation.

Key-Words: - computational methods, PM6, titania, 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid, grafting, quantum chemistry.

Title of the Paper:  Remotely Controlled Intelligent Vehicle To Handle Public Places Security


Authors: Abdel Latif Abu Dalhoum, Mohammed Al-Rawi, Ahmed Al-Sharieh, Ayman M. Najjar, Maen M. Najjar, S. Shayreh

Abstract: In this paper we propose a simple design and implementation of an intelligent robot that can be used to handle security breaches. Applications may include counter terrorism, handling pollution crises, monitoring for security purpose, etc. Ultrasound sensors, temperature sensors, GPS devices, and wireless cameras are mounted on the robot in order to give 360 degrees stereo vision and other environmental sensing. JPEG2000 image compression is used to enable efficient video streaming for views scanned by the cameras to the server that manages the Robot. The Robot is designed to work as a server based, and many authorized security personals can connect to the Robot in order to monitor public places such as malls, parking, etc.

Key-Words: Robotics, Jpeg2000, stereo vision, automation, Internet remote control.

Title of the Paper:  SCADA System for Monitoring Water Supply Networks


Authors: Mircea Dobriceanu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mihaela Popescu , Sorin Enache, Eugen Subtirelu

Abstract: - Water supply represents a vital problem for people, and this imposes the need to know the information regarding consumptions, resources and production. This implies a continuous supervision of the water supply process in order to allow any problem that could appear to be solved, and in the same time, to maintain normal functioning parameters. Proper solutions imply automation and monitoring architectures which contain: a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions (communication, adjusting, measuring, etc.) libraries, communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. The informatics systems present the possibility of preventing some phenomenon, by analyzing and processing the data, leading to an optimum functioning and to important financial economies. In this way, the paper presents a SCADA system for the monitoring and control of the technological parameters in the water distribution stations, which will allow the optimum functioning of the pumping system, safety and endurance growth in the equipments and installations exploring, and so obtaining efficient energy usage and optimum administration of the drinkable water.

Key-Words: - SCADA, data acquisition, analysis, monitoring, control, PLCs, data transmission.

Title of the Paper: Rescuing of Intelligence and Electronic Security Core Applications (RIESCA).


Authors: Rauno Pirinen, Jyri Rajamaki, Lili Aunimo

Abstract: There are number of systems, such as transport and logistic, power and telecommunication, hydropower and nuclear power stations; that are critical systems for the functioning of day-to-day life of the society in Finland. When assessing possible risks, it is only seldom taken into account that power, hydropower and nuclear power plants are critically dependent on the reliability and security of information systems. Information security is often enhanced by purchasing and extending technical solutions without considering any systematic planning and knowledge of how to protect the different segments of the system. In this case study, the risk is not only to investing of the information security resources to the wrong targets but also to take more risks. As the unplanned integration of systems and the related information security components may even create new security risks. As a result, systems that are critical for society may not work as they should. The Rescuing of Intelligence and Electronic Security Core Applications (RIESCA) project is targeted to do contributive and constructive solutions to this problem. The research object is produce information security and continuity management methods that can be used to ensure the proper functioning of critical systems under varying circumstances. Furthermore, it also leads to the development of an integrative action and environment for critical systems development, management and evaluation. This study: (1) describes the RIESCA project; (2) proposes enhanced data mining collection and analysis architecture model for criticalsystems evaluation; (3) includes Business Continuing Management (BCM) method creation perspective to context of critical systems and (4) describes the RIESCA action and process implementation model.

Key-Words: - Critical system, method development, critical infrastructure, security core application, critical process and societal security, data maining. 

Title of the Paper:  Electrochemistry Theorem Based State-of-Charge Estimation of the Lead Acid Batteries for Electric Vehicles.


Authors: Ying-Shing Shiao, Ding-Tsair Su, Jui-Liang Yang, Rong-Wen Hung

Abstract: A method for the estimation of the state-of-charge in lead-acid batteries for electric vehicles is investigated. The electrochemistry theorem is introduced to measure the resistance effect of the electrode reaction and to estimate the internal energy loss and the electrolyte specific gravity in batteries. The proposed algorithms can accuracy compute the state-of-charge of the lead-acid batteries, that the variations of the electrochemical resistance in the electrolyte concentrations are estimated for the state-of-charge. The approach is based on the idea of constructing the real time approach that can be implemented by a digital signal processor. The motivation of this work is to explore the problem of different procedures on the charged and discharged of the lead-acid batteries to obtain the variations in the charge-discharge and resistance profiles. The provided method shows that it is validated for estimation the capacitances and residue energies.

Key-Words: - State-of-charge, Lead-acid battery, Electric vehicles, Electrode reaction, Electrolyte specific gravity, Digital signal processor.

