WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 8, 2009
ISSN: 1109-2777
E-ISSN: 2224-2678








Issue 1, Volume 8, January 2009

Title of the Paper:  Analysis of Electromagnetic Pollution Produced by Line Frequency Coreless Induction Furnaces


Authors: Angela Iagar, Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Ioan Sora

Abstract: This paper presents the electromagnetic pollution produced by the line frequency coreless induction furnaces in the power supply network. We analyzed a furnace with 12.5 t capacity of cast-iron. The measurements have been made in the secondary of the furnace transformer, using the CA8334 three-phase power quality analyser. Experimental results emphasized the presence of harmonics and interharmonics in the phase voltages and harmonics in the currents absorbed from the network. The operation of analyzed furnace also produces unbalance. Further to the harmonic analysis of the signals measured in the furnace installation, we have been proposed some optimization methods for its operation, in such way to comply with the European norms of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).

Keywords: Harmonics, Unbalance, Power quality measurement, Induction furnace

Title of the Paper:  Hierarchical Model of a Systolic Array for Solving Differential Equations Implemented as an Upgraded Petri Net


Authors: Perica Strbac, Milan Tuba, Dana Simian

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop a hierarchical model of a systolic array which solves differential equations by using Upgraded Petri Net (UPN). The Upgraded Petri Net presents a formal modeling tool, based on mathematical apparatus, used for simulation and analysis of processes, particularly at the register transfer level. Original software for modeling and simulations of Upgraded Petri Nets, PeM (Petri Net Manager), is developed and used for all models described in this paper. This software supports: UPN formal theory, graphical modeling, simulation and analysis of an UPN model. This paper includes a preface on the UPN theory, the UPN models formulation, the UPN models of a processing element of a systolic array which solves differential equation, their simulation and analysis. The first hierarchical level refers to the high level systolic array modeling. This model shows processing elements that calculate or pass their input to the output. Thus, the next processing element uses the results from the previous one. The second level model is more detailed and refers to a single processing element. This model is capable to generate solution of a differential equation through UPN execution based on Taylor’s method. This execution is based on parralel firing of a group of transitions. The results are stored into a *.mem file inside the PeM. The suitability of UPN for modelling of the systems at different levels of abstraction is examined and established.

Keywords: Upgraded Petri Net, Systolic Architecture, Modeling

Title of the Paper:  Minimal Realization Algorithm for Multidimensional Hybrid Systems


Authors: Valeriu Prepelita

Abstract: A class of multidimensional time-invariant hybrid systems is studied, which depends on q continuoustime variables and on r discrete-time ones. The formula of the input-output map of these systems is given. A multiple (q; r)-hybrid Laplace transformation is defined and it is used to determine the transfer matrices of the considered systems. The minimal realization problem is analysed and an algorithm is given which provides minimal realizations.

Keywords: Multidimensional hybrid systems, multiple hybrid Laplace transformation, minimal realization, controllability, reachability, time-invariant systems

Title of the Paper:  Mathematical Modeling and Simulation in Matlab/Simulink of Processes from Iron Ore Sintering Plants


Authors: Corina Maria Dinis, Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Angela Iagar

Abstract: This work presents the mathematic models of the basic processes from an iron ore processing plant. Based on the mathematic models, using the Matlab/Simulink platform, it was achieved the simulation of the dosing process and simulation of the sintering process. The achieved mathematic model allows the determination of the material flows in the charge at their chemical composition variation, or at the variation of the reference values of the parameters S, I, r0, c0. Further the simulation, there are obtained the time-variations of the optimal speed for the sintering machine at different distributions of iron ore’s temperatures on the sintering band.

Keywords: Sintering process, Sintering plant, Iron ores, Charge, Agglomerate, Sintering machine, Modeling, Simulation, Simulink

Title of the Paper:  A Genetic Algorithms Programming Application in Natural Cheese Products


Authors: Anant Oonsivilai, Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai

Abstract: Application of genetic algorithms to attain the parameters of the processed cheese products is used in this paper. As in the recent years, model integrates cheese manufacturing has had considerable appeal. The economical evaluation of standaized milk for cheese making is established, thus an objective is given; to make the profit of the natural chesse. Genetic algorithms are highly eligible for investigation of multimodal space of discreteness, noisiness and complexity. Majority of Genetic Algorithms (GA) modifications to solve problematic optimization issues, find some mathematical support to the GA. Explotation of Genetic Algorithms modified optimization give advanced results as recognized.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, Natural Cheese, Process, Optimization, Economic, Profit

Title of the Paper:  Automatic Generation of Explanation for Expert Systems implemented with Different Knowledge Representations


Authors: Ahmed Fouad Said, Ahmed Rafea, Samhaa R. El-Beltagy, Hesham Hassan

Abstract: Humans seem to have a natural instinct for wanting to understand and make sense of their environment and things in it. In expert systems (ES), explanation can be used to clarify the reasoning process to users such that they can gain a better understanding of how the system functions. With the help of good explanation facilities, a user can know why an ES is asking a particular question, how the expert system will act if given a certain input, and how the ES reaches a particular conclusion. This is especially important when an ES application is used as a high level advisor to professionals who must retain responsibility for the decisions which are made. However, most ES explanation components require acquiring additional knowledge for explanation, thus increasing the effort of implementing an ES with explanation capabilities. The primary goal of this work is to present a methodology for automatically generating explanations during and at the end of the reasoning process. The developed explanation components can deal with different knowledge representation schemes that are used by problem solving methods namely, the “generate and confirm hypotheses” that is based on the CommonKADS methodology[1], and the routine design generic task[2]. As a proof of concept the explanation components were developed and integrated into the agricultural expert system generic tool (AESGT)[3] .The developed explanation components can be easily reused with expert systems developed by the tool to automatically generate explanation for the reasoning process.

Keywords: Expert Systems, Explanation, Knowledge Engineering, Plant Protection

Title of the Paper:  A Noble Identification System for Tumors and Implementation


Authors: Shieh-Shing Lin, King-Tan Lee, Jia-Hau Chen, Hen-Chia Hsu

Abstract: In this paper, we present a noble identification system for tumor and implement the proposed method in identifying the tumors X-ray data. First, based on the micro-control equipment, we design an identification system that owns the comparison function. The identification system owns the following attractive features: i. the identification system has high accuracy in comparison ability. If there is a slight deviation of a tumor, the identification system points out the coordinate of the tumor. This function of the identification system reduces the working time of the doctors and decreases the misjudging cases. ii. After the judgment of the X-ray data, the suspected tumors position was shown on the display board. We can also transform the patients’ tumor data through the network. This special feature helps in group-doctors inter-meeting.

Keywords: Micro-control equipment, Identification system, Network transmission, Tumors

Title of the Paper:  Warm Rainy Clouds and Droplet Size Distribution


Authors: Nazario D. Ramirez-Beltran, Robert J. Kuligowski, Melvin J. Cardona, Sandra Cruz-Pol

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of cloud droplet size distribution (DSD) and the use of a proxy variable for the parameters of the DSD to explore the possibility of detecting warm rainy clouds. Cloud DSD plays a paramount role in the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. The droplet size distribution also plays a crucial role in determining the radiative properties of clouds and is usually obtained using satellite retrieval algorithms. This paper presents an analysis of the modified Gamma model which is used to represent the cloud DSD. The analysis of the DSD is conducted through the derivation of the distribution moments and their physical interpretation. The analysis includes the discussion of the mean, variance, effective radius, and effective variance of the DSD. Usually the effective radius is extracted from radiance measurements. However, since the modified Gamma distribution has two parameters it requires estimates of both the effective radius and effective variance to properly estimate cloud microphysics from radiance information.

Keywords: Warm rainy clouds, droplet size distribution, modified Gamma distribution, effective radius, effective variance

Title of the Paper:  Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particles Using LIDAR, Calipso Satellite, & AERONET: Algorithm Development


Authors: Javier Mendez, Hamed Parsiani, Emmanuel Sanchez

Abstract: Algorithms have been developed for the determination of essential parameters such as Aerosol Size Distribution, Angstrom coefficient, and Single Scattering Albedo necessary in the determination of regional climatological model and weather prediction capabilities. The atmospheric power profile data for the calculations of these parameters have been obtained from Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) which is operational at City University of New York (CUNY). A similar system is near completion at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM). Also, the data from the Lidar in the orbit (CALIPSO satellite) has been used to calculate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) for the western part of Puerto Rico and compare it to the AOD obtained from an AERONET network which is also located in the western region of Puerto Rico. The Calipso Lidar satellite transmits laser and collects backscattered light at two standard wavelengths (one wavelength at two polarizations). The AERONET network is a complementary method of determining the Optical Depth of the aerosol. The three aforementioned systems operate based on multiple wavelength laser light transmission and reception. Each system is explored in this paper, and full emphasis is given to the Lidar system which presently is near operation at the UPRM, explaining the functionality of the Laser, optical telescope, optics, sensors, signal processing systems, the power profile reflected from the aerosols are obtained at standard wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064nms, both at CUNY and UPRM. The plots of aerosol distribution in the column of atmosphere in terms of the essential aerosol parameters have been produced using the Lidar data over New York urban area.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Lidar, Calipso, AERONET, Atmospheric Parameters

Title of the Paper:  Generating Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimates over Radar Gap Areas


Authors: Shayesteh E. Mahani, Reza Khanbilvardi

Abstract: Generating a multi-sensor precipitation product over radar gap area is the objective of the present study. A merging approach is developed to improve Satellite-based Precipitation Estimates (SPE) by merging with ground-based Radar Rainfall (RR) estimates because remote satellites are the only source that can collect information from areas where are inaccessible by ground-based radar and/or rain gauge networks. The merging algorithm is capable of extending radar information from pixels with available RR to their neighboring pixels with no radar information by merging RR with SPE, which is, usually, available for all pixels. SPE is combined with RR using the weighting-based approach of Successive Correction Method (SCM) after local bias correction of SPE with respect to RR. High resolution satellite infrared-based rainfall estimates from the NESDIS Hydro Estimator algorithm (HE), at hourly 4 km ? 4 km basis, is selected to be merged with radarbased NEXRAD Stage IV rainfall measurements to generate rainfall product for the radar gap areas. To be able to validate the generated rainfall against NEXRAD, different size areas with available radar rainfall are selected as radar gap regions. The developed merging technique is evaluated for several study cases in summer 2003 and 2004. The results show that generated rainfall for the radar gap areas are more correlated with RR (average 0.67) than original HE with RR (average 0.36) and the RMSE between merged and radar rainfall (average 2.8 mm) is less than the RMSE between satellite and radar rainfall (average 4.48 mm). And also, the pattern and intensity of the generated rainfall for radar gap area became more similar to the pattern and value of RR. In addition, the enhancement of the generated rainfall with respect to RR is more significant for high rainfall amounts.

Keywords: Merging, Radar, Gap area, Precipitation, SCM, Satellite, Rainfall

Title of the Paper:  Implementation of the Stable States Transition Control Algorithm for a Four Free Joints Walking Robot


Authors: Anca Petrisor, Nicu George Bizdoaca, Adrian Drighiciu, Sonia Degeratu, Gabriela Petropol Serb, Raducu Petrisor

Abstract: The paper presents a systemic approach of a walking robot behavior and control in uncertain environments, with application to a hexapod robot. For simplicity, this paper considers only the vertical xzplane evolution taking into account that the structure is symmetrical in the horizontal xy-plane and the results can be easily extended. Based on the mathematical model of the robot, determined considering all the points in the xz-plane as being complex numbers, a new concept of walking called SSTA, "Stable States Transition Approach", is proposed. Applications of this algorithm for a walking robot with four free joints are implemented on a user-friendly simulation and educational platform and also a control system development environment for control of walking robots systems - RoPa. All the examples demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control algorithm.

Keywords: Walking robot, mathematical model, control algorithm, variable causality dynamic system, stable states, free joints

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Control Algorithm Implementation using LabWindows


Authors: Marius Constantin Popescu, Anca Petrisor, Adrian Drighiciu, Raducu Petrisor

Abstract: This paper presents the way to create a fuzzy controller used to command a fluid flow servo-valve with force reaction, this servo-valve being the execution element of an industrial robot adaptation system which adjusts the position on one axel. Practically, beginning from a value of the reference (the position in which we wish to move the free extremity of the hydraulic cylinder’s piston’s cane), for example at half the distance the piston covers and at a value of the speed with which the piston moves at a certain moment, the paper goes through all the stages of fuzzy algorithm and a firm value of the command which the controller produces in this case. The spread of the applications’ field of the numerical systems for adjustment and control of the technological processes is, obviously, sustained by the superior performances achieved by such systems, as is the case of the fuzzy system, comparing to the conventional analogical automated systems.

Keywords: Fuzzy algorithm, servo-valve, industrial robot, implementation, LabWindows environment

Title of the Paper:  Investigation of Facial Artifacts on Face Biometrics using Eigenface based Single and Multiple Neural Networks


Authors: K. Sundaraj

Abstract: Biometrics has been an important issue pertaining to security in the last few decades. Departments or agencies entrusted with national security are increasingly installing surveillance cameras in strategic or critical areas to monitor the identities of the general public. Upon locating suspicious characters in the video feed, they are compared with existing databases to find a match. These databases are generally compiled from the National Registration Department (NRD), Immigration, intelligence agencies, etc. Unfortunately, as mentioned in most reports of tragic events, suspicious characters do not resemble anything like what has been stored in the databases. There is a high chance that the face biometric identification software will miss these culprits. In this paper we propose to investigate the effects of facial artifacts on the recognition rate of eigenface based neural networks. It has been found that eigenfaces coupled with Euclidean distance can be successfully used to recognize the human face in almost real-time. However, facial artifacts can cause the features that characterize a face to be distorted. Hence, it is desirable to identify problematic facial artifacts that can cause false identification or no identification. The main focus of this paper is the investigation of common facial artifacts on the performance of recognition and the proposition of modification to existing databases to improve the positive rate of identification. A professional graphic artist was used to modify the images used in the experiments. We use a single and multiple eigenface based neural network as the classifier in our experiments.

Keywords: Face Biometrics, Face Recognition, Eigenfaces, Facial Artifacts

Title of the Paper:  Study on Effects of Nonholonomic Constraints on Dynamics of a New Developed Quadruped Leg-Wheeled Passive Mobile Robot


Authors: Libo Song, Yanqiong Fei, Tiansheng Lu

Abstract: A new passive wheel type leg-wheeled hybrid mobile robot based on surface motion principle was introduced. To produce the propulsion force, a passive wheel was installed at the end of the parallel mechanism structured leg connecting with the frame-body to make the wheel vertical to the ground at any time. With the inertia framework, the robot framework and some assumptions, two forms of Maggie Equation to model the nonholonomic constraint systems were derived from the Lagrangean Equation. To determine the effect of nonholonomic constraints on dynamics of the robot, the matrix method was used to calculate the Lagrangean multipliers together with the Routh Equation. Upon an Atmega8 MCU-based logic control system, the straightline skating experiments and the turning experiments were conducted with the prototype machine and effects of nonholonomic constraints were analyzed. Last, some conclusions were drawn.

Keywords: QLWIS robot, nonholonomic constraint, dynamic analysis, Maggie equation

Title of the Paper:  The Robot Hybrid Position and Force Control in Multi-Microprocessor Systems


Authors: Luige Vladareanu, Ion Ion, L. Marius Velea, Daniel Mitroi

Abstract: This paper shows a new robot hybrid position and force control of walking robots in multimicroprocessor system in order to obtain high performances. For this purpose kinematics and kinetostatics analysis are performed, and the mathematic model of the inverted kinematics is determined for controlling the main trajectory of the robot. The method of computation in real time of the inverse Jacobean matrix, topology of transducers networks and the data flux corresponding to implementation of the multi-microprocessor system for path control of industrial robots is presented. Related to this there is presented an Open Architecture system for the robot position control in Cartesian coordinates through real time processing of the Jacobean matrix obtained out of the forward kinematics using the Denevit-Hartenberg method and calculating the Jacobean inverted matrix for feedback. The obtained results prove a significant reduction of the execution time for the real time control of robot’s position in Cartesian coordinates and increased flexibility.

