WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 9, 2010
Print ISSN: 1109-2777
E-ISSN: 2224-2678








Issue 1, Volume 9, January 2010

Title of the Paper:  Role of Different Order Ranges of Autocorrelation Sequence on the Performance of Speech Recognition


Authors: Poonam Bansal, Amita Dev, Shail Bala Jain

Abstract: In this paper, cepstral features derived from the Differentiated Relative Higher Order Autocorrelation Sequence Spectrum (DRHOASS) are proposed for improving the robustness of a speech recognizer in the presence of background noise. Proposed method is analyzed and compared in terms of the autocorrelation coefficients they employ with the traditional feature extraction methods based on Linear Pediction (LP) analysis. LP- based techniques used are Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC), Short-Time Modified Coherence (SMC) and the One-Sided Autocorrelation Linear Prediction Coefficient (OSALPC). We evaluate the speech recognition performance of the proposed features on the Hindi isolated-word task and show that the proposed features show better recognition performance than the features derived from the robust liner prediction based methods for noisy speech.

Keywords: Autocorrelation coefficients, Feature vector set, LPCC, SMC, OSALPC

Title of the Paper:  Aircraft Supersonic Inlet with Dual Control System


Authors: Alexandru Nicolae Tudosie, Jenica Ileana Corcau

Abstract: The paper deals with an aircraft supersonic inlet with mixed compression, which has a dual control system, based on the inner total pressure’s ratio preservation. The authors have identified the inlet’s gas-dynamic behavior, as well as the main control and controlled parameters. One has also built the system’s mathematical model, based on system’s non-linear motion equations; furthermore, one has established, based on some simplifying hypothesis, the system’s linear non-dimensional model, useful for further studies, as well as for some similar inlets’ modeling. A system description based on block diagram with transfer functions was also realized. Some simulations were also performed, concerning the system’s time behavior (step response), for different cases of control possibilities.

Keywords: Supersonic, Inlet, Speed, Flow rate, Control, Shock wave, Pressure ratio, Flap

Title of the Paper:  An Improved DC Capacitor Voltage Detection Technology and its FPGA Implementation in the CHB-based STATCOM


Authors: Xingwu Yang, Jianfei Zhao, Jianguo Jiang

Abstract: In this paper, an improved single multiple-voltage (SMV) detection technology based on cascaded H-bridge(CHB) multilevel inverter-based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is introduced and it is realized using a Filed Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) by delay technology. The advantage of the improved SMV detector is that, it could save a lot of voltage sensors by using the inverter output voltage to detect the dc capacitor voltage of each H-bridge unit, meanwhile, it could get their mean value more accurately. Take into account delay time in detection circuit and control circuit, in order to transform this detection technology into practice, a novel delay technology is studied. Based on delay technology, an implementation method of the improved SMV detector using a FPGA is also introduced. The experimental results prove its feasibility and practicality.

Keywords: CHB inverter, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), dc capacitor voltage detection, FPGA, delay technology

Title of the Paper:  Motion Control and Trajectory Tracking Control for a Mobile Robot Via Disturbance Observer


Authors: Haitian Wang, Ge Li

Abstract: This paper investigates the tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot in the unknown environment. A disturbance observer is developed with utilization the integral filter. The proposed control scheme employs the disturbance observer control approach to design an auxiliary wheel velocity controller to make the tracking errors, which includes the velocity tracking error, the angular velocity tracking and the trajectory tracking error vector, as small as possible in consideration of unknown bounded disturbance in the kinematics of the mobile robot, and makes use of the disturbance controller to reject the unknown bounded disturbance. The approximation errors and the unknown bounded disturbance can be efficiently rejected by employing the integral filter. A major advantage of the proposed methods is that the position (or velocity/angular velocity) and the desired trajectory (or velocity/angular velocity) are no longer necessary. This is because the observer controller “tracking” both the mobile kinematics and the unknown bounded disturbance. Most importantly, all signals in the closed-loop system can be assured to be uniformly ultimately bounded. The system stability and convergence of the motion control and the trajectory tracking errors are proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results are provided to verify the proposed control strategy. It is shown that the control strategy is feasible.