Title of the Paper:  Improvements in Dependability and Usability for a Substation Automation System with Redundancy


Authors: Hachidai Ito, Keiichi Kaneda, Koichi Hamamatsu, Tatsuji Tanaka, Koichi Nara

Abstract: Substation Automation Systems (SAS) are widely used for the purpose of control, protection, monitoring, communication etc. in substations to improve the reliability of the power supply. SASs adopting IT based solutions such as Ethernet LAN have recently become more common although hardwired control has been used in the past in earlier versions of SAS utilizing simple communication methods. Moreover, IEC 61850 which is the international standard for communications within substations has been published, and the application of SAS based on IEC 61850 is increasing. It is necessary to select each component and the configuration of the SAS from the viewpoint of dependability so that the dependability of the SAS, i.e. reliability, availability, and serviceability may have a very big impact in the stability of the power supply in the electric power transmission and distribution systems. In this paper, we will describe the configuration policy of an IEC 61850 based SAS, its actual system configuration and the redundant configuration to improve dependability. In addition, we will explain some of the new functions not currently covered by IEC 61850 that we have developed to improve usability and availability. Following which we will present an evaluation of the dependability for MTTF (Mean Time To Failure), Availability, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) for these configurations of SAS based on the dependability requirements for SAS. Furthermore, other measures have been adopted in the design to ensure fail-safe and fool-proof operation and thus improve system dependability in a much wider sense.

Key-Words: - SAS, Substation Automation System, IEC 61850, Reliability, Dependability, Availability, System Architecture, Redundant System. 


Title of the Paper:  Research on MPPT and Single-Stage Grid-Connected for Photovoltaic System.


Authors: Jui-Liang Yang, Ding-Tsair Su, Ying-Shing Shiao

Abstract: - This paper proposes a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system that is consisted of a boost converter with maximum power tracking, battery charge controller, inverter, and the related control circuits. A sliding mode controller is designed for controlling the boost converter to output the maximum power of the solar cells. A control strategy is proposed of a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) impendence adapter coupling a photovoltaic generator to a battery. The proposed strategy is based on the sliding mode control theory of continuing systems to permit a direct control of power converter. The PV generator price is even relatively high, so the user is interested of the optimal coupling of PV generator to electromechanical loads. In fact, this system uses the optimal coupling in order to have maximum power during the whole operating period. A grid-connected inverter is designed to transform the maximum output power into the load and utility. The real power control is using zero-cross and phase-lock circuits that control the inverter output voltage which is phase lead and synchronized with the utility. A digital circuit is used to detect the phase angles of the load voltage and current to control the inverter output amplitude to achieve the reactive power load compensation. A monitor circuit is designed to detect the voltage and frequency variation in the utility. When the photovoltaic system encounters a voltage and frequency deviation, the monitor circuit immediately disconnects the photovoltaic system from the utility to prevent the island effect. The proposed system is implemented by using OP amplifiers and micro controller (PIC16F877A). Both the simulation and experimental results using MATLAB show the sliding mode controller for maximum power tracking has good performance. The phase and amplitude control experiments achieve the real and reactive power control. The island effect experiments demonstrate evidence of the solar cell system protection ability illustrating the proposed grid-connected photovoltaic system has good operating performance.

Key-Words: - MPPT, Sliding mode control, Battery charger, Lyapunov function, Boost converter. 

Title of the Paper:   Simulation of the Flicker Phenomenon based on Modeling the Electric Arc


Authors: Manuela Panoiu, Caius Panoiu, Ioan Sora, Raluca Rob

Abstract: - The Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is a very large power load, determining the negative effects on the power quality like flicker effect, harmonics currents, and reactive power. These effects are due to the nonlinear characteristic of the electric arc. In this paper is made a study based on simulation about flicker effect caused by Ultra High Power Electric Arc Furnaces (UHP-EAF). For simulation it was use two electric arc models, depending on the nonlinearity of the electric arc. The models are implementing in PSCAD EMTDC simulation program, a program dedicated to power systems. The simulation results are comparing with measurements made in an industrial plant in Romania.

Key-Words: - Simulation and modeling, power quality, flicker, harmonics, inter harmonics. 

Title of the Paper:   A Real-Time Identification Method of Slow Process Parameters Using Adaptive IIR-OSLMS Filters


Authors: Caius Panoiu, Manuela Panoiu, Liviu Toma, Raluca Rob

Abstract: - This paper present a real time identification of the parameters value of a slow process using adaptive IIR-OSLMS filters. This kind of process can be assimilating to a time constant and a delayed time. To ensure the convergence of the adaptive algorithm the initial values of the parameters can be compute using an on-line identification method. The measured temperature is affected by noise, so it was used a ALMS filter to reject the noise.

Key-Words: - Adaptive algorithm, slow process, identification method, noise cancellation, numeric filter.

Title of the Paper:   The System Approach to Revenues of the Czech Municipalities and Decision Making Process in Distribution of Grants


Authors: Kasparova Miloslava, Sockelova Iveta

Abstract: This paper deals with the system approach to grant and tax revenues of the Czech municipalities and shows a use of multiple criteria decision making method in order to a distribution regional grants. Firstly it focuses on public administration system, describing of tax revenues, grants, and situation in the Czech Republic and shows a process of grant realization and creation of design of grant criteria objectification model. The part of this paper contents also an application of AHP method in defined problem.

Key-words: System, system approach, public administration, revenues, AHP, decision making.