Keywords: Real-time digital processing, hybrid position-force control, compliance function, multi-microprocessor system

Title of the Paper:  Tuning of Fractional PID Controllers Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Active Magnetic Bearing System


Authors: Long-Yi Chang, Hung-Cheng Chen

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) for the multi-objective optimization design of a fractional PID controller and applies it to the control of an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system. Different from PID controllers with three constants, the fractional PID controller’s parameters are composed of proportional constant, integral constant, derivative constant, derivative order and integral order. The fractional PID controller is more flexible and gives the possibility of adjusting more carefully the closed-loop system characteristics. However, its design becomes more complex than that of conventional integer order PID controller. An adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to design the fractional PID controller. The five parameters of the fractional PID controller are selected as parameters to be determined. The dynamic model of an AMB system for axial motion is also presented. The simulation results of this AMB system show that a fractional PID controller designed via the proposed AGA has good performance.

Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearing, Adaptive Genetic Algorithms, Fractional PID Controller

Issue 2, Volume 8, February 2009

Title of the Paper:  Refined Binary Particle Swarm Optimization and Application in Power System


Authors: Po-Hung Chen, Cheng-Chien Kuo, Fu-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Chuan Chen

Abstract: This paper presents new solution methods and results based on a refined binary particle swarm optimization (RBPSO) for solving the generation/pumping scheduling problem within the power system operation with pumped-storage units. The proposed RBPSO approach combines a basic particle swarm optimization (PSO) with binary encoding/decoding techniques. Complete solution algorithms and encoding/decoding techniques are proposed in the paper. The optimal schedules of both pumped-storage and thermal units are concurrently obtained within the evolutionary process of evaluation functions. Significantly, no hydro-thermal iteration is needed. The proposed approach is applied with success to an actual utility system, which consists of four pumped-storage units and 34 thermal units. The results indicate the attractive properties of the RBPSO approach in practical application, namely, a highly optimal solution cost and more robust convergence behavior.

Keywords: Refined binary particle swarm optimization, Power system, Pumped-storage

Title of the Paper:  Resonance and Friction Compensations in a Micro Hard Drive


Authors: Wilaiporn Ngernbaht, Kongpol Areerak, Sarawut Sujitjorn

Abstract: This paper presents dynamic compensations in a micro hard drive. It reviews dynamic models of the drive in low-and high-frequency regions. The nonlinear friction compensation for low-frequency dynamic is achieved via a fuzzy logic controller. Forward and backward micro-step motion of the read/write head can be nicely performed. Resonance compensation for high-frequency dynamic is achieved via linear compensation. The paper presents some comparison studies of using a cascaded lead compensator, a complex lead-lag compensator, and a searched polynomial compensator. The compensated system’s performance is enhanced further by stable nonlinear control. Detailed descriptions of modelling, design, simulation results, and analysis can be found in the paper.

Keywords: Resonance, Friction, Compensation, Adaptive tabu search, Fuzzy logic, Hard drive

Title of the Paper:  Controlled Operation of Variable Speed Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Systems


Authors: Rajveer Mittal, K. S. Sandhu, D. K. Jain

Abstract: The introduction of distributed generation through renewable sources of energy has opened a challenging area for power engineers. As these sources are intermittent in nature, variable speed electric generators are employed for harnessing electrical energy from these sources. However, power electronic control is required to connect these sources to the existing grid. The grid interconnection issues are to be dealt with before connecting these to the local grid. Power conditioners using self commutating devices are necessary to have grid friendly inverters. In this paper, the MATLAB based simulation studies have been done to realize a grid friendly inverter system for harnessing energy from a variable speed wind energy system. The system is designed for low harmonic injection into the grid and fast control of voltage so as to meet the IEEE standard-1547 requirements.

Keywords: Power Conditioners, Power Quality, Variable Speed Generators, Wind Energy, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Title of the Paper:  Metaheuristic Approach to Assembly Line Balancing


Authors: Supaporn Suwannarongsri, Deacha Puangdownreong

Abstract: In this paper, the metaheuristic method consisting of the adaptive tabu search (ATS) and the practicing heuristic (PH) technique is proposed to provide optimal solutions of the assembly line balancing (ALB) problems. With the multi-objective approach, the ATS is used to address the number of tasks assigned for each workstation, while the PH is conducted to assign the sequence of tasks for each workstation according to precedence constraints. The proposed approach is tested against six benchmark ALB problems suggested by Scholl and one real-world ALB problem. Comparisons of optimal results obtained by the proposed method with those obtained by the single objective approach are elaborated.

Keywords: Assembly line balancing, metaheuristic approach, adaptive tabu search, multi-objective function

Title of the Paper:  Properties of Fuzzy Systems


Authors: Constantin Volosencu

Abstract: The paper presents a short review of some main properties of the most general fuzzy systems used in a large class of practical applications. The fuzzy systems, implemented using different rule bases, fuzzy values, membership functions, fuzzyfication and defuzzification methods, may be classified based on these fuzzy methods used in their development. This paper proposes a unitary theory for describing Mamdani fuzzy controllers based on their characteristics. Fuzzy rules bases may be seen as fuzzy applications between fuzzy sets. These rule bases have algebraic properties as: commutative law, neutral element and symmetric elements. The fuzzy systems may be analytical described with MISO, SISO and gain transfer characteristics, which may be calculated using computer programs. The fuzzy systems have algebraic properties as: commutative law and symmetric elements. These algebraic properties may be noticed on their transfer characteristics. The fuzzy systems have a variable gain with their inputs. Some gain characteristics values are presented. The rule bases and the fuzzy systems have the sector property. The paper emphasizes, based on the transfer characteristics, planar and spatial sector properties useful in stability analysis with Lyapunov techniques. The transfer characteristics, system linear characteristic around the origin and the gain in origin are usefull in the design of fuzzy PID controllers. Based on transient characteristics of fuzzy control systems some quality criteria are presented. The fuzzy systems used in control assure better control quality criteria and a greater robustness at disturbances effects and at the error at the identification of controlled processes parameters.

Keywords: Fuzzy systems, fuzzy logic, nonlinear systems, algebraic properties, absolute global internal stability, fuzzy controllers, empirical control quality criteria, system robustness, circle criterion, fuzzy PID controllers

Title of the Paper:  Possibilistic Pattern Recognition in a Digestive Database for Mining Imperfect Data


Authors: Anas Dahabiah, John Puentes, Basel Solaiman

Abstract: We propose in this paper a method based, on the one hand, on possibility theory to calculate the similarity among the objects of any casebase, taking into account the imperfection and the heterogeneity of data, and based, on the other hand, on the geometric models like the linear and the circular unidimensional scaling and on the graphic models like the ultrametric trees in order to represent and to visualize this similarity in such a way that we can explore and discover the potential structures and patterns that exist in the data. This approach will be applied to an endoscopic casebase in order to recognize the lesions and the pathologies of this base, and several concrete examples will be given along the paper in order to clarify the mathematical concepts of the method.

Keywords: Similarity, Possibility Theory, Linear and Circular Unidimensional Scaling, Ultrametric Trees Endoscopic Images, Data Mining

Title of the Paper:  Some Numerical Experiments on Multi-criterion Tabu Programming for Finding Pareto-optimal Solutions


Authors: Jerzy Balicki

Abstract: Decision making for complex systems is based on multi-criterion-optimization. A decision making support can be applied to find the Pareto solutions. Multi-criterion tabu programming is a new paradigm for that task. Similarly to rules applied in the genetic programming, tabu programming solves problems by using a tabu algorithm that modifies some computer programs. We consider the multi-criterion problem of task assignment, where both a workload of a bottleneck computer and the cost of system are minimized; in contrast, a reliability of the distributed system is maximized. Furthermore, there are constraints for the performance of the distributed systems and the probability that all tasks meet their deadlines. What is more, constraints related to memory limits and computer locations are imposed on the feasible task assignment. Finally, results of some numerical experiments have been presented.

Keywords: Tabu search algorithm, multi-criterion optimization, genetic programming

Title of the Paper:  Lane Marker Parameters for Vehicle's Steering Signal Prediction


Authors: Andriejus Demcenko, Minija Tamosiunaite, Ausra Vidugiriene, Leonas Jakevicius

Abstract: The work considers road lane parameters that correlate with steering angle of a car and which are suitable for accurate prediction of steering signal using neural network technique. Four different parameters, which can be used in driver’s assistance system and are based on position, angles and curvature of the lane marker, are proposed and their correspondence to steering signal is analyzed. The steering signal is predicted with the precision of 95% to 97%, depending on a combination of the visually-based parameters provided for the neural network. The work is performed using signals from real road driving.

Keywords: Steering signal, lane marker, vehicle, correlation, human-like driving, neural network

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Control Strategy for Dynamic Voltage Restorer using Decoupled Multiple Reference Frame PLL (DMRF-PLL)


Authors: Lin Xu, Yang Han, M. M. Khan, Lidan Zhou, Gang Yao, Chen Chen, Jumin Pan

Abstract: This paper presents a new control scheme for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), which consists of a set of series and shunt converters connected back-to-back (BTB), three series transformers, and a dc capacitor installed on the common dc-link. The DVR is characterized by installing the shunt converter on the source side and the series converter on the load side. A decoupled multiple reference frame phase-locked-loop (DMRF-PLL) is proposed, which decouples signals of different frequencies and eliminates interactions between the fundamental-frequency positive-sequence components and harmonic and/or negative-sequence components in the grid voltages. The proposed DMRF-PLL scheme achieves a fast, precise, and robust positive-sequence voltage detection even under unbalanced and/or distorted grid voltages conditions. A detailed description and derivation of the detection method is presented. Besides, a separate proportional-integral (PI) controller is adopted to regulate the dc-link capacitor voltage. The load voltage waveform is restored to be sinusoidal with fundamental frequency by dynamically injecting compensating voltages to the series brunch of converters. The validity and effectiveness of the presented scheme has been confirmed by extensive simulation results obtained from a 380V/50kVA system using Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, decoupled multiple reference frame phase locked loop (DMRF-PLL), voltage sag detection, dc capacitor control, series converters, shunt converters, harmonic and unbalanced voltage compensation

Title of the Paper:  Active Suspension System with Linear Electric Motor


Authors: Katerina Hyniova, Antonin Stribrsky, Jaroslav Honcu, Ales Kruczek

Abstract: Suspension system is an important part of the car design, because it influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In this paper an active suspension using linear electric motor is designed. This article is also focused on experiments with active suspension – developing an appropriate input signal for the test bed and evaluation of the results. Second important aspect of the active suspension design is energy demand of the system. Modification of the standard controller which allows changing amount of energy required by the system has been designed. Performance of the modification was verified taking various experiments.

Keywords: Robust control, active vehicle suspension, linear motors, energy control

Title of the Paper:  Affine Group Linear Operator-based Channel Characterization for Mobile Radio Systems


Authors: Uche A. K. Okonkwo, Razali Ngah, Tharek A. Rahman

Abstract: Mobile radio channel characterization using linear operators of affine group is presented. The foundation of this approach is primarily based on the natural extension of basic concepts of time-scale representations of wavelet-type to the analysis and representation of the nonstationarity associated with the real-time mobile radio channel. We provide an operator-based characterization initiated by the need to present an intuitive and physical approach towards describing and representing the various effects of the channel. The concepts of delay-scale spreading function and operator as well as delay-scale scattering function and operator is introduced. We established the relationship between the continuous wavelet transform and these functions/operators by employing the powerful tool of group theory. We also derived canonical expression for the corresponding channel by discretizing the channel using frame concept. The practical relevance of our approach is illustrated via deterministic examples and the associated simulations.

Keywords: Channel characterization, mobile radio channel, nonstationary channel, time-frequency operator, time-scale operator, Fourier kernel, wavelet transform

Title of the Paper:  NaXi Pictographs Information Processing System


Authors: Guo Hai, Zhao Jing-Ying

Abstract: This Paper describes a NaXi pictographs information processing system we developed for different applications. It sets a basis for computerization of NaXi pictographs. Basic NaXi pictographs information processing Font, IME (Input Method Editors) and corresponding application software have been realized. This sets an end to the history that the NaXi pictographs can’t be handled with computers. It will greatly promote the computerization process of the minority languages.

Keywords: NaXi pictographs, information processing, outlines font, IME (Input Method Editors), embedded font, WEFT

Title of the Paper:  A Method for Color Classification of Fruits based on Machine Vision


Authors: Changyong Li, Qixin Cao, Feng Guo

Abstract: A dominant color histogram matching method for fruits classification was presented in this paper. In classification of fruits based on machine vision, image was acquired with a color CCD camera that outputted color information in three channels, red, green, and blue. Because traditional RGB color space couldn’t meet subjective color sensation of human being, so color image needed to be transformed from RGB to HSV color space which represented human being's subjective color knowledge. However, the conversion result was still three-dimensional information that made determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that could be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading was introduced in this paper. The result of this technique was a simple one-dimensional array that represented different color levels .These colors were known as dominant colors of fruits. The technique reduced computation consumption greatly. Color histogram as a statistical feature had visual invariance and high robustness. The dominant color histogram matching method was used for color grading. Grade judgment result was given by calculating and comparing the similarity between the inspected sample histogram and standard template histogram for every grade, fruit sample would be assigned to the grade whose template had the biggest similarity with it. Experiment results show that dominant color histogram matching method has high accuracy in fruits’ color classification.

Keywords: Fruit classification, color grading, color classification, histogram matching, dominant color, machine vision, feature extraction

Issue 3, Volume 8, March 2009

Title of the Paper:  Evaluation of Two Integer Ambiguity Resolution Methods for Real Time GPS Positioning


Authors: Leandro Baroni, Helio Koiti Kuga

Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system which allows the user to determine position and time with high precision. However, phase measurements has an inherent difficulty, which is the ambiguity determination in number of signal wavelengths. Once ambiguities are resolved to an integer value, positioning can reach sub-meter level in accuracy. Sub-meter positioning accuracy is required in many applications, such as aircraft navigation and landing, attitude and orbit determination of satellites, navigating agricultural vehicles, among others applications. The purpose of this work is to evaluate performance of LSAST and LAMBDA methods for real time integer ambiguity resolution in situations of static and kinematic positioning. Position coordinates of a GPS receiver (“user”) are estimated using data of another receiver placed on a landmark with known coordinates (“base”), using phase double difference positioning technique, and an iterated least-squares as float solution estimator. Positioning errors are shown with half meter level for static and less than meter level for kinematic positioning.

Keywords: Ambiguity resolution, LSAST method, LAMBDA method, Least-squares, Relative positioning

Title of the Paper:  Implications of the Application of Recursive Least Squares Algorithms to Satellite Orbit Determination using GPS Measurements


Authors: Paula Cristiane Pinto Mesquita Pardal, Helio Koiti Kuga, Rodolpho Vilhena De Moraes

Abstract: The main target here is to determine the orbit of an artificial satellite and to analyze its implications, using least squares algorithms through sequential Givens rotations as the method of estimation, and data of the GPS receivers. This approach longs for to improve the performance of the orbit estimation process and, at the same time, to minimize the computational procedure cost. Perturbations due to high order geopotential and direct solar radiation pressure were taken into account. The position of the GPS antenna on the satellite body that, lately, consists of the influence of the satellite attitude motion in the orbit determination process, was also considered. An application has been done, using real data from the Topex/Poseidon satellite, whose ephemeris were available. In a process of high accuracy orbit determination, frequently a sinusoidal residual behavior is observed during its error analysis. Actually, it is the result of unmodeled residual accelerations, which present frequencies near or multiple to the satellite period and appear by different reasons. Assuming that we cope with the unmodeled accelerations, which have no direct physical reasons, or that the modeling effort is not worthwhile, such accelerations will also be analyzed, empirically.