Keywords: Disturbance observer, Velocity tracking, Trajectory tracking, Time-varying disturbance, Mobile robot, Motion control, Lyapunov stability

Title of the Paper:  A Principal Components Analysis Neural Gas Algorithm for Anomalies Clustering


Authors: Xiufen Fang, Guisong Liu, Ting-Zhu Huang

Abstract: Neural gas network is a single-layered soft competitive neural network, which can be applied to clustering analysis with fast convergent speed comparing to Self-organizing Map (SOM), K-means etc. Combining neural gas with principal component analysis, this paper proposes a new clustering method, namely principal components analysis neural gas (PCA-NG), and the online learning algorithm is also given. The soft competitive learning of PCA-NG is based on local principal subspace, which characterizes the profile of a certain cluster. We utilize the PCA-NG to the domain of intrusion detection. Some experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach by using a synthetic Gaussian-distributed dataset and the KDD CUP 1999 Intrusion Detection Evaluation dataset.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection, Neural Gas Network, Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis

Title of the Paper:  The Slow-Changing Alarm System of Condition Monitoring for Rotating Machinery


Authors: Wei Zhong-Qing, Jiang Zhi-Nong, Ma Bo, Zhong Xin

Abstract: This paper mainly deals with the issue of early fault diagnosis for rotating machinery. An alarm strategy called the slow-changing alarm (SCA) is proposed to predict early fault of equipment timely and effectively. Meanwhile, the SCA system is the integration of adaptive lifting de-noising scheme, adaptive learning algorithm and decision-making strategy of alarm monitoring and diagnosis for the early fault of rotating machinery. In the paper, both the theories and realization of SCA system are thoroughly researched. Firstly, an adaptive lifting de-noising scheme is proposed to eliminate noise, and then the features of early fault are extracted from de-noised signal. Secondly, the key problem to implement on the SCA system is successfully resolved through adaptive learning algorithm and the decision-making strategy of SCA. To be specific, the alarm threshold of SCA system is obtained based on a novel adaptive learning algorithm, and the alarm based on features of vibration signals is activated according to decision-making strategy of SCA, while the relevant alarm log and data of SCA are instantly saved into database to analyze the causes of faults effectively, acquiring the early fault result synchronously. The proposed system has been applied in some petrochemical projects. In an engineering case, this system can preferably capture the early fault signal of rotating machinery, and considerably enhance the capability of predicting and diagnosing early fault.

Keywords: Rotating machinery, condition monitoring, early fault, adaptive lifting de-noising scheme, adaptive learning, decision-making strategy, slow-changing alarm

Title of the Paper:  A Precision Improvement of Casting Process for Golf Head Manufacturing by Petri Net


Authors: Wern-Kueir Jehng, Chia-Nan Wang, Ching-Fa Tsai

Abstract: The precision casting and production of titanium alloy golf head is a complex and low production efficient industry in Taiwan. Due to the increasing global competition, high energy cost and explosive manpower growth, the golf head casting industry seek new approaches in the production processes and manufacturing techniques to improve productivity efficiency. This paper proposes a modeling tool based on the Petri net formalism to improve shop floor control of casting. The manufacturing golf head functions involving workflow processes and operations, scheduling, dispatching and monitoring are integrated and mapped by the Petri net model. The realistic data from industry are applied to the model and the results are sound. The overall manufacturing performance of the work cell can be estimated and improved cyclically to better performance.

Keywords: Petri Net, Modeling, Deadlock, Casting

Title of the Paper:  Harmonic Filters Influences Regarding the Power Quality on High Frequency Electrothermal Installation with Electromagnetic Induction


Authors: Raluca Rob, Ioan Sora, Caius Panoiu, Manuela Panoiu

Abstract: This paper presents a study regarding the functioning of a melting/hardening electrothermal installation with electromagnetic induction from the point of view of generated harmonics in the power distribution. The authors made simulations in scope of reducing the effects of the generated non-sinusoidal regime.

Keywords: Electrothermal installation, harmonic, static converter, passive filters

Title of the Paper:  Adjoints 2D Hybrid Boundary Value Systems over Spaces of Regulated Functions


Authors: Valeriu Prepelita

Abstract: A class of 2D hybrid boundary-value time-variable systems is studied, in the general approach of the coefficient matrices, states, inputs and controls over spaces of functions of bounded variation or of regulated functions. A generalized variation-of-parameters formula is obtained for differential-difference equations of the considered type and it is used to derive the formul? of the state and of the output of these systems. The state space representation of the adjoints of these 2D hybrid systems is introduced and their input-output map is obtained. The duality between the 2D hybrid boundary-value systems and their adjoints is expressed by the means of two bilinear forms.