Title of the Paper:   Application of Decision Trees in Problem of Air Quality Modeling in the Czech Republic Locality


Authors:  Kasparova Miloslava, Krupka Jiri, Jirava Pavel

Abstract: Air pollution belongs to environmental threats. This paper deals with an application of selected algorithms used in decision trees in order to an air quality modelling. We focused on daily observations of air polluting substances concentrations in one of the cities in the Pardubice region in the Czech Republic. After data collection, data description, and data preprocessing, we worked on the creation of classification models and the analysis of the achieved results. As modeling algorithms we selected C5.0 algorithm, boosting, CHAID method and CR&T. Differences of results were minimal.

Key-words: Classification model, air pollution, air quality, algorithm, daily observations, Czech Republic


Title of the Paper:   Application of Business Intelligence Methods for Personalizing Tourist Services


Authors: Alberto Salguero, Francisco Araque, Cecilia Delgado

Abstract: The tourist web sites usually provide static information which can be accessed by mean of some kind of search/filter forms. The next step in the evolution of this services is to include some kind of Decision Support System which easy the task of finding what the user is looking for. In this paper we describe a system capable of generating the routes which better fits the user characteristics and preferences. The system uses a clustering/classification process for selecting the most interesting locations to visit according to the list of most historically visited locations included by similar tourist in their travels. Once determined the points of interest the system performs a process for selecting the most adequate routes connecting those points, taking into account the tourist characteristics and the knowledge about the location to visit.

Keywords: Tourism, personalization, data warehouse, clustering, classification.

Title of the Paper:   A Generalized Profile Function Model Based on Artificial Intelligence


Authors: Pero Radonja, Srdjan Stankovic, Dragana Drazic

Abstract - A generalized profile function model (GPFM) provides an approximation of individual profile functions of the objects (trees) in a region. It is shown in this paper that this generalized model can be successfully derived using artificial computational intelligence, that is, neural networks. The generalized model (GPFM) is obtained as a mean value of all the available normalized individual profile functions. Generation of GPFM is performed by using the basic dataset, and verification is done by using a validation data set. As an example of the application of the proposed GSPM in volume computing, 42 objects from the same region are considered. Statistical properties of the original, measured data and estimated data based on the generalized model are presented and compared. Testing of the obtained GPFM is performed also by regression analysis. The obtained correlation coefficients between the real data and the estimated data are very high, 0.9946 for the basic data set and 0.9933 for the validation dataset.

Key Words: - Profile function, Generalized model, Neural networks, Histogram, Scatter plot.

Title of the Paper:   The Learning Opportunities of Social Bookmarking Service: An Example of FunP


Authors: Pero Eric Zhi Feng Liu, Yu Fang Chang

Abstract: - Social bookmarking via a web-based system enables students to manage their bookmarks, share their bookmarks with other students on the Internet (inside and outside classroom). This study discussed the feasibility of the integration of learning theories and social bookmarking service through some cases. The possible aims of social bookmarking service emphasize the use of web 2.0 technology in learning; the collection, and sharing of information; discussions with peers; and construction of learning communities. In this study, we have illustrated the social bookmarking service and the possible learning opportunities successfully. Further study should examine the effectiveness of social bookmarking service in different fields, forms of learning (e.g., alone or group), tasks (e.g., structured or ill-structured), forms of evaluation (e.g., summative or formative), and forms of community (e.g., community of practice or community of knowledge creation).

Key-Words: - Social bookmarking, Web 2.0, Learning, Information technology, Learning community

Issue 11, Volume 7, November 2008

Title of the Paper: Parameter Estimation of Frequency Response Twin-Screw Food Extrusion Process using Genetic Algorithms


Authors: Anant Oonsivilai, Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai

Abstract: Autonomic control of food extruders has attracted considerable in recent years. With limited understanding of the complex physio-chemical interactions during the food extrusion process, designing a control system for food extruder is not easy. The common approach is to determine the operating conditions and then to maintain these values as closely as possible using various control loops, if not manual control. This paper applies genetic algorithms to achieve the parameters of the twin-screw food extrusion process. The genetic algorithms are very suitable for searching discrete, noisy, multimodal and complex space. The sum of square error on magnitude and phase of the twin screw food extrusion process is minimize and receiving outstanding in shape the measured system extracted from the frequency response analysis of the food extrusion process. As recognized, exploitation of the optimization based on Genetic Algorithms gives advanced results.

Keywords: Parameter Estimation, Genetic Algorithms, Food, Extrusion Process, Frequency Response

Title of the Paper: Aerosol Size Distribution using Lidar Data and a Typical Lidar Assembly


Authors: Hamed Parsiani, Javier Mendez

Abstract: An algorithm is developed and detailed in this paper which determines atmospheric aerosol parameters such as backscatter and extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, and the aerosol size distribution. The algorithm uses the power profile data obtained from Lidar at the City University of New York (CUNY). The aerosol optical thickness at 20 km range has been validated using a Sun-photometer. The assembly of a typical Lidar system capable of providing the power profile at three standard wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm is elaborated upon, by actually detailing the Lidar system under construction at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, as one of several Lidars to be established in the Caribbean.