Keywords: Estimation, GPS Measurements, Least Squares Algorithms, Orbit Perturbation, Satellite Orbit Determination, and Unmodeled Accelerations

Title of the Paper:  Case-based Systems in Health Sciences - A Case Study in the Field of Stress Management


Authors: Shahina Begum, Mobyen Uddin Ahmed, Peter Funk

Abstract: Now-a-days medical domain is a popular area for the artificial intelligence (AI) research. Many of the early AI systems were attempted to apply rule-based reasoning in developing computer-based diagnosis system in medical domain. However, for a broad and complex medical domain the effort of applying rule-based system has encountered several problems. Today many systems are serving multi-purpose i.e. tend to support not only in diagnosis but also in number of other complex tasks and combining more than one AI techniques in the health care domain. In this paper, we will investigate the state-of-the art of casebased reasoning (CBR), a recent AI method in the medical domain. A case study in the stress medicine domain is presented here. Today stress has become a major concern in our society. The demand of the decision support system (DSS) in stress domain is increasing rapidly. However, the application of DSS in this domain is limited so far due to the weak domain theory. In our on going research, we have proposed a solution analyzing the relation between stress and finger temperature using case-based reasoning and other AI techniques namely case-based reasoning, textual CBR, rule-based reasoning, and fuzzy logic to support classification and diagnosis in stress management.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning, Medical domain, Stress, Fuzzy logic, Classification and Diagnosis

Title of the Paper:  Toward Effective Initialization for Large-Scale Search Spaces


Authors: Shahryar Rahnamayan, G. Gary Wang

Abstract: Nowadays, optimization problems with a few thousands of variables become more common. Populationbased algorithms, such as Differential Evolution (DE), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithms (GAs), and Evolutionary Strategies (ES) are commonly used approaches to solve complex large-scale problems from science and engineering. These approaches all work with a population of candidate solutions. On the other hand, for high-dimensional problems, no matter what is the individuals’ distribution, the population is highly sparse. Therefore, intelligent employment of individual candidates can play a crucial role to find optimal solution( s) faster. The most majority of population-based algorithms utilize pseudo-random population initialization when there is no a priori knowledge about the solution. In this paper, a center-based population initialization is proposed and investigated on seven benchmark functions. The obtained results are compared with the results of Normal, Pseudo Random, and Latin Hypercube population initialization schemes. Furthermore, the advantages of the proposed center-based sampling method are investigated by a mathematical proof and also Monte Carlo (simulation) method. The detailed experimental verifications are provided for problems with 50, 500, and 1000 dimensions.

Keywords: Population Initialization, Center-Based Sampling, Evolutionary Algorithms, High-Dimensional Search Spaces, Large-Scale Problems

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Multiobjective Optimization Modeling with Mathematica


Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract: In the real situations, decision makers are often faced to a plurality of objectives and constraints in a world of imprecise data about the preferences of agents, the local constraints and the global environment. In a fuzzy environment, fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and fuzzy goal programming (FGP) problems incorporate fuzzy objective functions and constraints, fuzzy parameter and variable sets. Mathematical operators are used to aggregate the fuzzy objective functions and constraints. The optimal solution corresponds to the maximum degree of the membership function in the decision set. The resolution of the multiobjective FLP consists in reducing the vector optimization of objective functions to a single objective. Weighted goal programming problems consider the relative importance of objectives. This contribution surveys essential techniques with numerical applications to simple economic problems. The computations are carried out using the software Mathematicar 7.0.1 and the subpackage Fuzzy Logic 2, from which selected primitives are proposed.

Keywords: Fuzzy linear programming problem, membership function, decision set, multiobjective optimization

Title of the Paper:  Stability of a Complex Network of Euler-Bernoulli Beams


Authors: Kui Ting Zhang, Gen Qi Xu, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: A complex network of Euler-Bernoulli beams is studied in this paper. As for this network, the boundary vertices are clamped, the displacements of the structure are continuous but the rotations of different beams are not continuous at the interior vertices. The feedback controller are designed at the interior nodes to stabilize the elastic system. The well-posed-ness of the closed loop system is proved by the semigroup theory. By complete spectral analysis of the system operator, the distribution of spectrum, the completeness and the Riesz basis property of the roots vectors of the system operator are given. As a consequence, the asymptotical stability of the system is derived under certain conditions.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, network, spectral analysis, stability

Title of the Paper:  Coupled Evolutionary Shape Optimization and Reverse Engineering in Product Design and Virtual Prototyping


Authors: Damir Vucina, Zeljan Lozina, Igor Pehnec

Abstract: Product development in highly competitive times frequently implies very short time-to-market deadlines and product designs that need to deliver high performance at low investment and operation costs. These conflicting objectives can sometimes be accomplished by starting from existing designs and optimizing for better performance defined by some set of excellence criteria. This paper develops a systematic procedure that starts by using a 3D scan of the existing design, defines an efficient shape parameterization for the part of the object that shall be redesigned, and develops an evolutionary shape optimization model. This is accompanied by developing a numerical workflow to handle this demanding process and an implementation that provides solutions in reasonable computer time. The workflow is developed based on existing specialized applications for geometric modeling, numerical analysis, finite-element simulations, and optimization, and therefore makes a rather heterogeneous system. It uses and runs different applications on the ‘as-needed’ basis and provides for corresponding synchronization and data mining. The procedure is in this paper applied to the optimum design of 2D airfoils for wind-turbine blades.

Keywords: Shape optimization, reverse engineering, numerical workflow

Title of the Paper:  Calibration of High Voltage Transducers for Power Quality Measurements


Authors: Hedio Tatizawa, Erasmo Silveira Neto, Geraldo F. Burani, Antonio A. C. Arruda, Kleiber T. Soletto, Nelson M. Matsuo

Abstract: Transmission and distribution networks are increasingly affected by sensitive loads, considering the increase of power electronics based equipment and devices. For keeping under control power quality parameters, for instance, harmonics, sags, swells, flicker, reliable measurements performed at high voltage level are necessary. This kind of measurement is performed using high voltage transducers. Considering present technical standards on this subject, for instance IEC 61000 series [1] and ANSI/IEEE Standards, one can find that calibration procedures for transducers, are not yet defined in those standards. This paper proposes calibration procedures and an experimental setup for generation of the required high voltage waveforms, and shows an example of calibration performed in a real high voltage transducer.

Keywords: High voltage transducers, capacitive voltage dividers, power quality measurements, harmonics, IEC 61000 series, high voltage

Title of the Paper:  Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Induction Electric Motors Aiming Energy Conservation, Aided by Computer Simulation


Authors: Mario Cesar E. S. Ramos, Hedio Tatizawa, Geraldo F. Burani, Mario Cesar G. Ramos

Abstract: This paper shows a methodology for assessment and optimization of induction electric motors aiming energy conservation, through substitution of older electric motors by high-efficiency ones, including motor resizing, aided by computer simulation. Energy Diagnosis aims to provide the client with a decrease in electric energy costs, not only a decrease in demand, but as well as a decrease in consumption. This study and its application were carried out through the Electric Energy Efficiency Program promoted by the Brazilian Electric Energy Agency. These programs, which can be financed by the utilities, arouse the interest for the implementation of energy efficiency projects. Once the electric motor is an equipment of final use strongly present at industry, it is subject to new substitution, bringing satisfactory results when the diagnosis is carried out in a consistent way and following coherent procedures for its validation. The methodology adopted for the substitution of these motors included an initial study, by means of measurements of electrical parameters, through the use of a power quality analyzer. Afterwards, by using a particular simulation software, the operating conditions of the electric motor and the expected economy obtained by the use of high-efficiency motors were estimated. When necessary, the motor resizing analysis provides the best rated power for the drive. The motor substitutions carried out in this motor drives efficiency improvement program resulted in yearly savings of 3.1 GWh, equivalent to 4.52% of the previously required energy.

Keywords: Electric energy conservation, power quality analyzer, high-efficiency motor, motor resizing, simulation software, payback period

Title of the Paper:  Multitarget Tracking Algorithms Using Angle Innovations and Extended Kalman Filter


Authors: Sheng-Yun Hou, Hsien-Sen Hung, Yuan-Chang Chang, Shun-Hsyung Chang

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel angle tracking algorithm, called as FPAT, for tracking multiple narrowband targets. The proposed algorithm modifies the algorithm presented by Park, et al. in two ways by using the sensor array output vector rather than the sample covariance matrix and by incorporating the extended Kalman filter instead of a simple Kalman filter. It also applies the prediction characteristic of Kalman filter to prevent the data association problem. The proposed algorithm requires lower computational complexity and also improves the tracking performance especially at lower number of snapshots. Combined with the coherent signal-subspace (CSS) method, the FPAT algorithm is extended to track the direction-of-arrival angles of wideband sources. We also extend the FPAT algorithm to track the range, azimuth, and elevation of each narrowband source in 3-D space. Through computer simulations, the effectiveness of each proposed algorithm is verified.

Keywords: Array signal processing, Angle tracking, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Direction of arrival

Title of the Paper:  Computer Vision System for Human Anthropometric Parameters Estimation


Authors: Ivo Stancic, Tamara Supuk, Mojmil Cecic

Abstract: In this paper we have proposed and evaluated a new method for human anthropometric parameters estimation. Method is planed to be simple and fast, thus suited for examiners with no experience in the anthropometric measurements. An anthropometric data obtained by this method, segments masses and lengths, are primarily used for biomechanics applications, but could be adapted to other fields, as well. Estimates of segment inertial properties are frequently based on data and procedures developed for human cadavers in whom inertial properties have been measured directly, using complicated and time consuming procedures. For that reason, we have designed a measurement system that consists of singe digital camera, PC and requires simple experimental set–up with a few considerations. Proposed method comes with some disadvantages, due to which it could be rather used as an estimation tool than as a highly-precise measurement procedure of anthropometric parameters. Measurement using proposed method is completely contactless with the subject, which result in minimizing examiners physical intervention and considerable reduction of time required for measurements. Therefore, measurement procedure is adopted to be executed on a large number of subjects in short time. An algorithm was developed that creates 3D model of the human body using only data obtained from 2D subject’s image, and ellipses as basic building objects. Finally, results of anthropometric body parameters obtained for three subjects were compared with referent anthropometric data and manual measurement.

Keywords: Biomechanics, human anthropometry, computer vision, image processing

Issue 4, Volume 8, April 2009

Title of the Paper:  The Problems of Camera Measurements in Tracking-Error Fuzzy Control of Mobile Robots


Authors: Saso Blazic, El-Hadi Guechi, Jimmy Lauber, Michel Dambrine, Gregor Klancar

Abstract: This paper deals with Takagi-Sugeno modelling and control of nonholonomic mobile robots in the case when the measurements are given by the camera. The measurements in such case are difficult to deal with: they are given only in discrete time samples, usually they are delayed, a high-level noise is present on the measurements. The nonlinear tracking error-model is solved analytically under the premise of ZOH present at the system input. The nonlinear discrete model is developed. Several discretization issues are discussed and the modelling errors are analysed. The sector nonlinearity approach is used for constructing the Takagi-Sugeno model. The control is designed in the LMI framework. Some performance issues are discussed on the simulation cases.

Keywords: Takagi-Sugeno, PDC control, Mobile robot, Kinematic model, Discretization, Delay, Decay rate

Title of the Paper:  Stabile Algorithms Switching for Multiple Models Control Systems


Authors: Lupu Ciprian, Udrea Andreea, Popescu Dumitru, Flutur Cristian

Abstract: Multiple models structure represents one of the successful solutions for the real-time control of the nonlinear or multi-regime processes. Best algorithm/model selection, switching between control algorithms etc. are the main problems of these structures. The switching issue is a theoretical and practical study subject for a lot of recently researches. The paper proposes some supplementary conditions that assure a correct real-time functioning in terms of stability for multiple models structures. The applicability of the method is proved using an RST control algorithm. In the end, its software implementation is also shown.

Keywords: Real-time multi-model control systems, stabile switching algorithm

Title of the Paper:  A Hybrid Grey & ANFIS Approach to Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chain Networks


Authors: Hakan Tozan, Ozalp Vayvay

Abstract: Demand forecasting and decision making processes are among the key activities which directly affect the performance of successful supply chain networks. The variability of the demand information between the stages of the supply chains and the increase in this variability as the demand data moves upstream from the customer to consequent stages of the supply chain networks is called Bullwhip Effect. As demand pattern varies due to the field of activity and architecture of supply chains networks, determining the appropriate forecasting and order decision model for system interested in is complicated. This paper analyzes the response of bullwhip effect to a hybrid grey GM (1, 1) forecasting and ANFIS based order decision model under demand with relatively medium variation in a two stage supply chain network simulation.

Keywords: Forecasting, Supply chain network, Bullwhip effect, ANFIS, Grey GM (1, 1)

Title of the Paper:  A New Motion Management Method for Lung Tumor Tracking Radiation Therapy


Authors: Noriyasu Homma, Masao Sakai, Haruna Endo, Masatoshi Mitsuya, Yoshihiro Takai, Makoto Yoshizawa

Abstract: We propose a new motion management method for lung tumor tracking radiotherapy by using a novel time series prediction technique. In radiotherapy, the target motion often affects the conformability of the therapeutic dose distribution delivered to thoracic and abdominal tumors, and thus tumor motion monitoring systems have been developed. Even we can observe tumor motion accurately, however, radiotherapy systems may inherently have mechanical and computational delays to be compensated for synchronizing dose delivery with the motion. For solving the delay problem, we develop a novel system to predict complex time series of the lung tumor motion. An essential core of the system is an adaptive prediction modeling with a phase locking technique by which timevarying cyclic dynamics is transferred into a time invariant one. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve a clinically useful high accuracy and long-term prediction of the average error 1.05 ± 0.99 [mm] at 1 [sec] ahead prediction.

Keywords: Time series prediction, adaptive modeling, radiation therapy, lung tumor, and motion management

Title of the Paper:  An Acoustical Study of High Speed Train Transits


Authors: J. Quartieri, A. Troisi, C. Guarnaccia, T. Lenza, P. D'Agostino, S. D'Ambrosio, G. Iannone

Abstract: In this paper, the comparison between experimental acoustical data and predictive software simulation is performed. The area under investigation contains a high velocity railway and it is very interesting in terms of geometrical features and environmental conditions. In a recent paper, the experimental campaign has been presented and a preliminary model has been tested with that measurements. In this work, we continue this analysis approaching an acoustical predictive software, CadnaA by Datakustik, and checking its response with respect to the experimental data. The need of a precise modelling is underlined, since the results of acoustical simulations are strongly affected by the number of sources included and their sound power level. Particular emphasis is also given to the representation of results, focusing on the production of “easy to read” maps. In the last part of the paper, noise coming from high velocity trains has been modeled as noise coming from simple geometrical elements, such as points and segments. The comparison between these simulated values and the experimental data is performed and appears to be an interesting basis for forthcoming studies.

Keywords: High speed train, noise detection, simulation model, predictive software

Title of the Paper:  Baseline Extraction Algorithm for Online Signature Recognition


Authors: Azlinah Mohamed, Rohayu Yusof, Shuzlina Abdul Rahman, Sofianita Mutalib

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss baseline extraction algorithm for online signature recognition based on vector rules. In order to recognize, verify and analyze a signature, one needs to establish the feasible computational signature features which would be required to be extracted. The main features in this case are direction, slant, baseline, pressure, speed and numbers of pen ups and downs. Method of extracting features signature depends on the requirement features to be extracted. In this paper, we propose the construction of an algorithm to extract the baseline from signature. Signatures are taken from twenty randomly selected individuals with different background. In order to validate the algorithm, the capture image of each signature is use as samples for a developed questionnaire to be given to human expert. These questionnaires are all about identifying the baseline of the signatures. Both results from automatic baseline detector and the questionnaire are compared, and it shows that the algorithm is 90% accurate. It can be concluded that the algorithm proposed are acceptable to represent extraction of signature features based on baseline.