Keywords: 2D continuous-discrete systems, input-output map, regulated functions, functions of bounded variation, semiseparable kernels, realizations

Title of the Paper:  One to One Recommendation System for Apparel Online Shopping


Authors: Teruji Sekozawa

Abstract: Clients who visit an apparel marketing website but have little previous knowledge of fashions tend to have difficulties selecting clothes that suit their tastes. Faced with an immense number of products on display, they can become quite confused and even hesitate to make any selections at all. This study proposes a system that supports online purchases of garments with functions to select and recommend garments on the basis of the customer’s tastes. The system has three basic capabilities: (1) It analyzes the customer’s tastes using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and selects and suggests clothes. (2) It designates a priority for suggesting the garments using correlations found by clustering. (3) It suggests second purchases of items that have been chosen by previous customers with similar tastes who bought a garment that the current online customer has just decided to buy. The second purchases are selected using market basket analysis. Two databases are essential to this process: one for the attributes of garments and one for simultaneous purchasesof garments.

Keywords: Analytical hierarchy process, Online shopping, One-to-one, Recommendation system, Coordination, Market basket analysis

Title of the Paper:  Determination of Temperature Field Distribution and Rate of Heat Transfer by Means of Thermal-Electrical Analogy in DC Machine


Authors: Otilia Nedelcu, Diana Enescu, Cornel Salisteanu

Abstract: In this paper is presented an analysis method of electrical circuits, more exactly nodal method, in order to compute the temperature field distribution necessary to the heating and ventilation systems of electrical machine. As analysis method, the modified nodal method was used which does not impose any restriction at the circuit structure, being a prevalence of the nodal method. For this reason, this method was used in the analysis rogramme of circuits called SPICE. In the software application called NAPACI, authors analyses the temperature field distribution and the rate of heat transfer which are necessary for a complete study to range of the temperature in steady state. This analysis supposes the knowledge and the localization of temperature losses values, determination of the rate values of heat transfer and their distribution in different sides of electrical machine. Comparing the results obtained by means of other two programmes NAPACI and SPICE, it can be observed that these results are identical.

Keywords: DC machine, steady-state, temperature field, rate of heat transfer, thermal resistance, generated power, consumed power, NAPACI programme

Issue 2, Volume 9, February 2010

Title of the Paper:  Evaluating the Adoption Level of Electronic Customer Relationship Management by Telecommunication Companies


Authors: Noor Raihan Ab Hamid, Fauziah Ahmad, Saharbudin Naim Tahir Shah, Noor Habibah Arshad

Abstract: Although Customer Relationship Management is no longer a buzz word in businesses today the application continues to play an important in enhancing firms’ competitiveness. At a general level, competition in cyberspace is becoming more intense. With vast information available at the click of the mouse, consumers may easily switch at low cost, thus gaining higher bargaining power in the electronic marketplace. In turn, companies have no choice but to rethink their marketing strategies in order to retain customers. Apparently, one of the ways to gain higher market share companies have sought to use information technology to learn the needs and preferences of their customers – building log-term relationships. This study attempts to investigate the extent to which companies utilize the Internet technology to help build customer relationships. This study aimed to assess the usage level of Electronic Customer Relationship Management (E-CRM) tools by telecommunication companies. The results indicated that companies are indifferent in their levels of usage for informational and transactional tools but are significantly different in the adoption of relational tools. We discuss the results and suggest some directions for future research.

Keywords: Electronic CRM, Internet-marketing, Telecommunication companies, Relationship marketing, Customer loyalty, Customer satisfaction, Retention

Title of the Paper:  Using Logistic ReDesigner (Lo.R.D.) Software for Designing and Simulating a Steel Supply Chain


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Roberto Mosca, Roberto Revetria

Abstract: This paper regards the analysis of the development of a logistics and transportation network concerning a steel plant. The main goal is to search for the best scenario that allows to supply the plant and to distribute all the finished products to final customers in the most efficient way. To this aim, a proper simulation model has been developed and implemented utilizing Logistics Re Designer (Lo. R. D.) software. More specifically, three different transportation networks have been created: two “single” modal choice scenarios - by road or by rail – and an “intermodal” one. Another system variable regards the production capacity of the steel plant: three different types of capacity have been considered; so in total nine scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the intermodal solution is the most suitable to be adopted both in terms of total time – and consequently costs - and resources required to perform all the necessary operations. Future research will focus on the improvement of the solution found and on the development of an economical analysis.