Keywords: Remote sensing, LIDAR system, Aerosol Optical Depth, Aerosol Size Distribution

Title of the Paper: Energy Distribution Modeling of Car Body Deformation Using LPV Representations and Fuzzy Reasoning


Authors: Istvan A. Harmati, Andras Rovid, Laszlo Szeidl, Peter Varlaki

Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to introduce a novel method – based on fuzzy control and linear parameter varying (LPV) system representation transformable into HOSVD based Canonical form – for modeling deformation processes with respect to the distribution of the absorbed kinetic energy. Modeling such kind of processes requires many uncertain input parameters. Using the proposed concept we are able to handle them and keep the complexity of the models low by using higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) technique.

Keywords: Car crash, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, LPV model, HOSVD, Canonical form

Title of the Paper: Partial Discharge Diagnosis on GIS Based on Envelope Detection


Authors: Li Li-Xue, Huang Cheng-Jun, Zeng Yi, Jiang Xiu-Chen

Abstract: In order to detect and identify the defects on GIS, the ultra-high frequency envelope detection circuit and high-speed data acquisition system was designed, and the tests of five typical defects for GIS were made in the laboratory and the envelope signal was acquired based on Ultra-high frequency (UHF) envelop detection circuit. And wavelet denoising technique was used to reduce the white noise of the measurement envelop signal. A large number of experiments show that time-domain characteristics of partial discharge signals generated by the same defect model are about the same, envelopes are nearly identical too. The time-domain characteristics of partial discharge signals generated by different defect models are different, and their envelope shapes are different too. A new method of pattern recognition was proposed which analyses the characteristic parameters of the envelope signal at time-domain with BP neural network. A large number of test data in Lab indicate that the method is effective.

Keywords: GIS, partial discharge, pattern recognition, UHF, envelop detection, BP neural network

Title of the Paper: Mathematical Modelling of Processes of Reject Water Treatment in Moving Bed Bioreactor


Authors: Viola Somogyi, Bence Fazekas, Endre Domokos, Akos Redey

Abstract: Efficient treatment of reject water originating from sludge digestion process was achieved by implementing a moving bed bioreactor. Since the ongoing processes in the reactor were unclear, model development was chosen in order to map them. To describe biofilm processes a newly presented zero-dimensional biofilm model [27] was chosen. Simulation data in the study of Plattes et al. [28] were promising for municipal wastewater but it did not meet the expectations in case of wastewater with high ammonia content. Therefore four step nitrogen removal was implemented in the 0D biofilm model. Steady-state simulation showed that processes over nitrite were of great importance in the system. The results also indicated that to a certain degree ANAMMOX (anaerobic ammonia oxidation) reaction took place as well. The special structure of the moving bed bioreactor with protected microorganism colonies was assumed to be the reason for that.

Keywords: Reject water, nitrogen removal, MBBR, steady-state simulation, ANAMMOX

Title of the Paper: Controller Design of a New Active Front Steering System


Authors: Deling Chen, Chengling Yin, Jianwu Zhang

Abstract: An AFS (active front steering) on the basic of a C-EPS (column electric power steering) system was developed. Based on the mathematical model of essential components, the AFS controller was designed covering two units: an EPS actuator unit was used to reduce the steering torque requirement to the driver; an AFS actuator unit was used to compensate the steering angle for steering characteristics and vehicle stability. In contrast to the conventional stability control, both the sideslip angle and the yaw rate were fed back to this AFS controller and the stability performance has been optimized with LQR (linear quadratic regulator). In addition, tire stiffness uncertainties have been taken account in the LQR controller to provide the control robustness. Finally, HILS (Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation) tests were conducted to demonstrate the performance of the designed AFS controller. Experiment indicates that the proposed AFS system can improve vehicle stability and compensate the steering reaction torque effectively.

Keywords: Active front steering (AFS), Electric power steering (EPS), Linear quadratic regulator (LQR), Sideslip angle, Yaw rate, Vehicle stability

Title of the Paper: Novel Driving Method For BLDCM From Standstill to High Speeds


Authors: Wang Hua-Bin, Liu He-Ping

Abstract: A novel approach is proposed which can drive an interior permanent magnet (IPM) brushless DC motor (BLDCM) smoothly from standstill to high speeds without position or speed sensors. At standstill, initial rotor position is estimated by using the inductance variation due to the magnet position. In rotating condition, indirect inductance method was implemented for BLDCM with H_PWM-L_PWM modulation scheme at very low speeds; When the motor speed is beyond a certain speed where the back EMF is enough, the sensorless algorithm for rotor position detection is switched to the back EMF method to drive the IPM BLDCM with H_PWM-L_ON modulation scheme. The validity of the proposed method is verified through Experimental results.

Keywords: Interior Permanent Magnet , Brushless DC motor, Back EMF method, Indirect Inductance Method, Sensorless

Title of the Paper: Upgrade of Signaling System on the Rapid Transit Systems


Authors: Ying-Tung Hsiao, Kuang-Chieh Lin

Abstract: In this paper, discuss the upgrade system for an old type and extend to new line system of signaling at Taipei Rapid Transit Systems (RTS). Since the track circuits of fixed block are utilized the frequency loops and audio frequency track circuits of train position detected on the automatic train protect system. At present, Neihu line is the new extension construction of Muzha line, due to the new singling system as Communication Based on Train Control (CBTC) has use the new system and upgrade with revenues service system on the Muzha line. How do check and integration between old and new type systems to combination and compatible for the train running of Automatic Train Control (ATC) system shall importance issue. The CBTC system is used the simply construction technology with application to upgrade at Metro systems. In theme also comparison between fixed blocks and moving blocks circuits for conception of design in the Taipei RTS, and study of CBTC system technology manipulate on the system upgrade.