Keywords: Automatic Signature Identification, Baseline Extraction Algorithm, Dynamic Signature, Signature Analysis

Title of the Paper:  Applying Fuzzy Engineering Economics to Evaluate Project Investment Feasibility of Wind Generation


Authors: J. N. Sheen

Abstract: In this paper, a fuzzy engineering economic decision model is derived to evaluate the investment feasibility of wind generation project. A straightforward vertex parameters’ fuzzy mathematics operation using the function principle is derived as an alternative to the traditional extension principle, and is applied to evaluate a number of different economic decision indexes. Compared to the extension principle, the function principle is simple to implement and is conceptually straightforward. Using Mellin transform, the geometric moments of the fuzzy economic indexes are established in order to determine their relative ranking as part of a decision-making process. The performance of the proposed fuzzy economic model is verified by considering their application to a practical wind generation project in Taiwan. These investigations not only confirm that the results of the fuzzy economic model is consistent with the conventional crisp model, but also demonstrate that the proposed model is more flexible, intelligent and computationally efficient compared to the extension principle fuzzy mathematics approach. The developed model represent readily implemented feasibility analysis tool for use in the arena of uncertain economic decision-making.

Keywords: Function principle, Fuzzy mathematics, Mellin transform, Fuzzy ranking, Wind electricity, Decision-making

Title of the Paper:  Patter Recognition Applied to Mouse Pointer Controlled by Ocular Movements


Authors: Job Ramon De La O Chavez, Carlos Aviles Cruz

Abstract: Researchers on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) have tried to identify the origin of body movements in humans with limited success. This work looks at the problem using an ocular movement tracker based on ocular artifacts in ElectroEncephalo-Graph (EEG) readings, also called Electro-Oculo-Gram (EOG). The movements are reflected into the EEG signals, which are passed through a multiple classifier, composed of two statistical classic methods (KNN and Bayesian-Gauss) and a Neural Network. The voltage levels of EEG readings and their polarity provide the necessary information to track the focus of attention of the user in a computer screen. All of these artifacts have characteristic curves which can be classified. Focusing on the eye movements, we have developed an eye tracker to recover the point of attention of the user on a computer screen.

Keywords: BCI, EOG, Artifacts, KNN, Bayesian, Neural Network, Eye Movement Classification

Title of the Paper:  Unified Framework for Developing Testing Effort Dependent Software Reliability Growth Models


Authors: P. K. Kapur, Omar Shatnawi, Anu G. Aggarwal, Ravi Kumar

Abstract: Several software reliability growth models (SRGMs) have been presented in the literature in the last three decades. These SRGMs take into account different testing environment depending on size and efficiency of testing team, type of components and faults, design of test cases, software architecture etc. The plethora of models makes the model selection an uphill task. Recently, some authors have tried to develop a unifying approach so as to capture different growth curves, thus easing the model selection process. The work in this area done so far relates the fault removal process to the testing/execution time and does not consider the consumption pattern of testing resources such as CPU time, manpower and number of executed test cases. More realistic modeling techniques can result if the reliability growth process is studied with respect to the amount of expended testing efforts. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for testing effort dependent software reliability growth models incorporating imperfect debugging and error generation. The proposed framework represents the realistic case of time delays between the different stages of fault removal process i.e Failure Observation/Fault Detection and Fault Removal/Correction processes. The Convolution of probability distribution functions have been used to characterize time differentiation between these two processes. Several existing and new effort dependent models have been derived by using different types of distribution functions. We have also provided data analysis based on the actual software failure data sets for some of the models discussed and proposed in the paper.

Keywords: Software reliability growth model, Testing effort function, Imperfect debugging, Error generation, Convolution, Probability distribution function

Title of the Paper:  Company Information Systems Used in Decision-Making Processes of Financial Managers


Authors: Renata Myskova

Abstract: Economists and IT experts share the opinion that IS/IT in a company should be in accordance with the company objectives and management strategies; they cannot be viewed separately. As far as the economic aspect is concerned, there exist certain criteria that could be considered social criteria because information system effectiveness, as well as the company effectiveness, depend on human factor. Reference literature identifies the work with information as a strategic factor of company’s prosperity and competitiveness. An economic information system has recently been an inevitable prerequisite in a large or small enterprise. The requirements relating to such system can be characterized in the following way: competitive price, configurable and flexible system comprising all the basic and certain extra functions essential for information support to all the company operation. An integral part of the system is an information accounting system supporting financial accounting management. Accounting is the method in which financial information is gathered, processed, and summarized into financial statements and reports. Accounting records are important because the resulting financial statements and reports help plan and make decisions. These records may be used by company management and by third parties (bankers, investors, creditors, etc.). The accounting information system has to support managerial decisions and it has to work with external accounting modules and external database modules. Changing accounting software is a big undertaking. It may, and should, have an impact on almost everyone in the organization, on customers as well. Accounting Information Systems were scanned in the empirical research and financial managers assessed the situation in their company and their satisfaction with these systems.

Keywords: Economic information system, accounting information system, financial management

Title of the Paper:  ICT in the Context of Public Sector Service Delivery: A Malaysian Perpective


Authors: Maniam Kaliannan, Murali Raman, Magiswary Dorasamy

Abstract: This paper examines the implementation of various e-Government projects in Malaysia since it was launched in 1996. The paper will discusses the challenges and issues related to these projects and suggest some recommendations as improvement tool to uplift the e-Government program to greater heights. Essentially our findings suggests that apart from technical considerations, the true value potential of ICT utilization in the context of public sector delivery in Malaysia is contingent upon several factor spanning across legislative, procedural, managerial and organizational imperatives.

Keywords: ICT, e-Government, MSC Malaysia

Issue 5, Volume 8, May 2009

Title of the Paper:  A Quadripolar Parameter-Based Approach of Ideal Gyrators structured on Operational Amplifier Circuits


Authors: Dan George Tont, Luige Vladareanu, Gabriela Tont

Abstract: The paper approaches some aspects regarding performances characteristics of gyrators with different circuit topology. The gyrators behavior of a class of two-ports structured on operational amplifiers and resistors is studied. In order to verify the theoretical predictions the analytical quadripolar parameters are bridged with the experimental one numerical by the means of a Pspice simulation. The gyrator equations express the instantaneous behavior of switching power converters, averaged over one switching cycle. Any dc-dc switching power converter meet the requirements of closed-loop control of output voltage or current. There are many ways to design a physical system with gyrator behavior like. Some gyrators are based on various physical effects, like the Hall-effect, other gyrators are created using electronically devices, like operational amplifiers. All these synthesis operate time-continuously.

Keywords: Gyrator, quadripolar circuits, antireciprocal, , two-ports, operational amplifier

Title of the Paper:  Onsager-Casimir Antireciprocity Relations for the Hall Gyrators Analysis


Authors: Dan George Tont, Luige Vladareanu, Gabriela Tont

Abstract: The paper focuses on the analysis of characteristics of driving point impedance for a lossy gyrator. For a gyrator, the ratio between short-circuit input resistance and open-circuit input resistance is always greater then unity. The antireciprocity of the Hall transducer is a natural phenomenon and its results from investigation of transfer resistances. Is known that for a certain value of magnetic induction, in general, transfer resistances are not equal. In other words, Hall transducer is a passive non-reciprocal circuit. In certain circumstances, however, when Hall plate does have voltage zero, (constructively, electrodes are disposed on the same equipotential surface with zero inductance) transfer resistances are equal in value, but have opposite sign. In these cases we are talking about behavior of Hall transducer as antireciprocal circuit, respectively as a gyrator. Gyrators are a class of antireciprocal resistive two-ports. The findings are concerning and the locus of the input equivalent impedance An assessment of Hall generator behavior regarded as a circuit element and particularly as a gyrator was performed by the means of experimentally validation Onsager-Casimir relation.

Keywords: Hall transducer, antireciprocal, gyrator, two-ports

Title of the Paper:  Design of Series-parallel Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems and Application in City Transit Bus


Authors: Wei-Wei Xiong, Cheng-Liang Yin

Abstract: The design approaches and a design case of the series-parallel hybrid electric propulsion system for ground vehicles are presented in this paper. Based on the analysis of the base units and the combination types of the series-parallel propulsion systems, a novel manual transmission is proposed to switch the propulsion system configuration in a low-cost manual-shifted hybrid propulsion system. This propulsion system type has been used in a hybrid transit bus. The sizes of propulsion system components, including engine, electric motors, battery and gear ratios, are designed to satisfy the bus’s drive ability requirements. Moreover, some features, including down-sized engine, idling elimination, regenerative brake, low-speed electric propulsion and proper control strategy, etc., are introduced to improve its fuel economy. The fuel economy of the hybrid bus was evaluated under the city transit bus driving cycle. The result shows that the fuel consumption is on average reduced by 21.3% of that of the conventional baseline bus under city driving conditions, which identifies the approach’s technical and economical feasibility.

Keywords: Series-parallel, hybrid electric propulsion system, transit bus, design, fuel economy

Title of the Paper:  Induction Machine Fault Detection Using Support Vector Machine Based Classifier


Authors: V. N. Ghate, S. V. Dudul

Abstract: Industrial motors are subject to various faults which, if unnoticed, can lead to motor failure. The necessity of incipient fault detection can be justified by safety and economical reasons. The technology of artificial neural networks has been successfully used to solve the motor fault detection problem. This paper develops inexpensive, reliable, and noninvasive NN based fault detection scheme for small and medium sized induction motors. Detailed design procedure for achieving the optimal NN model and Principal Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction is proposed. Overall thirteen statistical parameters are used as feature space to achieve the desired classification. Generalized Feed Forward (GFFDNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) NN models are designed and verified for optimal performance in fault identification on experimental data set of custom designed 2 HP, three phase 50 Hz induction motor.

Keywords: Induction motor, Fault detection, Neural Network, GFFDNN, SVM, PCA

Title of the Paper:  System Optimal Compensators Placement via Immune Multi-Objective Algorithm


Authors: T. Y. Hwang, C. M. Tsai, T. L. Huang, C. C.Huang, Y. N. Lien, C. M. Chung, C. H. Chang

Abstract: This work proposes a two-stage immune algorithm that embeds the compromise programming to perform multi-objective optimal compensator placement. A new problem formulation model that involves fuzzy sets to reflect the imprecise nature of objectives and incorporates multiple planning requirements is presented. The proposed approach finds a set of non-inferior (Pareto) solutions rather than any single aggregated optimal solution. Additionally, this developed approach eliminates the need for any user-defined weight factor to aggregate all objectives. Comparative studies are conducted on an actual system with encouraging results, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Compensator placement, immune algorithm, non-inferior set, compromise programming

Title of the Paper:  Trajectory Planning, Optimization and Control of a Hybrid Mechanical Press


Authors: Kai He, Yuanxin Luo, Ching Tom Kong, R. Du

Abstract: Hybrid mechanical press is an innovative sheet metal stamping press that has the advantages of both mechanical press and the hydraulic press. This paper focuses on the control of the hybrid mechanical press, including trajectory planning, trajectory optimization and real time feedback control. The trajectory planning is based on inverse kinematics and cubic spline interpolation. The trajectory optimization is used to realize the desirable punch trajectory under multiple constraints on velocity, acceleration and jerk of the servomotor. Finally, an improved PID algorithm, called the integral separated piecewise PID scheme, is used for real time feedback control. Based on the experiments on a 25 ton industrial prototype, the control ensures the desirable performance of the press.

Keywords: Hybrid Machines, Mechanical Press, Trajectory Planning, Trajectory Optimization, PID Control

Title of the Paper:  A Combination Model and Application for the Water Quality Evaluation


Authors: Zhiguang Zhu, Li Zhang, Siying Wei

Abstract: Water quality evaluation benefits monitoring the water quality, utilizing and developing water resources rationally, providing a basis for the planning of water pollution control strategies, and predicting the future trend of water environment scientifically. This paper proposes a combination approach that can be used to incorporate two or more water quality evaluation models. The application of this approach is to assess the water quality of the middle reach of the Yangtze River, which is the major resource of supplying drinking water, fishing, irrigating crops and generating energy in China.

Keywords: Water quality, Evaluation index, Combination evaluation, Fuzzy synthetic evaluation, Entropy-based evaluation, Optimal-graded matrix

Title of the Paper:  Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Flywheel Energy Storage System


Authors: Jianhui He, Guoqiang Ao, Jinsheng Guo, Ziqiang Chen, Lin Yang

Abstract: A new hybrid-drive system taking flywheel energy storage system instead of chemical battery as assistant power source for hybrid electric vehicle is put forward. According to the particular energy characteristics of flywheel system, an energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic control is also developed with overall consideration on the optimization of both ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) and ISG (Integrated Started Generator). The strategy determines the optimal torque distribution between ICE and ISG through inputs of rotary speed of flywheel, rotary speed of ICE crankshaft and travel of accelerator pedal or brake pedal. Simulation results indicate that flywheel energy storage system is quite suitable for hybrid electric vehicle and with fuzzy logic control strategy both the performance of ICE and ISG are optimized that reduces fuel consumption of vehicle to greater extent.

Keywords: Flywheel energy storage system, ISG, Hybrid electric vehicle, Energy management, Fuzzy logic control

Title of the Paper:  Enhanced Layer 3 Service Differentiation for WLAN


Authors: W. L. Pang, Nurul Nadia, David Chieng

Abstract: The existing wireless networks are dominated by IEEE802.11a/b/g that only provides the best effort services to the wireless end users. All the wireless users and services are traded equally without any Quality of Service (QoS) feature embedded in the existing wireless system. The IEEE802.11e Medium Access Control (MAC) is introduced to provide QoS to the Local Area Network (WLAN) users, but it involves significant investment in money and time to migrate the existing systems to the new IEEE802.11e systems. We proposed an Enhanced Layer 3 Service Differentiation (EL3SD) scheme for the existing WLAN systems to provide QoS to the WLAN end users. The EL3SD is a software approach that operates above the IEEE802.11 MAC to maintain the existing wireless network architectures and devices. A queuing mechanism is added in a gateway between the wired and wireless WLAN. Simulations have been carried out with IEEE802.11b and IEEE802.11e systems. Four queuing mechanisms are selected in the simulation; the Class based Queuing (CBQ), Deficit Round Robin (DRR), Fair Queuing (FQ) and Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ). The FQ and CBQ are capable to provide flows differentiation under heavy downlink scenario, but the CBQ is programmable to provide users differentiation to the end users. This is something extra that is not available in the IEEE802.11e and the network administrator controls the WLAN bandwidth distribution through the CBQ.

Keywords: WLAN, Queuing Analysis, Bandwidth Allocation

Title of the Paper:  Dynamic Modeling and Robust Control of Multi-Module Parallel Soft-Switching-Mode Rectifiers


Authors: Kuei-Hsiang Chao

Abstract: In this paper, small-signal modeling and robust controller design for multi-module parallel soft-switching mode rectifiers (SSMRs) are presented. First, a single-phase boost-type SSMR is formed from the traditional boost-type switching mode rectifier (SMR) with auxiliary resonant branch to achieve zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) soft switching for the main and auxiliary switches. Based on the proposed single-phase SSMR, parallel operation of multi-module single-phase SSMR is made for increasing the total power capacity and the reliability of the SSMRs. The state-space averaging method is employed to derive the small signal model of the SSMR in current control loop for performing its current controller design. As for the voltage control loop, the dynamic model of the multi-module SSMR is derived at nominal case by averaging method for two-time-scale (AM-TTS) and averaged power method. Then, the quantitative and robust voltage regulation controls are proposed for multi-module SSMR to improve the control performance when the parameter variations caused by system configuration change and operating point shift have occurred. The accuracy of the derived SSMR dynamic model and the effectiveness of the proposed controller are demonstrated by some simulation and experimental results.