Keywords: Intermodality, supply chain design, simulation, network saturation, steel plant, Lo.R.D. software

Title of the Paper:  Objectives and Perspectives for Improving Resiliency in Supply Chains


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Pietro Giribone, Roberto Revetria

Abstract: This paper aims at providing the key aspects regarding vulnerability of supply chains and the way to make them more resilient. After having identified the most common threats affecting supply chains integrity, the success factors to build a resilient supply chain are provided. For instance, in the fashion goods context, particular phenomena cause unpredictable behaviours in the demand, so generating vulnerability in the relative supply chain. A KPIs methodology for studying the behaviour of these supply chains under these phenomena is proposed. his research represents the basis for a future work that will end up with the elaboration of a System Dynamics model able to reproduce the most significant dynamics of short life cycle products, such as electronic devices, with the goal of providing innovative solutions to make this kind of supply chains more resilient.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Resiliency, Risk Management, Supply Chain, KPIs, Fashion goods

Title of the Paper:  Implementation and Interaction Issues in Digital Music Libraries


Authors: Dimitrios Margounakis, Dionysios Politis

Abstract: The digital format of music led to the necessity of creating big music libraries in the Internet, which provide the user with great possibilities of acquiring and listening to music. These Digital Music Libraries (DMLs) should fulfill the user communities’ needs. Since DMLs do not deal with pure text, but with sound and its several representations, special treatment is needed during their development. This paper presents the crucial issues concerning the implementation of a DML and the user-DML interaction. The implementation issues are categorized in a useful framework taking into account the keys of success of the most popular DMLs worldwide, while the interaction issues are applied on MELIRIS music repository.

Keywords: Digital Music Libraries, Music Search, Interaction, Computer Music Interfaces, Music Database

Title of the Paper:  Vehicle Mathematical Model Reduction Considering the Brake System Dynamics


Authors: I. Vazquez-Alvarez, J. J. Ocampo-Hidalgo, C. Aviles-Cruz, A. Ferreyra Ramirez

Abstract: The present work shows a complete model for longitudinal movement of an automobile, starting with the reference coordinate systems; an inertial system, a system considering the vehicle as a rigid body and different coordinate systems for considering the center of mass of the tire and the contact element. Then the dynamics for subsystems involved in the braking process are described. The interest of the model is around the maximum value of the contact force, which physically means that the wheel is closed to a block situation. After this we obtained the characteristic values for every subsystem, and the model is evaluated for a metropolitan transport bus, Finally, considering the constant time for changes on the angular velocity as characteristic time we apply the fractional analysis to obtain a reduced order model of a vehicle, for the simulation the parameters of a bus were considered and the result the dynamics with enough accuracy for the conditions considered.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Vehicle, Brake system, Fractional analysis, Model reduction

Title of the Paper:  Overview on System Integration Projects Management: Risk Mitigation, Lesson Learned, Pitfall Avoidance and KPI Evaluation


Authors: Francesco De Maria, Chiara Briano, Matteo Brandolini

Abstract: This paper discusses about methodologies for governing and managing projects of system integration, providing a new way of considering such projects’ lifecycle avoiding common pitfalls. In this work Authors provide an overview of common issues in complex IT projects, focusing in particular on criticalities derived from such projects and proposing simple solutions on the basis of experiences and studies led on big System Integration projects involving international companies.

Keywords: ERP Enterprise Resource Management, ECC (ERP Central Component), SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) Modelling, customer behaviour, forecasting revenues, Key Performance Indexes

Title of the Paper:  Mechanical Analysis of a Vertical Scanning System for 3D Images Acquisition with Microcontroller-based Electronic Design


Authors: J. Armando Segovia, Alberto Contreras, Mayra P. Garduno

Abstract: Herein are presented in detail the tasks that were developed to carry out a project that had as aim updating and improving the perception system of a Pioneer 3-AT mobile robot to enhance its navigation control by means of a mechanical system to let a laser range finder scanning and acquiring 2.5D and 3D images of the robot’s environment. The system developed is a mechanism that is able to put in start position and to tilt automatically a laser range finder LMS200 with high precision, because the range of repetitive accuracy is very important to get good images. This precision was obtained with the aid of different parts that work together and with the best performance into its correspondent area; electronic area (control and communication circuits), mechanical area (stepper motor and mechanical design) and informatics area (acquisition and data processing). The system was developed to be an inexpensive device, using the most common elements, as a Microchip’s microcontroller, which are easy to program and there are many models to choose the one that could fit our needs and budget, small elements and many job features, for example the PWM module, communication ports by USART and USB, and A/D channels, very important characteristics to control a stepper motor.