Keywords: CBTC, moving block, intelligent transportation, intelligent vehicle, signaling

Title of the Paper: Criterion in Selecting the Clustering Algorithm in Radial Basis Functional Link Nets


Authors: Ang Sau Loong, Ong Hong Choon, Low Heng Chin

Abstract: K-means and k-median clustering algorithms can help in the selection of centres for the Radial Basis Functional Link Nets. Radial Basis Functional Link Nets is used to classify the data. In this paper, we will show the importance of knowing the skewness of the data in deciding to choose between k-means or kmedian clustering algorithm in finding the centre of Radial Basis Functional Link Nets and we will also show that this initial selection criterion will result in the improvement of efficiency in terms of speed and accuracy in data classification. Two sets of real data are used to demonstrate our results.

Keywords: Radial Basis Functional Link Nets, Radial Basis Function Network, k-means, k-median, clustering, skewness

Title of the Paper: The Analysis on the L-index based Optimal Power Flow Considering Voltage Stability Constraints


Authors: Hailun Huang, Yigang Kong, Jian Zhang

Abstract: In the environment of electricity markets, power systems are operated nearer against the voltage stability limit than before. For this reason, this paper presents a novel optimal power flow (OPF) formulation containing voltage stability constraints. By adopting the L index function that can reflect stability margin from the collapse point as voltage stability constraints, this model can obtain the demanded voltage security level by adjusting the upper limits of these constraints. So its optimal solution can satisfy the security and economical demand of power systems simultaneously. At the same time, the primal-dual interior point method (IPM) based on the perturbed Karush-Kuhn- Tucker (KKT) conditions is proposed to solve this problem. Simulation results on five test systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented OPF model with voltage stability constraints, and the proposed computation approach has good convergence.

Keywords: Optimal power flow, Voltage stability, L index, Primal-dual interior point method

Title of the Paper: A Novel Fast Kolmogorov's Spline Complex Network for Pattern Detection


Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new fast specific complex-valued neural network, the fast Kolmogorov’s Spline Complex Network (FKSCN), which might be advantageous especially in various tasks of pattern recognition. The proposed FKSCN uses cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the FKSCN is less than that needed by conventional Kolmogorov’s Spline Complex Network (CKSCN). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Kolmogorov’s Spline Complex Network, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domian, Pattern Detection, Neural Networks, Modeling of Time-Variant Multidimensional Data.

Title of the Paper: A Correlation Factor Based Islanding Detection Method for Distributed Synchronous Generators


Authors: Wen-Yeau Chang

Abstract: This paper proposes a new correlation factor based islanding detection method for use of gridconnected distributed synchronous generator. The proposed correlation factor method is based on voltage fluctuation injection, which can be obtained through regulating the field current of the distributed synchronous generator periodically. The correlation factor between the periodic regulating signal and the perturbed voltage is then used as an islanding detection index. When distributed synchronous generator is grid-interconnected, the correlation factor is lower than a threshold value. In contrast, as an islanding occurs, the correlation factor would become much higher than the threshold value. In this paper, experiments are conducted to illustrate the principles of the proposed technique. The test results show that the new proposed method is reliable, economical, and easy for implementation for islanding detection of distributed synchronous generator.

Keywords: Islanding detection, Distributed synchronous generator, Voltage fluctuation injection, Periodic field current regulation, Correlation factor

Title of the Paper: Model of Optimal Paths Design for GMPLS Network and Evaluation of Solution


Authors: Teruji Sekozawa, Takashi Fukumoto

Abstract: We describe an optimal path design for a GMPLS network that employs the Lagrangian relaxation method, which can be used to estimate the lower bounds of a solution to a problem. This feature assists the designer of the problem to consider the accuracy of the solution obtained by the calculation when deciding whether to assign the solution to a real network in critical situations. A formulation of the problem and how to solve it using the Lagrangian relaxation method is described, and the results obtained by a prototype and considerations are shown in this paper.

Keywords: Optimal path design, GMPLS, Lagrangian relaxation, Heuristic algorithm, Simulation, Lower bound, Practical approximate solution, Emergencies

Title of the Paper: A Method for Estimating Transformer Temperatures and Elapsed Lives Considering Operation Loads


Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Hong-Chan Chang, Hung-Cheng Chen

Abstract: A simplified temperature model is presented to substitute for the traditional temperature measurement. First, the temperature model of a transformer, based on IEEE std. C57.91, is briefly reviewed and then a load assumption is proposed to simplify the temperature formula. Second, a test case from the appendix of IEEE C57.91 is used to indicate that the measured and calculated temperatures are nearly the same using the proposed method. Finally, error analysis illustrates that the simplified models can be an alternative way to calculate the transformer temperatures and the transformer elapsed life.