Keywords: Soft-Switching-Mode Rectifier, Small-Signal Model, Quantitative Controller Design, Parallel Operation, Robust Control

Issue 6, Volume 8, June 2009

Title of the Paper:  Application of a Predictive Acoustical Software for Modelling Low Speed Train Noise in an Urban Environment


Authors: J. Quartieri, A. Troisi, C. Guarnaccia, T. L. L. Lenza, P. D'Agostino, S. D'Ambrosio, G. Iannone

Abstract: In this work the noise impact of train transits, in the framework of low velocity regimes, is considered, especially in proximity of a railway station. The environmental impact observed in the neighbourhood of the station is highlighted, considering the Sound Pressure Level of noise coming from train transits and the equivalent Level evaluated during the full day operating time of the railway. In particular we performed a comparison between the experimental results obtained from noise measurements detected on a building facade close to a railway station at night time, and the algorithmic simulations obtained by means of a predictive software. Regarding the simulation activity, train transits and the related auxiliary noise sources have been realistically modelled by considering different types of trains and of running conditions, making the simulation run on a 24 hours time interval. A relevant aspect of this study is the representation of the results. Different plots are presented, with particular emphasis to contour plot maps.

Keywords: Noise, Railway, Simulation Model, Predictive Software, Time History, 3D Map

Title of the Paper:  Applying Artificial Neural Network for Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of Glue and Thiourea in N.I.C.I.CO


Authors: Efat Rezaei

Abstract: In this research an artificial neural network was invented for simultaneous determination of both glue and thiourea in industrial electrolytes. First, a network was designed, which electrochemical data was its input. This network consisted of three layers of nodes, and back propagation rule was used for training the network. Sigmoid transfer function was applied in the hidden and output layers. The precision and accuracy of model was tested. The resulting MSE (Mean Square Error) for prediction of glue and thiourea were 0.0011 and 0.0008 respectively.

Keywords: ANN, glue, thiourea, copper refining, electrochemical determination, sigmoid transfer function

Title of the Paper:  Applications of Neural Networks in Continuous Casting


Authors: Gelu Ovidiu Tirian, Camelia Bretotean Pinca

Abstract: This paperwork describes and refers to the structure of neuronal networks who make up the system we use for predicting wire breaking, the way they have been used and implemented; and the use and implementation of the entire system. Before testing the networks, we must identify the design of the RNA input curves. We should identify it experimentally, using the same measurements as for the continuous cast process. For using the serial-dynamic and space network, we need a large amount of data, more than the data that a thermo-couple uses during 120 seconds. Thus, specialists have had to design new software in order to stimulate the difference curves we should use for each network input. Because dynamic-serial networks follow the same pattern of data input, we have preferred to use only one serial-dynamic network and clone the others. We have performed the same in case of space networks whose input data are the same output data from two of the dynamic-serial networks.

Keywords: Neuronal system, prediction, samples, algorithm, training, crack, continuous casting

Title of the Paper:  A Noble Heuristic Reading Device for Blind People


Authors: Shieh-Shing Lin, King-Tan Lee, Shih-Cheng Horng, Kuang-Yao Lin, Tseng-Lin Hsieh, Jia-Hau Chen, Hen-Chia Hsu

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present a noble heuristic reading machine for blind people. The goal of this paper is to use intelligent-control method to settle down the reading machine by a touch-pat device for blind people. The proposed “A noble heuristic reading device for blind people”can efficiently help blind people for reading and train the blind people learning the dot-touched words as well. First of all, the feedback control theorem associated with some sensors is used to accomplish the action of automatic fixed position of the reading machine. Second, a heuristic program used to analyze a certain word by converting dot-touched signals into meaningful code will transfer word-code into phonetic signals and speak out for blind people effectively and precisely through personal computer interface. There are three units in the proposed design, which includes the hardware structure, the analysis for certain word-meaning and the phonetic output of the specified words. The test results show that the proposed smart reading machine can effectively prompt learning and reading effects for blind people.

Keywords: Intelligent control method, touch-pat, heuristic program, feedback control theorem and phonetic signal, programming

Title of the Paper:  Modeling and Control of Die-Sinking EDM


Authors: Chingyei Chung, Shou-Yen Chao, M. F. Lu

Abstract: This paper explores the mathematical model for electrically discharged machining (EDM) machine. Conventionally, it is known that the machining efficiency of EDM is closed related to the so-called ignition delay time. Here, it can be observed that the ignition delay time is the RC time-constant of the circuit model of Die-sinking EDM. Then, it can be shown that ignition delay time is closed related to the gap resistance. According to electromagnetic theory, it can be shown that in the first and middle stages of machining process, the overall control system becomes a nonlinear Lur’e system. As for the final stage of machining process, the overall control system becomes a linear system. For the Lur’e problem of Die-sinking EDM, we applied the SPR (Strict Positive Real) condition for the control of EDM. A differential-PID controller is proposed in the beginning and middle stage of machining process. In the final stage of machining process, A PID controller can applied to the final stage of machining process. An adaptive controller switch from Differential-PID (DPID) controller and PID controller is proposed in this paper. Experimental results will be verified. Especially, the machining efficiency can be enhanced up to 33% compared to the conventional optimal PID controller.

Keywords: Nonlinear Control System, Lur’e Problem, EDM, Differential-PID Controller

Title of the Paper:  Identification of Non linear MISO Process using RKHS and Volterra Models


Authors: Okba Taouali, Nabiha Saidi, Hassani Messaoud

Abstract: This paper treats the comparison between the Volterra model and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) model in Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) case. The RKHS model uses the Statistical learning theory to find a solution of a regularization risk. It is characterise by a linear combination of the kernels function. The complexity of Volterra model is depending of the degree and the memory of the model contrarily of the RKHS model which depend only of the number of observations. The performances of both models are evaluated first by using Monte Carlo numerical simulations and then have been tested for modelling of a chemical reactor and results are successful.

Keywords: Statistical Learning Theory, RKHS, Volterra, MISO, Modelling, Chemical reactor

Title of the Paper:  A Design Method of Narrow Band FIR Filters Based on Fluency Sampling Function of Quadratic Piecewise Polynomial


Authors: Masakazu Higuchi, Shuji Kawasaki, Kazuki Katagishi, Mitsuteru Nakamura, Kazuo Toraichi, Hitomi Murakami, Yasuhiro Ohmiya

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a design method of the narrow band FIR filter in a Fluency signal space. As a result, we can make superior narrow band FIR filters than ordinary one. While an FIR filter has advantages that it is stable and can realize perfect linear phase, its transfer function can be of higher order according to desired accuracy. One of such difficult classes that indeed requires lots of multipliers is the narrow band filter. In proposed method, it is possible to design a narrow band FIR filter with multipliers much less than Remez method, a typical conventional method. In the first step of the proposed method, a pair of mother filters that are basic for the desired filter are defined. In the next step, scaled filters of the mother filters will be taken. Finally, we take an appropriate cascade connection of the scaled filters and make it the approximation model of the desired characteristics of narrow band FIR filter. By a numerical experiment, the proposed method is shown to be supeior to Remez method, as stated above.

Keywords: Fluency theory, Signal space, Dual space, Sampling function, Frequency scaling, Cascade connection, Remez algorithm

Title of the Paper:  Designing Neural Networks for Tackling Hard Classification Problems


Authors: Georgios Lappas

Abstract: When designing neural networks for tackling hard classification problems researchers face the trivial problem of deciding the appropriate size of the neural network. The problem of optimizing the size of a neural network for obtaining high classification accuracy in datasets is indeed a hard problem in the literature. Existing studies provide theoretical upper bounds on the size of neural networks that are unrealistic to implement. Alternatively, optimizing empirically the neural network size may need a large number of experiments, which due to a considerable number of free parameters may become a real hard task in time and effort to accomplish. Hard classification problems are usually large in size datasets. Such datasets derive from collection of real world data like from multimedia content and are usually rich in training samples and rich in features that describe each collected sample. Working with neural networks and hard classification datasets will make even harder the task to optimize the neural network size. This work highlights on a mathematical formula for a priori calculating the size of a neural network for achieving high classification accuracy rate. The formula estimates neural networks size based only on the number of available training samples, resulting in sizes of neural networks that are realistic to implement. Using this formula in hard classification datasets aims to fix the size of an accurate neural network and allows researchers to concentrate on other aspects of their experiments. The focus on this approach turns to the number of available data for training the neural network, which is a new perspective in the neural network theory and the characteristics of this perspective are discussed in this article for designing neural networks for tackling hard classification problems.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Circuit Complexity, Multimedia, Intelligent Multimedia, Pattern Classification

Title of the Paper:  Problems Associated with Investment in Advanced Manufacturing Technology from the Management Point of View


Authors: Josef Hynek, Vaclav Janecek, Libuse Svobodova

Abstract: Utilization of advanced manufacturing technology is considered as one of the key factors that help manufacturing companies worldwide to reduce the cost of manufacturing, improve the quality of their products, increase the throughput as well as production flexibility and altogether it should help them to maintain or even enhance their competitiveness on global markets. Moreover, manufacturing companies in economically developed countries cannot rely on cheap labor force and massive investments into advanced manufacturing technology seem to be inevitable necessity for them. On the other hand, these companies are under constant economic pressure and their managers are pushed to economize and cut cost whenever possible. Taking into account that investment into advanced technology is as a rule rather expensive, long-term nature and associated with a higher degree of risk especially if the particular company lacks experience with the particular type of technology, it is clear that the relevant decision making processes are not easy and straightforward ones. We will describe here some problems associated with investment into advanced manufacturing technology from the management point of view. We will demonstrate that managers show rather reserved attitude towards relevant projects and admit many difficulties when deciding about investment into particular advance manufacturing projects in their companies. We will support our views by selected results of two surveys that we did in the Czech Republic and we will compare our findings with outcomes of the similar surveys in other countries too.

Keywords: Advanced manufacturing technology, management attitudes, short-termism, survey results

Title of the Paper:  A Projection Algorithm for Satellite Rainfall Detection


Authors: Nazario D. Ramirez-Beltran, Robert J. Kuligowski, Joan M. Castro, Melvin J. Cardona, Ramon Vasquez

Abstract: A projection algorithm to detect rain cloud pixels in visible and infrared satellite data is introduced in this work. The algorithm is based on the angle formed by two vectors in the n-dimensional space. This algorithm takes advantages of the geometrical projection principle: when two vectors are collinear the radiative variables of clouds used to create the vectors may exhibit similar properties, and when the vectors are orthogonal the radiative variables may have no elements in common. Rain/no rain pixels are identified by using radar rain rate over the studied area. Satellite data from visible and infrared channels are used to create rain and no rain pixel populations. The central tendency of each population is used to generate rain and no rain calibration vectors. A pixel from an independent data set is used to create a third vector, which is projected into the previously calibrated vectors, with the purpose of classifying the third vector in one of the two populations, rain or no rain. Classification is made depending of the magnitude of the projection angle and the probability distribution of the visible and infrared radiation variables. The proposed algorithm was implemented to detect rain clouds over a tropical area with the special purpose of developing an application to improve the Hydro-Estimator, which is an operational and high-resolution rainfall retrieval algorithm that has been applied over the United States since 2002.

Keywords: Vector projection, classification, warm rainy clouds, rainfall detection algorithm, Hooke-Jeeves pattern search

Title of the Paper:  Optimization of Available Resources and Methods of Capitalizing Human Capital on Industrial Process Lines Efficiently


Authors: S. K. Subramaniam, A. H. Hamidon, R. S. S. Singh

Abstract: Efficiency and accuracy on the production lines enables an improved production and utilization of available resources within industries. Due to time constrain in the production process, the workers have to keep on their toe’s to ensure daily goals are met as set by the management. In the race for achieving set goals, human capital is the prime concern, even machineries also considered as a role player in the production lines. Measuring man power utilization is very slanted due to the standards and policy’s set by the management. Generally faults and mistakes done on the process line are always overwritten by adulterated production information’s to cover up any unwanted consequences. Such factors lead towards the down falls of the management in maximizing their available resources. Management should be skilled on resourcing for available production information’s and to accurately interpret these data in order to identify the various faults at production level especially on workers to immediately rectify in order to improve efficiency. An accurate data management system will ensure these miseries will be highlighted and counter measures are seen to ensure sustainability of these industries for the long term.

Keywords: Man power utilization, optimization of human capital, industrial production line, data management system

Title of the Paper:  Implementation of a Lidar System and its Usage in Characterization of Aerosols in the Atmospheric Column


Authors: Javier Mendez-Rodriguez, Hamed Parsiani

Abstract: Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a recent remote sensing system which has been gradually expanding as a network among the countries actively concerned about the atmospheric contaminants, earth radiation budget, rain variations, clean air index, etc. In this work, the design of a typical Lidar, ground based system for three wavelengths is explained. Essential parameters for the atmospheric characterizations such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Angstrom coefficient (A), and Aerosol Size Distribution (ASD) are explored and the obtained results are discussed. These parameters have been calculated and plotted based on three Lidar system wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm using the data obtained from Lidar in the Western part of Puerto Rico (location of UPRM Lidar system). The relationship between the essential parameters presented by the plots and the atmospheric behavior is explained using the collected data during two different days.

Keywords: Lidar system, AERONET station, Planetary Boundary Layer, Aerosol Optical Depth, Aerosol Size Distribution, Air Quality Index

Issue 7, Volume 8, July 2009

Title of the Paper:  Identifying Dynamic Systems with Polynomial Nonlinearities in the Errors-in-Variables Context


Authors: Levente Hunyadi, Istvan Vajk

Abstract: Many practical applications including speech and audio processing, signal processing, system identification, econometrics and time series analysis involve the problem of reconstructing a dynamic system model from data observed with noise in all variables. We consider an important class of dynamic single-input single-output nonlinear systems where the system model is polynomial in observations but linear in parameters, which captures a wide range of such systems. Assuming white Gaussian measurement noise that is characterized by a magnitude and a covariance structure, we propose a nonlinear extension to the generalized Koopmans–Levin method that can estimate parameters of dynamic nonlinear systems with polynomial nonlinearities given a priori knowledge on the noise covariance structure. In order to estimate noise structure, we apply a covariance matching objective function. Combining the extended Koopmans–Levin and the covariance matching approaches, an identification algorithm to estimate both model and noise parameters is proposed. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by Monte- Carlo simulations.

Keywords: System identification, discrete-time dynamic systems, errors-in-variables, linearizable systems, polynomial eigenvalue problem, covariance matching

Title of the Paper:  Intelligent Sea Transportation System Postoptimal Analysis


Authors: Sadko Mandzuka, Ivan Bosnjak, Ljupko Simunovic

Abstract: A procedure for the ship dynamic positioning postoptimal analysis in Intelligent Sea Transportation System Optimization is proposed. The dynamic positioning control system design is based on the optimal constrained covariance control (OC3). In that way some disadvantages of the classical optimal control technique are avoided. When the sensitivity of solutions to desired system performances is performed, then it can be shown that under particular circumstances, a slight change of desired system performances could significantly improve the optimal solution value. Namely, a slight relaxation of desired system position accuracy could result with significant energy savings. The presented numerical example illustrates some benefits of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation System, Dynamic Positioning, Mathematical Modelling, LQG control, Optimization problems, Postoptimal analysis, Robust control

Title of the Paper:  A Suppliers' Perspective of e-Procurement Integration in Automobile Industry


Authors: Noor Raihan Ab Hamid, Aznur Hajar Abdullah

Abstract: Most automakers find that integrating with their suppliers in an e-procurement environment able to help them streamlining information across diverse suppliers base. However, many barriers to the integration of e-procurement could hold back suppliers’ from realizing the integration with automakers (buyers). This study deals with e-procurement integration (EI) barriers within the Malaysian automobile industry, focusing on parts and components suppliers as the target respondents. A number of barriers, grouped as buyers, cultural, financial, IT and security barriers have been identified to influence suppliers’ decision to participate in EI network. However, only buyers’ barriers was identified as the major impediments to EI within the industry. This study also illustrates the effects of suppliers’ EI strategy and firm size on suppliers’ decisions in EI involvement. Overall, the suppliers who take on a passive approach to EI and large firm suppliers view buyers’ barrier as significant.