Keywords: 3D Scanner, Telemeter, Microcontroller, Navigation, mobile robot, Stepper Motor, LMS200 Laser Range Finder

Title of the Paper:  Particle Swarm Optimization Models Applied to Neural Networks using the R Language


Authors: Nuria Gomez, Luis F. Mingo, Jesus Bobadilla, Francisco Serradilla, Jose A. Calvo Manzano

Abstract: There exists a clear difference between cooperative and competitive strategies. The former ones are based on the swarm colonies, in which all individuals share its knowledge about the goal in order to pass such information to other individuals to get optimum solution. The latter ones are based on genetic models, that is, individuals can die and new individuals are created combining information of alive one; or are based on molecular/celular behaviour passing information from one structure to another. A Grammatical Swarm model is applied to obtain the Neural Network topology of a given problem, training the net with a Particle Swarm algorithm in R. This paper just shows some ideas in order to obtain an automatic way to define the most suitable neural network topology for a given atter set. High dimension problem is also mentioned when dealing with the particle swarm algorithm.

Keywords: Social Intelligence, Neural Networks, Grammatical Swarm, Particle Swarm Optimization

Title of the Paper:  Energetic Instability of a Fractional Oscillator


Authors: Astrid Rekker, Romi Mankin

Abstract: We explore the problem of memory-enhanced stability occurring in a fractional oscillator with fluctuating eigenfrequency when the oscillator is driven by external sinusoidal forcing and by an additive internal fractional noise with a power-law type memory. It is established that at intermediate values of the memory exponent the energetic stability of the oscillator is significantly enhanced. We show that, by conveniently choosing the system parameters, the output signal–to–noise ratio is a double peaked function of the memory exponent, thus demonstrating the phenomenon of memory controlled stochastic multiresonance. The connection between the occurrence of energetic instability and the phenomenon of memory-induced multiresonance is established.

Keywords: Fractional oscillator, stochastic resonance, fractional noise, white noise, energetic instability, viscoelastic friction

Title of the Paper:  Multi-Robot Map Alignment in Visual SLAM


Authors: Monica Ballesta, Arturo Gil, Oscar Reinoso, Miguel Julia, Luis M. Jimenez

Abstract: This paper focusses on the study of the Map Alignment problem in a multirobot SLAM context. Given a team of robots, we consider the situation in which each robot is building its own local map independently. These maps are landmark-based and three-dimensional. The local maps built by the different robots will have different reference systems. At some point, it may be interesting to express all maps in the same reference system. In that way, the maps can be fused into a unique global one. This is known as the map fusion problem and can be tackled by dividing the problem into two subproblems: map alignment and map merging. In this paper, we concentrate on the map alignment problem which consist on computing the transformation between the local maps so that we have one reference system. We therefore evaluate a set of aligning methods. These methods establish correspondences between each pair of maps and compute an initial estimate of the alignment. Finally, we apply the least squares minimization to obtain a more accurate solution. We also concentrate on the case in which we want to align more than two local maps. In this case, the alignment must be globally consistent. For the experiments, real data are used. Each robot extracts distinctive 3D points from the environment with a stereo camera. Then, the robots use these observations as landmarks to build their maps while simultaneously localize themselves. The SLAMproblem is solved using the FastSLAM algorithm. The movements of the robots occur only in 2D plane, so although the maps are 3D landmark-based, the alignment takes place only in 2D.