Keywords: Temperature model, measurement and calculation temperatures, elapsed life

Title of the Paper: Robustness in Liquid Transfer Vehicles with Delayed Resonators


Authors: M. P. Tzamtzi, F. N. Koumboulis, N. D. Kouvakas, M. G. Skarpetis

Abstract: In the present paper, the dynamic model of a liquid transfer vehicle with delayed resonators is modified to take into account simultaneous wear to the front and rear springs. This failure is mathematically formulated as increase to the spring constant with simultaneous decrease to the damping factor. A sloshing suppression control scheme, whose parameters are evaluated using a metaheuristic approach, designed knowing only the nominal values of the resonator parameters while considering their real values to be unknown, is applied to the real system. Then, the sets of resonator parameters where the feedback control law produces satisfactory results are determined, thus verifying robustness of the proposed control scheme.

Keywords: Robustness analysis, liquid transfer, delay resonators, spring wear

Issue 12, Volume 7, December 2008

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Distribution Line Spacers Located Near the Coast


Authors: Walter Pinheiro, Arnaldo G. Kanashiro, Geraldo F. Burani

Abstract: An excellent option to the utilities has been the utilisation of covered cable fixed to the insulator or to the line spacer. However, distribution lines located near the coast are often exposed to marine pollution and then the superficial resistance of the polymeric material can be reduced and leakage current can flow on the polymeric surface. This paper shows the results of investigation considering covered cable and line spacers. By testing the polymeric material, the behaviour of the leakage current and the evolution of degradation were analysed, aiming the on-line monitoring of the leakage current of line spacers.

Keywords: Covered cable, degradation, erosion, leakage current, line spacers, pollution, tracking

Title of the Paper: Non Uniform Noisy Data Training using Wavelet Neural Network based on Sampling Theory


Authors: Ehsan Hossaini Asl, Mehdi Shahbazian, Karim Salahshoor

Abstract: Global convergence and overfitting are the main problem in neural network training. One of the new methods to overcome these problems is sampling theory that is applied in training of wavelet neural network. In this paper this new method is improved for training of wavelet neural network in non uniform and noisy data. The improvements include suggesting a method for finding the appropriate feedback matrix, addition of early stopping and wavelet thresholding to training procedure. Two experiments are conducted for one and two dimensional function. The results establish a satisfied performance of this algorithm in reduction of generalization error, reduction the complexity of wavelet neural network and mainly avoiding overfitting.

Keywords: Wavelet neural network, sampling theory, overfitting, early stopping, feedback matrix, wavelet thresholding, non uniform data

Title of the Paper: Research on the MPCG Algorithm applied in the Three Dimensional Electric Field Calculation of SF6 Circuit Breaker in Three-Phase-in-One-Tank GIS


Authors: Ma Ai-Qing, Jiang Xiu-Chen, Zeng Yi

Abstract: With the structure miniaturization of SF6 Circuit Breaker in three-phase-in-one-tank GIS, improvement of internal structure design and layout should be taken into account to balance the electric field intensity distribution among phases. By calculating the three-dimensional electric field intensity distribution in GIS with FEM to guide and optimize its internal structure will improve the electric field intensity distribution status among each phase or whole field domain and can avoid insulated medium breakdown due to excessiveness of local electric field intensity. Based on the character of the complex structure of the SF6 circuit breaker in three-phase-in-one-tank GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear), the modified preconditioned conjugate gradient (MPCG) algorithm applied to solve multi-nodes and multi-elements large sparse real positive defined symmetric matrix is analyzed. The program diagram of MPCG algorithm is also proposed. According to the sparse symmetric character of coefficient matrix, the method of storing coefficient matrix effectively and rapidly is studied and new data structure is adopted. The finite element calculation mathematical model and physical equations of SF6 circuit breaker are founded in this paper. The large sparse matrix is solved by using the MPCG algorithm. The electric field intensity and potential distribution is calculated under power frequency voltage and their corresponding cutaway charts and planforms are given. They can provide a useful design parameter for designing the circuit breaker optimum configuration in GIS.

Keywords: MPCG (Modified Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient), Electric field calculation, Three dimensional, Three-phase-in-one-tank, GIS(gas insulated switchgear), Circuit breaker, Finite element method, Sparse matrix

Title of the Paper: A New Method Based on Extension Theory for Partial Discharge Pattern Recognition


Authors: Hung-Cheng Chen, Feng-Chang Gu, Chun-Yao Lee

Abstract: This paper proposes a new partial discharge (PD) pattern recognition method base on the extension theory. First, five types of defect models are well-designed on the base of investigation of many power equipment failures. A commercial PD detector is used to measure the three-dimension (3D) PD patterns, then two fractal features (fractal dimension and lacunarity) and mean discharges of phase windows are extracted from the raw 3D PD patterns. Second, the matter-element models of the PD defect types are built according to the PD features derived from practical experimental results. The PD defect type can be directly identified by correlation degrees between the tested pattern and the matter-element models. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, comparative studies using a multilayer neural network (MNN) are conducted on 200 sets of field-test PD patterns with rather encouraging results.