Keywords: E-procurement integration (EI), Automobile industry, Financial barriers, Cultural barriers, IT barriers, Buyers’ barriers and Security barriers

Title of the Paper:  Dynamic Modeling and Control of the Windshield Wiper Mechanisms


Authors: Catalin Alexandru, Claudiu Pozna

Abstract: Determining the real behavior of the windshield wiper mechanisms is a priority in the design stage since the emergence of the computer graphic simulation. The paper attempts to analyze and simulate the windshield wiper systems by using a complex virtual prototyping platform, which integrates specific software solutions for realizing the 3D solid model (CATIA), modeling the MBS mechanical model (ADAMS), and controlling the mechanism (MATLAB). For applying the design strategy, we considered a tandem pattern double-lever system, which is approached in the concurrent engineering concept, by integrating the control system in the mechanical model at the virtual prototype level. To drive the mechanism, a DC motor is used, the objective being to control the angular velocity of the rotor, which is the input parameter in the mechanical model; the output, which is transmitted to the controller, is the motor torque. Driving the system by using the motor torque is more realistic than attaching a motion generator and driving the motion directly.

Keywords: Windshield wiper mechanism, Multibody system, Mechatronic model, Virtual prototype

Title of the Paper:  Cost Calculation Algorithm for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems


Authors: Irfan Guney, Nevzat Onat, Gokhan Kocyigit

Abstract: Photovoltaics are the technology that generates direct current (DC) electrical power measured in watts or kilowatts from semiconductors when they are illuminated by photons. Photovoltaics are the technological symbol for a future sustainable energy supply system in many countries. A considerable amount of money is invested in research, development and demonstration; several governments set up substantial market introduction programs and industry invests in larger production facilities. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an economic method of project evaluation in which all costs arising from owning, operating, maintaining and ultimately disposing of a project are considered to be potentially important to that decision. Doing a LCCA gives the total cost of a PV system -including all expenses incurred over the life of the system. LCCA is particularly suitable for the evaluation of building design alternatives that satisfy a required level of building performance, but that may have different initial investment costs; different operating, maintenance and repair (OM&R) costs; and possibly different lives. In this study, a software computer program for educational purposes is designed to determine initial, life cycle and unit energy costs of a stand-alone photovoltaic system in Turkey. Depending on the selected location, material and criteria, the proposed software implements the life cycle analysis of the system. The database and fixed constants of proposed software can be updated and new elements can be added at any time. Present value algorithm is described in previous section is used for cost calculation. Inappropriate selection of components is blocked by the software. Also, too large selection of particular elements such as inverter and batteries is blocked for optimal sizing of the system. As a result of the calculations were performed using software designed, in terms of lifetime cost and unit energy costs of PV systems most suitable provinces are Mersin, Antalya, Adana, Mardin, Van, Ad?yaman, Ayd?n and Kilis respectively. In the opposite, the highest costs are in Gumushane, Yalova, Agr?, Cank?r? and Kastamonu provinces.

Keywords: Photovoltaic cell, Life Cycle Cost, Present Worth, PV System Design, Software, Unit Energy Cost

Title of the Paper:  Spectral and Geographical Domain Coordination for IMT-Advanced Compatibility with Point-to-Point Fixed Service


Authors: Zaid A. Shamsan, Tharek Abd Rahman, Muhammad R. Kamarudin

Abstract: Frequency intersystem interference is a phenomenon caused by coexistence of multiple wireless systems in same or adjacent areas. Consequently, frequency sharing studies play a very important rule in order to use limited spectrum resources efficiently. Because an International Mobile Telecommunication-Advanced (IMT-Advanced) systems are going to use 3500 MHz according to World Radiocommunication Conferences 2007 (WRC-07) decision along with point-to-point Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) system, which currently allocated in the same band, the frequency sharing between IMT-Advanced and FWA is essential. This paper investigates the spectrum sharing requirements in different terrestrial areas using interference to noise ratio criterion. Three methods of investigation of the interference, co-channel, null-guard band, and adjacent channel, have been proposed to investigate the phenomenon in the frequency and space domains to obtain correlation between the minimum separated range of base stations antennas and the frequency separation. Off-axis angles direction alignment is also proposed to reduce the necessary coordination separation distance and frequency separation for good enough coexistence between systems.

Keywords: Zero-guard band, Co-channel, Adjacent channel, Interference, I/N ratio, Separation distance, Off-axis angles direction alignment

Title of the Paper:  Bionic Structure of Mechanically Coupled Diaphragms for Sound Source Localization


Authors: Qingsheng Wang, Zhushi Rao, Na Ta

Abstract: The tasks of sound source localization are always of great value in many engineering applications. In these types of localization appliances, several microphone transducers are usually involved in the localization structures. Each of the arrival times of the sound stimulus applied to these microphones is determined individually and sent to the arithmetic-logic sections immediately by which the localization systems could find out positions of the sound sources subsequently. But these appliances always consist of many components, and the looseness of structures may narrow their practical applications. In this paper, a new type of instrument is designed to accomplish the purpose of localizing the sound source by a relatively compact structure. This bionics structure is designed to mimic the localization function of the ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea, and it consists of three elastic diaphragms, three bars which connected to the diaphragms, and the other mechanical components. The analysis of this structure’s dynamic behavior shows that the incident angles of the sound have special relationship to the responses of this instrument, and the incident angles can be estimated by detecting the vibrations of the three elastic diaphragms. Compared with traditional microphone arrays, this instrument has the advantage of compaction and higher integrated level.

Keywords: Vibration and wave, Biomechanics, Bionics, Sound Source localization

Title of the Paper:  A Real Time Algorithm for Monitoring the Gearbox Reliability Test


Authors: V. Niola, G. Quaremba, V. Avagliano

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to illustrate a new method for monitoring a gearbox during the reliability test (or duration test). In particular it is illustrated the tune-up of an algorithm for monitoring this test in order to stop it if an unexpected event occurs. In the first part it is explained the reliability test, why and how it is performed on a gearbox. In the second part it is showed the selection of the best points for the measurement and the equipment used for the assessment. In the third part it is presented the algorithm for improving the reliability test. We have settled the algorithm in order to stop the test if the gearbox will be damaged for any reason. By using this algorithm, we can early detect a gear crack, having so the advantage both of providing the integrity of the gearbox and the possibility of inspecting it.

Keywords: Gearbox, Fourier Analysis, Pitting, Side Bands

Title of the Paper:  Towards an Approach of Fuzzy Control Motion for Mobile Robots in Unknown Environments


Authors: Ouarda Hachour

Abstract: This paper deals with the intelligent navigation control of Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles (IAV) in an unknown environments. The aim of this paper is to develop an IAV combining Expert Systems (ES) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) for the IAV stationary obstacle avoidance to provide them more autonomy and more intelligence. Artificial intelligence, including Fuzzy logic and Expert system, has been actively studied and applied to domains such as automatically control of complex systems like robot. The proposed approach can deal a wide number of environments. This system constitutes the knowledge bases of FL_ES approach allowing recognizing situation of the target localization and obstacle avoidance, respectively. The integration of FL and ES based on intelligent computing offers to the autonomous mobile system the ability to realize these factors: recognition, learning, decision-making, and action (the principle obstacle avoidance problems). Hence, this hybrid intelligent system FL_ES is necessary to bring the behaviour of Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles (IAV). The combination of FL and ES is done using a grid-map form of an unknown environment with static unknown obstacles. The proposed algorithm allows a mobile robot to navigate through static obstacles, and finding the path in order to reach the target without collision. In each situation and autonomously, the robot moves within the unknown environment by sensing and avoiding the obstacles coming across its way towards the target. This intelligent task must make the robot able to achieve these tasks: to avoid obstacles, and to make ones way toward its target by ES_FL system capturing the behavior of a human expert. The integration of ES and FL has proven to be a way to develop useful real-world applications, and hybrid systems involving robust adaptive control. The proposed approach has the advantage of being generic and can be changed at the user demand. The results are satisfactory to see the great number of environments treated. The results are satisfactory and promising for next development.

Keywords: Expert System(ES), Fuzzy Logic)FL), Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles (IAV), navigation, Path planning

Title of the Paper:  The Combined Decision Making Technology based on the Statistical and Fuzzy Analysis and its Application in Forecast's Modeling


Authors: Irina Khutsishvili

Abstract: In the present work the combined Decision Making Technology based on the Statistical and Fuzzy Analysis is offered. This is a novel technology, which is based on the use of fuzzy-statistical methods. The technology involves two stages of decision-making. While considering the same object, the first three methods make a decision independently. These methods are – the Statistical Method of Fuzzy Grades’ Analysis, the Fuzzy Discrimination Analysis and the Case Based Reasoning. Each makes a decision with its own approach to a problem and uses statistical and expert data. These statistical data are the existing historical cases of correctly made decisions with exhibited activities. At the second stage, the fourth method – an Expertons method – is used to make a final decision. The method works with the expert data only and chooses the most believable decision from those offered by the first three methods. Proposed Decision Making Technology is applied to a specific forecasting problem – the decision-making on the possibility of earthquake occurrence. The present work describes the modifications of the “classical” variants of fuzzy-statistical methods, which became necessary to solve the specific forecasting problem and, also, introduces the Decision Support System, which was developed completely based on the proposed combined technology. The article provides an example clearly illustrating the work of the developed system.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Fuzzy Relative Frequencies, Membership Functions, most believable Decision, the similarity Measure between two Cases, Experton, Possibility Distribution.

Title of the Paper:  Statistical Calibration of the Natural Gas Consumption Model


Authors: Marek Brabec, Marek Maly, Emil Pelikan, Ondrej Konar

Abstract: We will discuss a problem pertinent to many situations in which a statistical model is developed on a sample of individuals (describing their trajectories), but then it is applied on a much larger population of interest. Typical examples occur in natural gas and other energy consumption contexts. Due to various deficiencies of the original sample-only based model, due to possible inconsistencies between sample and the population as a whole, and/or due to inherently different nature of the available sample and population data, calibration arises as a natural way to improve original model. We start with a simple approach and proceed to introduce a formal and flexible, time-varying statistical model of state-space nature, from which such a calibration will come out as one of the products. The calibration model is quite general and hence it can be used far beyond the particular context of natural gas consumption modeling in which it was originally motivated.

Keywords: Linear calibration, natural gas consumption modeling, Bayesian approach, statistical model, time-varying calibration, state-space model

Issue 8, Volume 8, August 2009

Title of the Paper:  Discriminate by Rough Set Methodology to Select Compound or Portfolio Relationships Oriented in Taiwan IT Industry


Authors: Jao-Hong Cheng, Chih-Ming Lee, Fu-Cheng Chien

Abstract: Under the rapid change business environment, the relationships of inter-organization in supply chain will be transformed from single to complex relationships, and complex relationships could be categorized into “Compound Relationships” or “Portfolio Relationships”. Theme of this research is to demonstrate how the external/internal resource and maintained flexible volatility of inter-organization will affect the competitive advantage for organization. Most current existed literatures of inter-organization in supply chain are focusing on the kind and features of the simple relationships or portfolio relationships. This study will use Rough set methodology to discriminate nature relations between compound relationships oriented and portfolio relationships oriented the theoretical framework model concerning the influence factors of the different selection between inter-organization in Supply Chain. Our goal is to provide the selection model which is built by discriminate analysis and Rough set methodology; furthermore, to encourage more academic and practical studies interactions.

Keywords: Relations Oriented Selection model, Compound Relationship, Portfolio Relations, Discriminate Analysis, Rough set

Title of the Paper:  Multi-objective Optimum Design of Balanced SAW Filters Using Generalized Differential Evolution


Authors: Kiyoharu Tagawa

Abstract: A multi-objective optimum design method of the balanced Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter is proposed. The frequency response characteristics of the balanced SAW filters are governed primarily by their geometrical structures. Besides, specifications for a balanced SAW filter is given by using several criteria. Therefore, in order to realize desirable frequency response characteristics, the structural design of the balanced SAW filter is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. Then a recent Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO) algorithm, which is called Generalized Differential Evolution 3 (GED3), is applied to the multi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, in order to clarify the tradeoff relationship among the objective functions of the multi-objective optimization problem, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to assess the set of the non-dominated solutions obtained by GDE3. Finally, the proposed optimum design method is demonstrated in the three- and the two-objective optimum design problems of a practical balanced SAW filter.

Keywords: Surface acoustic wave filter, differential evolution, multi-objective optimization

Title of the Paper:  The Analysis of Industrial Product External Surfaces: A Pattern Recognition Approach to the Situation of Imprecise Limits


Authors: Edson Pacheco Paladini

Abstract: The present study describes a model which, by using pattern recognition procedures, detects defects on the external surface of pieces and industrial products, especially those whose borders are indefinite. In addition to describing the model, a practical application and the results obtained are described, including an important extension of this work, i.e. the comparison of pieces with standards (defect control by means of matching procedures).

Keywords: Quality, External Surface Analysis, Pattern Recognition

Title of the Paper:  Mobile Robot Navigation based on CNN Images Processing – An Experimental Setup


Authors: I. Gavrilut, V. Tiponut, A. Gacsadi

Abstract: This paper presents results of our work in development of a path-planning algorithm for obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot in a real workspace. The gray-scale images processing of the robot’s workspace (global path-planning) is realized by using cellular neural networks (CNNs). Besides that, two IR sensors, mounted in front of the robot were used for fast obstacle avoidance (local path-planning).

Keywords: Mbile robot, cellular neural networks, image processing, path-planning, IR sensors

Title of the Paper:  An Approach for Design of Multi-element USBL Systems


Authors: Mikhail Arkhipov

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for design of multi-element ultra-short baseline (USBL) systems with the goal to improve the coordinate determination accuracy of the underwater objects. The object location estimation is performed on the base of the measurement of the distance to the object and the angular object position. It is supposed that the object is equipped with a transponder that receives the interrogation acoustical impulse and sends an acoustical impulse in reply. The idea of the design method is to increase of the number of receiving elements of the USBL antenna with a corresponding increase of the number of the receiving bases with the different spatial orientation. The arrangement of the array receiving elements is obtained by the rotations of the basic (three-element) receiving arrays around the longitudinal and lateral carrier axes (the case of the determination of the Cartesian coordinates of the object in the carrier coordinate system is considered). It is supposed that the control of the spatial orientation of the receiving USBL array is realized by means of measurement of its pitch and roll angles (in the carrier coordinate system). In the article the proposed method is applied for design of the nine-element USBL system. The special coordinate determination algorithm for the proposed USBL system is designed and tested. The simulation of the algorithm was realized with the assumption that the object can have an arbitrary location in the lower hemisphere and the receiving USBL antenna can have significant inclination. The coordinate determination accuracy of the proposed USBL system is evaluated.