Keywords: Multirobot visual SLAM, Map alignment, visual landmarks

Issue 3, Volume 9, March 2010

Title of the Paper:  Near Border Procedures for Tracking Information


Authors: Jouni Viitanen, Markus Happonen, Pasi Patama, Jyri Rajamaki

Abstract: European integration has increased the transport of illegal goods and other criminal activity. Therefore the transmitting of tracking and other status information between nations and different organizations should become an everyday business. The goal of this paper is to find possible bottle necks in international cooperation between authorities and to find possible solutions for them. The following area can be considered as a part of the Finnish SATERISK research project that aims for a situation where laws on positioning and tracking and the financial risks posed by their usage will not prevent the use of m2m tracking across state and union borders. The target of the paper is to present administrative and technical solutions to improve multiorganizational tracking solutions. Namely, the goal is to make it possible to create a timely situational picture in joint multinational and interagency operations. This paper will provide guidance for preparing appropriate plans and doctrine proposals for joint operations and training. Also technical solutions and bottlenecks are briefly covered in this paper.

Keywords: Borders, Doctrines, Interfaces, Navigation, Positioning, Satellite navigations, Tracking

Title of the Paper:  Mixed Traffic Models for Dimensioning Radio Resources in GSM/GPRS Networks


Authors: Cornel Balint, Georgeta Budura, Adrian Budura

Abstract: Dimensioning radio resources in GSM/GPRS networks is particularly important because of the presence of mixed traffic: voice and data. Appropriate models are required especially when the implemented resources allocation strategy is Partial Partitioning. In this paper we propose three mixed traffic models suitable for dimensioning cells using PP scheme. In order to validate our models we define and compare several performance parameters: blocking probability for voice, throughput (total and per user), cell utilization and blocking probability for data. The models based on combined FR and HR voice traffic technique and the DHR voice technique implement an optimal use of resources based on half-rate mobiles capability and re-packing mechanisms. The mixed models we proposed could be used for dimensioning radio resources in GSM/GPRS networks in order to ensure the adequate QoS level for each type of service according to the voice and data traffic loads.

Keywords: GSM/GPRS, mixed traffic model, Erlang-B law, blocking probability, Engset law, throughput

Title of the Paper:  System Approach to Determinants of Quality of Life within a Region


Authors: Pavel Jirava, Jan Mandys, Miloslava Kasparova, Jiri Krupka

Abstract: The submitted article deals with the problematic of the quality of life and factors which can influence it. On the basis of previous research we know that this is a complex problem which is characterized by a huge number of components and connections among them. We focused on the main areas which influence the quality of life and tried to describe the connections among them. The goal of this paper was not the experimental examination based on real data; however, creation of a framework and a basis for the future quality of life research in a region which should cover – if possible – all the main indicators of the quality of life and link to our previously realized researches in this area.

Keywords: Quality of life, environment, health, life style, region, human life

Title of the Paper:  Design Methodology Based on H-infinity Control Theory for Marine Propulsion System with Bumpless Transfer Function


Authors: M. J. Lopez, L. Garcia, J. Lorenzo, A. Consegliere

Abstract: In this paper we propose a control system design methodology which has two main objectives: the first one is to achieve control system specifications for a local H? controller designed for a given operation condition, and the second objective is to provide a procedure for bumpless transfer (BLT) when the controller is switched to another one, due to change in the operation condition, or when the controller is retuned by a plant operator. For that, the design procedure calculates a feedback H-controller (FB-HC) and an associated bump-less transfer H-controller (BLT-HC). The method is implemented in an auto-tuning procedure, where both pretuning controllers (FB-HC and BLT-HC) are obtained in a systematic manner. Controllers fine-tuning can be carried out by a plant operator using two tuning parameters and several tuning rules. Our design methodology is applied to a marine propulsion system with diesel engine used as propeller prime-mover. Due to different operation regimens of ship propulsion, several linear controllers are designed for different operating points, switching (with bumpless-transfer) between them when is necessary; which enables the system to be controlled satisfactorily within the whole of its operating range. Satisfactory results are obtained by simulations with the nonlinear model of a merchant ship, and our hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) environment is described.