Keywords: Extension Theory, Partial Discharge, Pattern Recognition

Title of the Paper: Solving Terminal Allocation Problem Using Simulated Annealing Arithmetic


Authors: Zengnian Zhang, Xudong Ke

Abstract: Due to the tremendous growth in telecommunications network, a large variety of combinatorial optimization problems have aroused people's enormous interest. In those problems, the terminal allocation attracts people's attention most. In this paper, we focus on studying the capability of Simulated Annealing Arithmetic for optimizing the terminal allocation problems in communications network. They take advantage of the best characteristic of the two effective scheduling strategies Round Robin and Shortest Distance based on local information at the terminal in the communications network. The effectiveness of the Simulated Annealing Arithmetic, where some cooling strategies are used, is passed judgment by comparing system performance under different terminal allocation algorithms including Round Robin and Short Distance. Experimental results show that the proposed Simulated Annealing Arithmetic provides an optimized combinatorial solution, therefore increase the whole throughput of the communications network system.

Keywords: Terminal Allocation, Simulated Annealing Arithmetic, Communications Network System

Title of the Paper: Research on the Model of Ship Parametrical-Highly Excitation Nonlinear Dynamics System


Authors: Zunyi Wang, Ligang Lu

Abstract: Chaotic and periodic motion of ship parametrical- highly excitation rolling dynamics system is researched by qualitative analysis method. Firstly, approximately harmonic solution is gained by researching the system model’s harmonic solution bifurcation with the theorem of Poincare. Secondly, approximately sub-harmonic solution is gained by researching system’s sub-harmonic solution bifurcation. Lastly, chaotic motion performance of dynamics system is talked by function.

Keywords: Nonlinear differential equation, harmonic solution, chaos

Title of the Paper: Realization of Distributed Remote Laboratory and Remote Debug Software for Embedded System


Authors: Yin Wei-Feng, Sun Rong-Gao, Wan Zhong

Abstract: Remote laboratories are becoming widely accepted in universities for providing distance education and for augmenting traditional laboratories. In this paper, A remote laboratory for embedded system is presented, where students at remote sites can perform actual experiments using actual hardware equipment and tools concurrently. Distributed architecture is presented using Web Services technique to share laboratories resource for multi-user. A design of ARM debugging interface based on JTAG is given. This debugging interface has been used for remote debugging to build embedded system remote laboratory. A Integrated learning environment for remote experimentation for embedded system is provided for convenient learning by students self.

Keywords: Virtual Laboratory, Remote Laboratory, Embedded System, Web Services, JTAG debug

Title of the Paper: An Adaptive Personalized E-learning Model Based on Agent Technology


Authors: Zhen Liu, Yuying Liu

Abstract: Due to overall popularity of the Internet, E-learning has become a lot methods of learning in recent years. Through the Internet, learners can freely absorb new knowledge without the restriction of time and place. Based on individual difference of learner’s abilities and preferred learning styles in hypermedia environment, the learning outcomes vary essentially. Meanwhile, with the development of E-learning technologies, learners can be provided more effective learning environment to optimize their learning. Adaptive E-learning systems are built to personalize and adapt E-learning content, pedagogical models, and interactions between participants in the environment to meet the individual needs and preferences of users if and when they arise. In our paper, we first explain the grid agent E-learning model, whose main actions including registry, directory and discovery. Through these actions, the manager’s agent will find out the suitable learning services. Secondly, to implement the adaptability of the grid agent model, the method of Artificial Psychology and how to realize adaptive personalized E-learning by this method so that are the student’s agent can employ the learning material matched to their own personality type are also emphasized. The experiment data also supported our assumption that the learners may perform better if they use our adaptive grid agent model.

Keywords: Personalization System, Adaptive System, E-learning, Grid Agent, Artificial Psychology

Title of the Paper: Fingerprint Singular Point Detection Algorithm by Poincare Index


Authors: Jin Bo, Tang Hua Ping, Xu Ming Lan

Abstract: Fingerprint indexing is an efficient technique that greatly improves the performance of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems. We propose a continuous fingerprint indexing method based on location, direction estimation and correlation of fingerprint singular points. There have been many approaches introduced in the design of feature extraction. Based on orientation field, Firstly, we divide it into blocks to compute the Poincare Index. Then, the blocks which may have singularities are detected in the block images. Experiment show the present algorithm is robust than the traditional method on poor quality images.

Keywords: Fingerprint Core Delta Point Orientation Poincare Index

Title of the Paper: Formal Development of a Washing Machine Controller Model Based on Formal Design Patterns


Authors: Xin Ben Li, Feng Xia Zhao

Abstract: Formal methods approach to software construction can significantly increase the reliability and correctness of the resulting software. Formal methods users are given sophisticated languages and tools for constructing software models, but they often lack some systematic methodological measures to help. Formal design patterns can help formal methods users speed up the development process by re-using and incorporating some pre-defined proved and refined models, as design patterns do in object-oriented software. Some formal design patterns are presented and applied to the development of a washing machine controller model in Event-B that is a formal method for modeling and reasoning about complex discrete system.