Keywords: Ultra-short baseline (USBL) system, underwater object, transponder, carrier coordinate system, local coordinate system, pitch and roll angles

Title of the Paper:  A New Index for Monitoring the Duration Test


Authors: V. Niola, G. Quaremba, V. Avagliano

Abstract: The aim of this work is to improve the algorithm proposed for monitoring the reliability test (duration test). In order to improve this task, a new index was developed for studying the Side Bands. In fact each frequency of the spectrum has a specific meaning as well as the Side Bands. They appear when an anomaly occurs (in particular, in this work when an anomaly occurs in the gearbox under study). Several diagrams and considerations when an unexpected event occurs are presented. In the first part it is described the typical frequencies due to the gearbox vibration. In the second part it is illustrated the concept of harmonics, side bands and their meaning. In the third part a new index for monitoring the reliability test is presented. Such an index was designed in order to answer to many questions before the crack exceeds. In fact it gives the opportunity of checking the various aspects of the spectrum of the accelerometer signal. In particular it gives information about the order exceeding the target, so we can find earlier the cause of damage. An alarm starts if a damage on a gear wheel is detected.

Keywords: Assembly-Phase-Passage Frequency, Tooth Repeat Frequency, Harmonics, Side Bands

Title of the Paper:  Research on Parameter Identification of Modified Friction LuGre Model Based Distributions Theory


Authors: Radu Zglimbea, Virginia Finca, Emilian Greaban, Marin Constantin

Abstract: Based on distributions theory to continuous time systems with friction using the this paper presents a batch on-line method for the parameter identification of the modified LuGre friction model. Mainly it applies the results of the identification procedures based on distributions theory to continuous time systems with friction. There are defined the so called generalized friction dynamic systems (GFDS) as a closed loop structure around a smooth system with discontinuous feedback loops representing friction reaction vectors. Both GFDS with static friction models (SFM) and dynamic friction models (DFM), also the modified friction LuGre model is analyzed. The identification problem is formulated as a condition of vanishing the existence relation of the system. Then, this relation is represented by functionals using techniques from distribution theory based on testing function from a finite dimensional fundamental space. The advantage of representing information by distributions are pointed out when special evolutions as sliding mode, or limit cycle can appear.The proposed method is a batch on-line identification because identification results are obtained during the system evolution after some time intervals but not in any time moment. This method does not require the derivatives of measured signals for its implementation. Some experimental results are presented to illuminate its advantages and practical use. At last, the simulation results have shown effectiveness of the proposed method for friction parameter identification.

Keywords: Identification, Distribution theory, Friction, the modified friction LuGre model

Title of the Paper:  Local Environmental Quality Evaluation System Based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process


Authors: Kuei-Yang Wu, Hong-Di Huang

Abstract: In this study, the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) analysis technique is applied to the Local Environmental Quality (LEQ) management strategy for the community.The results show that the factors of resource recycling and utilization are the most important influences on the LEQ management strategy of the community. The global weight of the spare resource and utilize is 0.1664, and it is the most important factor in the sub-factor of the steps. In a community sustainable management strategy assessment, the global weights of the spare resource and utilization, impetus the community zero waste, the community installation, and space activation, in pollution prevention of the community, and recycling, reusing, and the installation of polluting factories are the important sub-factors in the LEQ assessment, and would affect the sustainable management strategy assessments, the analysis of the global weights are at 0.17~0.09. In the aspect of evaluations on bases, Guannan Village has the lowest degree of achievement in sustainable development of LEQ (24.87%). Compared with the other three villages, it’s more critical to effectively control the establishment of polluting factories. Also, the equipment for handling pollutants released by factories must be enhanced. And the education on recycling must be carried out.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision making, Local Environmental Quality, AHP, Fuzzy set theory, FAHP

Title of the Paper:  Structured-Image Retrieval Invariant to Rotation, Scaling and Translation


Authors: C. Aviles-Cruz, A. Ferreyra-Ramirez, J. J. Ocampo-Hidalgo, I. Vazquez-Alvarez

Abstract: In Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) domain a new methodology is proposed in this paper; this methodology is based on statistical features such as Hu invariant moments (invariant to scale and translation) and a correlation measure (between 2 images). In order to attack image rotation problem, we use principal components analysis. Image comparison is done by correlation. Proposed scheme was tested with hundred of structured images like: electronic circuits, cell phones, cars, trees, leaves, grass, glasses, tables, etc. Features characteristics are extracted from invariant moments, taken from window size estimation. From a query image, a set of features were estimated in order to compare to a set of images. Correlation function is applied to get image similarity, it is obtained a believe percentage value. As a methodology conclusion, we found that the invariant moments combined with principal component analysis gives excellent results in image retrieval task. An exhaustive study was performed with 1000 images. We also evaluated the impact of noise on the images testing additive Gaussian random noise.

Keywords: Image retrieval, PCA, Invariant Moments, Pattern Recognition

Title of the Paper:  A Decision-Based Model and Algorithm for Maneuvering Target Tracking


Authors: Jiahong Chen, Zhonghua Zhang, Zhendong Xi, Yongxing Mao

Abstract: The decision-based models for maneuvering target tracking were studied in this paper. Focusing on the problem of dissatisfied with single model tracking and the optimal model-set is difficult to design of the multiple-model (MM) algorithm, we modified the “current” model, and proposed an adaptive single model (ASM) to track angular motion. The united velocity-acceleration estimation-based and direct measurement-based decision algorithms for model-switching were provided and discussed. At the same time, we discussed the question of the thresholds setup, and gave a significance test method based on hypothesis testing theory. Simulation results show that the tracking performance of this new adaptive single model is stationary, and is improved much more than the “current” model, also better than the interacting multiple-model (IMM) for strong maneuvering target tracking. Furthermore the computational load of the new model can be less than that of IMM.

Keywords: Adaptive single model, multiple-model, maneuvering target tracking, “current” model, decision-based algorithm, model-switching

Title of the Paper:  A Method for Obstacle Avoidance in Role Reassignment of Robot Formation Control


Authors: Yu-Cheng Chen, Yin-Tien Wang

Abstract: In the paper, an algorithm for the obstacle avoidance and a procedure for the role reassignment of robot formation control based on this algorithm are proposed. This algorithm contains an edge detector that is used to determine the position of the vertical edges of the obstacle in the environment. Meanwhile, a motion controller is also designed in this research based on the dynamic equation for robots. The developed algorithm is applied to the formation control of omni-directional driven robots. Simulation and experiment are performed to verify the proposed algorithm and the results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm for obstacle avoidance and procedure for role reassignment are efficient for robot formation control.

Keywords: Obstacle avoidance, Formation control, Role assignment, Robot control

Issue 9, Volume 8, September 2009

Title of the Paper:  Adaptive Categorization of Complex System Fault Patterns


Authors: Seyed Shahrestani

Abstract: Due to large amount of information and the inherent intricacy, diagnosis in complex systems is a difficult task. This can be somehow simplified by taking a per-step towards categorizing the system conditions and faults. In this paper, the development and implementation of an approach that establishes class membership conditions, using a labeled training set, is described. More specifically, the use of negative recognition for classification and diagnosis of complex system faults are discussed. The adaptive recognition to achieve the classification is based on discovery of pattern features that make them distinct from objects belonging to different classes. Most of the existing approaches to fault diagnosis, particularly for large or complex systems, depend on heuristic rules. The approach proposed in this work does not resort to any heuristic rules, which makes it more suitable for diagnosis of faults in dynamic and complex systems. For evaluation purposes, using the data provided by the protection simulator of a large power system, its fault diagnosis is carried out. The results of those simulations are also reported. They clearly reveal that even for complex systems, the proposed approach, based on making use of the distinctive features of encountered fault patterns, is capable of fault classification with minimal supervision.

Keywords: Adaptive Recognition, Classification, Complex Systems, Diagnosis, Fault Identification, Fault Pattern, Power Systems

Title of the Paper:  The Prediction of Taiwan 10-Year Government Bond Yield


Authors: Kuentai Chen, Hong–Yu Lin, Tz–chen Huang

Abstract: Neural Networks are nowadays a promising technique in various financial applications. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Neural Networks are accurate and efficient. Yet research for the field of forecasting government bond yield is short. Among these limited number of studies, Backpropagation network (BPN) seems to be the most used method. However, suffering form the potential problems, such as slow training speed, long processing time, and possible local minimum, BPN may not be the best solution for all applications in practice. The purpose of this research is to provide an in-depth study of effects of on the performance of different neural networks in Taiwan’s 10-year government bond yields forecasting. Five selected models with different structures, namely Backpropagation network (BPN), Resilient Propagation (RPROP), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), and Support Vector Regression (SVR), are investigated and the results are analyzed and compared. The results indicate that (1) the number of nodes in the hidden layer is insensitive to the prediction. (2) The recommended number of input nodes is five. (3) More training samples do enhance forecasting performance in our study. (4) The performance of RBFN is the best, followed by ANFIS and RPROP, SVR, and then BPN. (5) BPN is efficient but not the best approach. (6) Our result reveals that RBFN is a useful predicting approach in government bond yield, it performs better than other four models. The recommended structure for RBFN in this application is five input nodes, six center nodes in the hidden layer, and one output node.

Keywords: Government bond, yield, forecasting, artificial neural network, neural networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Title of the Paper:  Earth Resistivity Estimation Based on Satellite Imaging Techniques


Authors: Kwanchai Norsangsri, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper proposes a useful technique for generating an earth resistivity map. Earth resistance is one of essential factors in a broad range of power system analysis and design. Information of earth resistivity is helpful for practical power system engineers in order to establish power system grounding. In this paper, a LANSAT7 image of a tested area of 50 km2 was used by ENVI program in associative with a set of resistivity data obtained from field measurement. By using the maximum likelihood for supervised classification of a mixed band 7, 5 and 3, highest value of 85.71% confidence was obtained.

Keywords: Earth resistivity, Wenner method, Satellite image technology, Power system grounding, Classification technique, Multispectral

Title of the Paper:  Experimental Measurement of Information Transfer Rate of the Inertial Sensor Based Human-Computer Interface for the Disabled


Authors: Josip Music, Mojmil Cecic, Mirjana Bonkovic

Abstract: The paper presents inertial sensor based human-computer interface for the disabled. The device uses commercially available inertial sensor pack to reliably measure 3D head orientation (via Kalman filtering of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer measurements) which is then transformed into appropriate control signal(s) depending on the intended application scenario. In order to measure information transfer rate (or throughput) of the device, application to computer pointer control is explored. Initial study on the subject was achieved in our earlier work [1] where number of application issues were identified. The current paper deals with possible solutions to some of the issues by introducing additional signal conditioning algorithms and examines their influence on device comfort and throughput as the two most important performance parameters. Obtained information transfer rates are presented and compared to values from the initial study and to values of some widely used interfaces such as trackball or joystick (found in the literature). The effects of proposed improvements are discussed and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: Human-computer interface, throughput, inertial sensors, accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer

Title of the Paper:  Development and Testing of a Device for Human Kinematics Measurement


Authors: Ivo Stancic, Daniela Borojevic, Tamara Supuk

Abstract: This paper presents a simple, inexpensive, and fast procedure for motion kinematics measurement and analysis [1,2]. System developed in our laboratory is based on a high speed industrial camera, active LED markers and a PC for handling cameras video stream and data analysis. Active markers used in this work were assembled using small, lightweight and easily available white LEDs. Smaller LEDs allow larger density of markers to be placed on a subject in motion, tracking position and orientation of all segments relevant for motion kinematic analysis. Computer vision algorithm for marker detection and tracking was developed in-house, followed by an algorithm for computing and analyzing kinematics data of human locomotion [3-5]. Procedures for camera calibration and sub pixel accuracy were also developed and integrated with the system. The accuracy and properties of our system were tested, and results were compared with the existing referent systems presently used in the field. Results of testing marker – camera properties suggest that the system could support work in larger volumes (distances from camera) and almost perpendicular rotations of marker against camera. This property allows building of a 3D kinematics tracking system with two or more cameras placed at different angels against the subject in setup. Proposed system has a few disadvantages; measurements and results that are representative in only one plane and use of battery powered active markers that could disturb subject during normal gait trial. The major advantage of our system is that it offers acceptable accuracy, high speed (up to 320Hz) and easy upgradeability at much lower price when compared with the other commercially available systems [6-8]. Further development of our system will include additional cameras for 3D marker tracking and integration with an inertial sensor for full kinematics and kinetic measurement of human movement.

Keywords: Biomechanics, computer vision, active markers, human motion kinematics

Title of the Paper:  Circuit Heating Plant Model with Internal Delays


Authors: Libor Pekar, Roman Prokop, Petr Dostalek

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to utilize an unordinary anisochronic modelling principle on a circuit thermal laboratory plant. The class of anisochronic models is characterized by the existence of state (internal) delays, both distributed or lumped ones. The modelled laboratory appliance was designed at Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic, as a thermal heating circuit small scale model with dynamic properties similar to that of a real heating system (e.g. a cooling circuit in cars). The motivation for the modelling of this plant was double. First, the dynamics of the plant exhibits unconventional step responses which cannot be explained by a standard analytic means. Second, the authors of this contribution intend to use the obtained anisochronic mathematical description of the plant with the view of the verification of algebraic control algorithms in the RMS ring designed for delayed systems earlier.

Keywords: Anisochronic models, Time-delay systems, Modelling, Heating systems

Title of the Paper:  Analysis and Interpretation of Ground Reaction Forces in Normal Gait


Authors: Tea Marasovic, Mojmil Cecic, Vlasta Zanchi

Abstract: The locomotion biomechanics study provides very extensive and interesting material for investigating the physiological process involved and the neural mechanisms controlling the systems. Gait analysis – the systematic analysis of locomotion – is used today for pretretment assessment, surgical decision making, postoperative follow-up, and management of both adult and young patients. Over the past few decades, multiple advances in bioengineering technology have permited precise analysis of many specific gait characteristics, such as joint angles, angular velocities and angular accelerations (kinematic analysis), as well as ground reaction forces, joint forces, moments and powers (kinetic analysis); electromyographic activity and energy consumption. Sophisticated gait analysis equipment can generate a visible force vector on an oscilloscope screen and superimpose it simultaneously on a photograph of a gait subject. Visualizing ground reaction forces helps us understand the effect they are having on the body in walking. If we have a full kinematic description, accurate anthropometric measures, and the external forces, we can calculate the joint reaction forces and musle moments. This predicition, called the inverse solution, is a very powerful tool in gaining insight into the net summation of all muscle activity at each joint. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a ground reaction force analysis, conducted using the data samples of 40 voluntary subjects from our faculty student and employee population, differing in age, sex, height and weight, measured by the AMTI force platform.

Keywords: Biomechanics, kinetics, gait characteristics, ground reaction force, Pedotti diagram

Issue 10, Volume 8, October 2009

Title of the Paper:  Theoretical and Experimental Determination of Equivalent Parameters of Three-Phase Induction Motor Windings in Case of Power Electronic Converters Supply


Authors: Sorin Musuroi, Valeriu-Nicola Olarescu, Doru Vatau, Ciprian Sorandaru

Abstract: In the present paper is carried out a theoretical and experimental study of induction motor behavior in the presence of distorting regime (non-sinusoidal) due to the power electronic converter. The main aims are the determination of the relations of calculating the equivalent parameters of the machine winding supplied by power electronic converter and the practice of verifying them. Also proposed is a comparative study with case of sinusoidal supply, with emphasis on the influence of the presence of the electronic converter on the machine parameters. Issue is limited to three phase range of cage-induction machine of small and medium-sized powers, to 45 [kW], the most currently used in the usual adjustable speed drives. The tests were carried out using two three-phase induction motors having rated powers of 0.37 [kW] and 1.1 [kW] respectively.q

Keywords: Induction machines, converters, equivalent parameters, non-sinusoidal regime

Title of the Paper:  Mathematical Model Associated to Three-Phase Induction Servomotors in the Case of Scalar Control


Authors: Sorin Musuroi, Ciprian Sorandaru, Valeriu-Nicola Olarescu, Marcus Svoboda

Abstract: Scalar control of induction servomotors was implemented on their steady-state model. If the machine is powered via a frequency and voltage converter, due to the presence in the motor input voltage wave of higher time harmonics, both its parameters and functional characteristic values will be more or less different comparing to the case of sinusoidal supply. The presence of these harmonics will result in the appearance of a distorting regime in the machine, with adverse effects in operation. In this work is realized a theoretical study of the behavior of the asynchronous servomotor in the presence of distorting (non-sinusoidal) regime and also a mathematical model for its scalar control is proposed.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Asynchronous servomotor, Non-sinusoidal regime, Power converter, Scalar control

Title of the Paper:  The Determination of Empirical Model for Surface Roughness in Turning Process Using Design of Experiment


Authors: Karin Kandananond

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to determine the empirical model for surface roughness in a turning process. This process is performed in the final assembly department at a manufacturing company which supplies fluid dynamic bearing (FDB) spindle motors for hard disk drives (HDDs). The workpieces used were the sleeves of FDB motors made of ferritic stainless steel, grade AISI 12L14. A 2k factorial experiment was used to characterize the effects of machining factors, depth of cut, spindle speed and feed rate on the surface roughness of the sleeve. The results show that the surface roughness is minimized when the spindle speed and feed rate are set to the highest levels while the depth of cut is set to the lowest level. Even though the results from this research are process specific, the methodology deployed can be readily applied to different turning processes. As a result, practitioners have guidelines for achieving the highest possible performance potential.