Keywords: Ship propulsion system, H controller, bumpless transfer

Title of the Paper:  Computer Simulation and Method for Heart Rhythm Control Based on ECG Signal Reference Tracking


Authors: M. J. Lopez, A. Consegliere, J. Lorenzo, L. Garcia

Abstract: In this work we use computer simulations to test a method for controlling heart rhythm behavior based on the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal tracking. The proposed control algorithm is based on two parameters, the controller proportional gain and the norm of tracking error signal. The objective is to take out the heart rhythm dynamics from a non desirable situation to a normal specified behavior, which is given by a signal generated by a reference system. Computer simulations are carried out using as process to control a mathematical model (MS1) composed with six differential delayed equations (DDE), which, depending on model parameters, provides different dynamical behaviors, from normal behavior to non desirable performances interpreted as cardio-pathologies. In order to generate an specified normal ECG reference signal, it is used MS1 with normal behavior parameters, and as alternative model, it is used a third order nonlinear dynamical system (MS2), which produces specific statistics such as the mean and standard deviation of the heart rate and frequency-domain characteristics of heart rate variability (HRV). By means of the proposed control law application, the heart rhythm is conduced to a neighborhood of the specified behavior and satisfactory results are obtained in numerical simulations with both reference models.

Keywords: Control law, heartbeat control, simulation, chaotic behavior, synchronization

Title of the Paper:  Markov Approach of Adaptive Task Assignment for Robotic System in Non-Stationary Environments


Authors: Gabriela Tont, Luige Vladareanu, Mihai Stelian Munteanu, Dan George Tont

Abstract: Adaptive and decentralized task assignment in non-uniform and possibly even non-stationary conditions with the aim of ensuring stability is especially challenging knowledge requirements in order to negotiate within and interact with uncertain and dynamic environments such as robot malfunctions or error propagation. Task assignment addresses to the problem of coordination both in on autonomous and interacting robot. In the scenarios for task assignment robots are embedded in the environment, there are strict constraints on communication, and most importantly tasks that robots should execute are perceived by the robot itself during the mission execution, thus conflicts on the task assignment process might arise. The internal representation of timing constraints on interaction has many implications for the reliability, effectiveness, efficiency, validity, schedulability and robustness of the mobile robot. The task assignment processes and its control implying reasoning about objects and resources and their changing states are dominated by either discrete or stochastic-event dynamics or both. Stationarity is an unrealistic prior assumption for the multi-state components of complex systems. The numerical characteristics of the nonstationary random responses of complex structure are developed in the paper considering the uncertainty and volatility of process transitions states. The appropriate functional levels of multi-state systems components are placed between the two extremes: defect (0%) and the nominal (100%) state, allowing any intermediate state transiting from the range of perfect functionality to complete failure. Time analysis interval of a multi-state system is characterized by intermediate states (states of partial success). The paper proposes a stochastic model of assessing system probability of unidirectional or bidirectional transition states, applying the non-homogeneous (non-stationary) Markov chain. The capability of timedependent method to describe a multi-state system is based on a case study, assessing the operatial situation of robotic system. The rationality and validity of the presented model are demonstrated via an example of quantitative assessment of states probabilities of an autonomous robot.

Keywords: Petri nets, Fuzzy sets, mobile robots, non-stationary discrete event, dynamic systems, reasoning

Title of the Paper:  Algorithms for Estimation in Distributed Parameter Systems Based on Sensor Networks and ANFIS


Authors: Constantin Volosencu

Abstract: This paper presents some algorithms for estimation of the state variables in distributed parameter systems of parabolic and hyperbolic types. These algorithms are expressed on regression using anterior values of adjacent state variables and on auto-regression using the anterior values of the same variable. The momentary values may be obtained using sensors from a network placed in the field of the distributed parameter systems. The computation of the estimates is done using the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference scheme. The structure of the ANFIS is derived based on training using measured values obtained form the sensor network. The algorithms and the method of estimation, emerged from three powerful concepts as theory of distributed parameter systems, artificial intelligence, with its tool adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference and the intelligent wireless ad-hoc sensor networks allow treatment of large and complex systems with many variables by learning and extrapolation. They have applications in monitoring, fault estimation, detection and diagnosis of large and complex physical processes. The paper presents some case studies as applications of all four algorithms.

Keywords: System identification, fault detection and diagnosis, wireless sensor networks, non-linear system identification, distributed parameter systems, adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference

Title of the Paper:  Aspects of Thermal Power Plant Automation


Authors: Marius-Constantin Popescu, Nikos Mastorakis

Abstract: Thermal electric power plant is a set of facilities/equipment interconnected, designed to produce electricity or heat and power, by converting chemical energy of a fuel. This paper analyze the energy production stations, both turbine and steam generator in order to highlight the constructive and functional aspects of the energy transformations taking place in such centers.