Keywords: Formal methods, Event-B, Design Patterns, Washing Machine Controller

Title of the Paper: Research and Design of Test Question Database Management System Based on the Three-Tier Structure


Authors: Aimin Yang, Junping Wu, Lixia Wang

Abstract: With the further development of computer and network technology, the test question database on the network has been gradually applied in schools and universities, which positively reduces the work volume of teachers and demonstrates a proper way to test students. This paper will introduce a design method of test question database management system based on the three-tier B/S structure, analyze the features of the test question database structure, and expatiate the grouping algorithmic calculation focusing on the main control parameters of knowledge points and question type data. The application of this system not only improves the work efficiency of teachers, but also positively boosts the teaching reform.

Keywords: ASP.NET, B/S, Test Paper, Three-Tier Architecture, ADO.NET, XML, C/S

Title of the Paper: New Method of Image Retrieval Using Fractal Code on the Compression Domain


Authors: Liangbin Zhang, Yi Wang, Lifeng Xi, Kun Gao, Tianyun Hu

Abstract: Image retrieval and indexing techniques are important for efficient management of visual database. Many techniques are generally developed based on the associated compression domain. In the fractal domain, a fractal code is a contractive affine mapping that represents a similarity relation between the range block and the domain block in an image. A new algorithm of IFS fractal code for image retrieval on the compression domain is presented in this paper. First,the inquired image and each image in the database are encoded by Jacquin fractal coding. Second, the image fractal feature vector and the distance of fractal code between two images are defined, and the distance between the inquired image and current image in the database are computed one by one. Finally, the preceding n frame images which are the smallest distance sum of fractal code are taken as the retrieval result. Experimental results show that compared with the direct image pixels similar matching strategy, our scheme shortens the retrieval time of compression domain greatly and guarantees the retrieval accuracy. Our proposed method is effective and feasible.

Keywords: Fractal code, Iterated function system, Image retrieval, Compression domain

Title of the Paper: The Business Process Model for IT Service Management


Authors: Chen Zhao, Fei Gao

Abstract: The article primary deals with IT Service Management (ITSM) and IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), as a process based method. Providing IT services with better, guaranteed quality has been the aim of many diverse efforts, undertaken under the common denominator ITSM. To develop an architecture for information technology service management and design integrated solutions, it is necessary to establish a common framework for delivering IT services. The model is a framework for organizing the assets that constitute an ITSM design. Using this framework, an organization can document the available set of IT services offered and understand how they are composed from finer-grained services delivered by internal or external providers. This processing model can be used by management software vendors to describe the capabilities of their ITSM offerings and to align those with the needs of different customers. An introduction to the terminology and icons used in the Business Process Model are applied in Enterprise Architect's Business Process Model.

Keywords: ITSM, Process Model, Framework, ITIL, UML

Title of the Paper: Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map for System Control


Authors: Lin Chun-Mei

Abstract: Fuzzy cognitive map is a powerful modeling tool. It has several desirable properties on control. In this paper, we utilize the feature and the inference mechanism of fuzzy cognitive map, and present a control method, which study combines control theory with fuzzy cognitive map theory. The causal relationship of variables is constructed by online learning or offline learning, the values of control variables are given by the inference of FCM model, and the control variables are used to adjust the value of controlled variables in actual process and carries out the control of multi-input and multi-out.

Keywords: Fuzzy cognitive map, system control, system modeling, control framework

Title of the Paper: Partitioning Study of Complex System


Authors: He Yue, Lin Chun-Mei

Abstract: Whether the design of knowledge base or the modeling of complex systems, when systems are characterized as complex systems with high dimension and a variety of variables and factors, to reduce complexity are necessary. Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) are a soft computing method for simulation and analysis of complex system, which combines the fuzzy logic with theories of neural networks. It is flexible in system design, model and control, the comprehensive operation and the abstractive representation of behavior for complex systems. When the complexity of the system, the application and maintenance of FCM become more difficult, in particular, the inference is difficult to achieve and not even gets the results. Therefore we present to partition the complex fuzzy cognitive map into smaller chunks based on genetic algorithm in this paper. We construct partitioning rules and criticize rules. Finally, an illustrative example is provided, and its results suggest that the method is capable of partitioning fuzzy cognitive map.

Keywords: Fuzzy cognitive maps, complex system, genetic algorithm, partitioning, modeling

Title of the Paper: The Structure and Essential Characteristics of Information-Literate Knowledge Workers in Information Systems


Authors: Sufen Wang, Junkang Feng, Ping Cang

Abstract: There appear many inconsistent and often conflicting views and terms for information, data and meaning in the field of information systems. This confusion might be a result of the lack of adequate understanding of meaning. We argue that meaning is created through interpretation by a subject (a human agent). We outline a conceptual framework for looking at information flow, which consists of an information source, information bears (carriers), and information receivers. This constitutes a backdrop of our main investigation on how what a piece of information means to a person takes place. We draw on Heidegger’s work on the notion of ‘being’ to investigate the structure and essential characteristics of information-literate knowledge worker in the realization of possible impact of information whereby to understand the essence of inter-subjective and subjective meaning. We observe that meaning is the link between information and data. To be able to drawing meaning from information embodies the ability of an interpreter in understanding or interpret information, viz. her/his horizon of interpret. What is revealed here would seem highly desirable for both theoretic research and practice.

Keywords: Information-literate knowledge workers, information systems, information, meaning, Heidegger


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