Keywords: Fluid dynamic bearing (FDB), Full factorial experiment design, Hard disk drives (HDDs), Spindle motor sleeve, Surface roughness, Turning process

Title of the Paper:  Systems Dynamics of Future Urbanization and Energy-related CO2 Emissions in China


Authors: Zhou Wei, Mi Hong

Abstract: China is undergoing urbanization on the largest scale in the world, which need huge amounts of energy,and will emit huge amounts of CO2 into atmosphere.Now China is the country that emits most CO2 in the world. Urbanization means population migrate to city and town, which will increase sharply demand for energy and other resource.Considering the energy efficiency and energy structure in China,the situation will be extremely serious. The urbanization is caused by population migrating from rural to urban areas, which is promoted by the income gap between them. We compute the migration size based on rural and urban income gap and space discrepancy of the distribution of population and economic activities, and futher calculate the number of new residents in cities. What is more,taking Chinese industrial structure and energy consumption in each industry into account,we calculate energy consumption and CO2 Emissions in the year 2010-2030. Considering energy consumption structure will be changed in the future,we simulate the CO2 Emissions in different energy consumption structure. The conclusion is that CO2 Emissions can be reduced 1.95 billion tons in 2030 if clear energy account for 20% of total energy consumption.

Keywords: Urbanization, Energy Demand, Energy Structure, CO2 Emissions, Systems Dynamics

Title of the Paper:  Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Kurtosis Wave and Information Divergence for Rolling Element Bearings


Authors: Huaqing Wang, Peng Chen

Abstract: Fault diagnosis depends largely on feature analysis of vibration signals. However, feature extraction for fault diagnosis is difficult because the vibration signals often contain a strong noise component. Noises stronger than the actual fault signal may interfere with diagnosis and ultimately cause misdiagnosis. In order to extract the feature from a fault signal highly contaminated by the noise, and to accurately identify the fault types, a novel diagnosis method is proposed based on the kurtosis wave and information divergence for fault detection in a rolling element bearing. A kurtosis wave (KW) is defined in the time domain using the vibration signal, and a method for obtaining the kurtosis information wave (KIW) is also proposed based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence using the kurtosis wave. A practical example of diagnosis for an outer-race defect in a bearing is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. This paper also compares the proposed method with two envelope analysis techniques, namely the wavelet transform- and the FFT-based envelope analysis techniques. The analyzed results show that the feature of a bearing defect is extracted clearly, and the bearing fault can be effectively identified using the proposed method.

Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Rolling Element Bearing, Envelope Analysis, Kurtosis Wave, Information Divergence

Title of the Paper:  Kinetics of Cement Strength Development Using Different Types of Cement and Aggregates


Authors: Dimitris Tsamatsoulis

Abstract: The object of the present study is the kinetics of cement strength development using different cement and aggregate types. The model that has been developed uses the following data: (1) Composition of cement. (2) Mineral composition of clinker. (3) Cement fineness. (4) Early, standard and long-term strength data. (5) Aggregates nature. The parameters of the model are constituted by: (1) The hydration rates of the mineral phases of clinker that are a function of the cement fineness. (2) The contribution of each phase to the cement strength. As far as the hydration of phases is concerned first order kinetic has been used. The parameters of the model were calculated through fitting to experimental points of strength for the cement types CEM I and CEM II A-L produced in the factory of HALYPS. Siliceous and calcareous aggregates were utilized. The effect of the clay, sometimes existing in the concrete aggregates is also investigated and incorporated in the mathematical treatment. . The impact of the aggregates type on the mortar strength development and variance is linked with physical characteristics of the aggregates. The mathematical model can be utilized for the cement composition design, as well as a quality control tool for regulation of the current production

Keywords: Strength, Hydration, Kinetics, Cement, Aggregates, Clinker, Model

Issue 11, Volume 8, November 2009

Title of the Paper:  Gearshift Control for Dry Dual-Clutch Transmissions


Authors: Chunsheng Ni, Tongli Lu, Jianwu Zhang

Abstract: In this paper a smooth control algorithm for gear shifting is proposed for improving longitudinal dynamic performance during dry dual-clutch engagements while shifting up or down takes place based on measurements of engine speed and clutch speed, and on estimation of the dual-clutch engaging torque. Simulation effort is made by Matlab/Simulink for transient responses of the overall propulsion system with the dry dual-clutch transmission (DDCT) in consideration of twin clutch engagement rules for gear shifting. As a numerical example, the present control algorithm is used for the DDCT equipped vehicle to simulate overlapping shifting behaviors. By the numerical it is shown that the DDCT vehicle possesses of much better longitudinal dynamic performance in shifting by imposing proper control of engine and the dual-clutch.

Keywords: Dry dual-clutch transmission, Engaging force, Smooth control algorithm, Clutch control, Engine control, Shifting behaviors

Title of the Paper:  Localizing Multiple Odor Sources in a Dynamic Environment Based on Modified Niche Particle Swarm Optimization with Flow of Wind


Authors: W. Jatmiko, A. Nugraha, R. Effendi, W. Pambuko, R. Mardian, K. Sekiyama, T. Fukuda

Abstract: A new algorithm based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) that follows is a local gradient of a chemical concentration within a plume and follows the direction of the wind velocity is investigated. Moreover, the niche characteristic is adopted to solve the multi-peak and multi-source problem. Simulations results demonstrate that the new approach is reliable for The Advection-Diffusion odor robotic model. Finally, the statistical analysis shows this new approach is technically sound.

Keywords: Multiple Odor Sources Localization, Modified Niche PSO

Title of the Paper:  Application of Sliding Fuzzy Control on Robust Algorithm for Frequency Estimation of Distorted Signals in Power Systems


Authors: Kuo-Nan Yu, Cheng-Ming Lee

Abstract: This paper presents a sliding fuzzy control (SFC) to adapt the exponent of robust algorithm to a signal with a variable frequency in a power system. With the aid of SFC, the robust algorithm can more improve the performance of extended complex Kalman filter (ECKF) at the severe variation of frequency. The proposed method is involved in ECKF’s algorithm without changing any form; besides, it can enhance the estimation accuracy and reduce the computation time. Results of comparative studies of the technique proposed with the ECKF with robust algorithm (RECKF) and RECKF-SFC are presented in the paper.

Keywords: Kalman Filter, Robust Algorithm, Sliding Fuzzy Controller, Frequency Estimation, Distorted Signals

Title of the Paper:  An Integrated Passive Islanding Detection Method for Distributed Generators


Authors: Wen-Yeau Chang, Hong-Tzer Yang

Abstract: This study proposes a new islanding detection method for use of grid-interconnected distributed generators (DG). The method is based on two indices: the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) and the rate of change of voltage (ROCOV). When a DG is grid-interconnected, the ROCOF and ROCOV are lower than the threshold value. In contrast, as an islanding occurs, the ROCOF or ROCOV become much higher than the threshold values. Detection systems monitor terminal voltage at the grid-interconnected point to calculate ROCOF and ROCOV, and issue an operating signal when the value and duration of ROCOF or ROCOV exceed a given threshold. In this study, experiments are conducted to illustrate the principles of the proposed technique for both synchronous generators and induction generators. The test results show that the newly proposed method is reliable, economical, and easy to implement for islanding detection of distributed generators.

Keywords: Islanding detection, Distributed generator, Rate of change of frequency, Rate of change of voltage

Title of the Paper:  An Experimental Study on the Self-Recovery Regulation System of Centrifugal Compressor Axial Displacement Fault


Authors: Yan Li, Weimin Wang, Jinji Gao, Shuangxi Li

Abstract: The axial displacement fault has very little indication before taking place and the fracture of oil film between thrust disk and tilt pads mainly contributes to this breakdown. Usually this fracture was caused by the contamination of oil or decrease of oil supply pressure which result in losing load bearing capacity of oil film. Also the increase of axial force caused by fluctuation of operation condition can result in the oil film fracture. Both of the above reasons can lead to tilt pads abrasion and emergency shutdown of machine. The method presented in this paper monitors the stiffness of oil film and identifies the reason of axial displacement increasing. By introducing the mechanism of axial displacement fault self-recovering and taking the axial displacement as the control objectives, the axial forces on rotor was controlled on-line and the minimum oil film thickness was ensured in real time. The experiment indicated that the mechanism can realize the axial fault self-recovery effectively, and with this system, the centrifugal compressor doesn’t need to be shut down immediately when the axial displacement fault happens.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor, axial displacement, thrust bearing, fault self-recovery, PID controller, axial stiffness

Title of the Paper:  Applying DEA and PLS Path Modeling for Efficiency Evaluation


Authors: Wei-Wen Wu

Abstract: Organizations need to work on productivity improvement in order to enhance their operational performances. A number of works have taken efforts in efficiency evaluation and ranking using analytic methods such as the data envelopment analysis (DEA). However, few works have highlighted the relationship among significant factors that affect productivity. Performing efficiency evaluation and ranking is essential for productivity improvement. Apart from that, it is also a requirement to create a clear picture in terms of the relationship among critical productivity factors. PLS path modeling is a popular causal analysis technique, by which a causal map can be created. Therefore, this paper suggests a solution combining DEA with PLS path modeling for conducting a more profound efficiency evaluation. In addition, an empirical study of the hotel industry in Taiwan is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Efficiency evaluation, DEA, productivity factor, PLS path modeling

Issue 12, Volume 8, December 2009

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Learning Vector Quantization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization For Artificial Odor Dicrimination System


Authors: W. Jatmiko, Rochmatullah, B. Kusumoputro , K. Sekiyama, T. Fukuda

Abstract: An electronic nose system had been developed by using 16 quartz resonator sensitive membranesbasic resonance frequencies 20 MHz as a sensor, and analyzed the measurement data through various neural network as a pattern recognition system. The developed system showed high recognition probability to discriminate various single odors even mixture odor to its high generality properties; however the system still need improvement. In order to improve the performance of the proposed system, development of the sensor and other neural network are being sought. This paper explains the improvement of the capability of that system from the point of neural network system. It has been proved from our previos work that FLVQ (Fuzzy Learning Vectoq Quantization) which is LVQ (Learning Vector Quantization) together with fuzzy theory shows high recognition capability compared with other neural networks, however FLVQ have a weakness for selecting the best codebook vector that will influence the result of recognition. This problem will be anticipated by adding the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) method to select the best codebook vector. Then experiment showt that the new recognition system (FLVQ-PSO) has produced higher capability compared to the earlier mentioned system.

Keywords: Fuzzy Learning Vector Quantization, Matrix Similarity Analysis, Particle Swarm Optimization, Codebook, Electronic Nose, Odor

Title of the Paper:  Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Uncertain Longitudinal Brake System of Hybrid Electric Bus


Authors: Jie Shu, Yong Zhang, Chengliang Yin

Abstract: In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control scheme is designed for hybrid electric bus. The trajectory tracking control for stopping the bus in a bus station is proposed. The control strategies of regenerative braking in the hybrid electric bus add the control difficulty of the longitudinal braking system. Its nonlinearities are estimated by adaptive fuzzy method and projection method. The stability and convergence properties of the longitudinal brake control system are analytically proved by using Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat’s lemma. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller shows a good performance of tracking the pre-designed profile even the brake system has the regenerative braking or has different initial state from the velocity profile.

Keywords: Hybrid electric bus; Longitudinal brake control; Regenerative braking; Adaptive control; Fuzzy logic; Sliding mode control

Title of the Paper:  Non-Rigid Shape Recognition for Sign Language Understanding


Authors: Liviu Vladutu

Abstract: The recognition of human activities from video sequences is currently one of the most active areas of research because of its many applications in video surveillance, multimedia communications, medical diagnosis, forensic research and sign language recognition. The work described in this paper describes a new method designed to precisely identify human gestures for Sign Language recognition. The system is to be developed and implemented on a standard personal computer (PC) connected to a colour video camera. The present paper tackles the problem of shape recognition for deformable objects like human hands using modern classification techniques derived from artificial intelligence.

Keywords: Urbanization, Energy Demand, Energy Structure, CO2 Emissions, Systems Dynamics

Title of the Paper:  Application of Grey Clustering Approach and Genetic Algorithm to Partial Discharge Pattern Recognition


Authors: Wen-Yeau Chang

Abstract: Partial discharge (PD) measurement and recognition is a significant tool for potential failure diagnosis of the high-voltage equipment. This paper proposes the application of grey clustering approach (GCA) to recognize partial discharge patterns of the high-voltage equipment. The PD patterns are measured by using a commercial PD detector. A set of features, used as operators, for each PD pattern is extracted through statistical schemes. The significant features of PD patterns are extracted by using the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed grey clustering approach has the advantages of high robustness and effectiveness to ambiguous patterns and is useful in recognizing the PD patterns of the high-voltage equipment. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the grey clustering approach was verified on two types of high-voltage equipments. The test results show that the proposed approach may achieve quite satisfactory recognition of PD patterns.

Keywords: Partial discharge, Pattern recognition, Grey clustering approach, Genetic algorithm

Title of the Paper:  Diagnostic of Silicon Carbide Surge Arresters of Substation


Authors: Arnaldo G. Kanashiro, Milton Zanotti Jr., Paulo F. Obase, Wilson R. Bacega

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research project aiming the diagnostic of the silicon carbide surge arresters. These surge arresters are being gradually replaced by the gapless zinc oxide ones, therefore, it is very important to select the surge arresters that are more degraded in order to avoid failures in the field. Tests were performed at the laboratory and the results showed a good correlation between the leakage current measurement, radio-influence voltage test and thermovision and the presence of deterioration in the internal parts of the surge arresters. The results obtained in this research might help the utility to develop more adequate maintenance programs and to select the silicon carbide surge arresters that need replacement.

Keywords: Diagnostic, Leakage Current, Radio-Influence, Silicon Carbide, Surge Arrester, Thermovision

Title of the Paper:  A Sequential Design Method for Multivariable Feedback Control Systems


Authors: Tain-Sou Tsay

Abstract: In this paper, a sequential design method is proposed for analyses and designs of multivariable feedback control systems. The overall compensator is implemented systematiccally with a cascaded layer-wrapped structure and diagonal compensators. The method can take into consideration of stability, integrity, diagonal dominance and performance in a sequential manner. Roots of stability-equations are used to select parameters of compensators in the parameter plane. Three 2x2 and one 4x4 multivariable examples are given and comparisons with the methods in current literature are made.

Keywords: Sequential design, Integrity, Stability, Multivariable feedback control system


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