Keywords: Modeling and Simulation, The Ovation System

Title of the Paper:  Towards a Possibilistic Classification of Gastroenterology Patterns in a Complex Environment


Authors: Anas Dahabiah, John Puentes, Basel Solaiman

Abstract: In this paper, several types of imperfection and uncertainty that may affect the information elements in any pattern recognition system will be pondered, whether when object classification depends on datasets, or when it relies on expert knowledge sets. Afterwards, all the discussed imperfection aspects will be processed within a unified framework, fundamentally based on possibility theory and fuzzy relation composition rules. At last, various concrete illustrative examples applied to gastroenterology patterns will be given and discussed.

Keywords: Possibility Theory, Fuzzy Relation Composition, Information Imperfection and Uncertainty, Knowledge Base

Title of the Paper:  A Novel CMOS 1-bit 8T Full Adder Cell


Authors: Tripti Sharma, K. G. Sharma, B. P. Singh, Neha Arora

Abstract: The 1-bit full adder is a very important component in the design of application specific integrated circuits. Demands for the low power VLSI have been pushing the development of design methodologies aggressively to reduce the power consumption drastically. In most of the digital systems adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall speed of the system. So enhancing the performance of the 1-bit full adder cell is the main design aspect. The present study proposes a novel CMOS 1-bit full adder cell with least MOS transistor count that reduces the serious problem of threshold loss. It considerably increases the speed and also proves best for high frequency applications. Result shows 45% improvement in threshold loss problem and considerable reduction in power consumption over the other types of adders with comparable performance. The simulation has been carried out on Tanner EDA tool on BSIM3v3 90nm and 130nm technologies.

Keywords: Full adder, high speed, low power, power-delay product, XOR gate, VLSI

Issue 4, Volume 9, April 2010

Title of the Paper:  Resiliency and Vulnerability in Short Life Cycle Products' Supply Chains: a System Dynamics Model


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Pietro Giribone, Roberto Revetria

Abstract: The work is focused on the study of a supply chain related to short life-cycle products, that are goods produced and sold for a limited period of time like fashion goods, electronic devices, health care service and particular foodstuffs. The case study belongs to the last one category and regards a particular good produced by an important Italian food company, with several branches all over the world, operating in the field of snacks, biscuits and bread substitutes. Currently the data in the simulation model are assumed by the authors due to a delay on the provision, but the real company data should be available, properly modified for reasons of confidentiality, for the extended version of the paper. In the following sections a simulation model, implemented using the System Dynamics methodology, will be described. System Dynamics approach is suitable for complex dynamic systems like the one object of this work; this methodology considers in fact time delays and feedback loops, which heavily affect the system structure and behavior. The model has been implemented using one of the most known System Dynamics commercial software: Powersim Studio™, because of its flexibility and completeness, allowing also integration with databases, external files and ERP systems. The aim of the simulation is to identify and focus on the criticalities along the supply chain in order to minimize the total costs and, consequently, maximizing the company profits.“What If” analysis have been carried out in order to show which is the best policy to adopt in terms – for instance – of safety stock or demand planning. Moreover, the concepts of vulnerability and resiliency applied to these kinds of supply chains have been analyzed. After a short classification of threats and risks for supply chains, the case in which an environmental risk (an earthquake) occurs, striking the raw material supplier, is modeled and simulated with the System Dynamics methodology. The obtained results show that with a more resilient supply chain, characterized by the procurement from two different suppliers (instead on only one) located in different geographical areas, business continuity is guaranteed even in the case of a natural catastrophe.

Keywords: Short life-cycle products, simulation, supply chain management, System Dynamics, Powersim Studio, vulnerability, resiliency

Title of the Paper:  Study of an Emergency Situation Using 2D and 3D Simulation Models


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Roberto Mosca, Roberto Revetria, Alessandro Testa

Abstract: Safety in motorway tunnels has become a critical issue in the last years, especially after the accident happened in 1999 inside the Mont Blanc tunnel, causing 39 deaths and several dozens of intoxications and wounded people. After this tragic event, the European Union imposed stricter regulations and procedures for emergency situations inside road tunnels longer than 1000 m. According to this situation, the authors propose the use of M&S (Modeling and Simulation) in order to manage a tunnel evacuation after a fire exploding in consequence to an accident, taking into account a series of significant factors like the road signs position (new criteria have been introduced with new regulation), but also human factors which significantly affect the procedure outcome. First a 2-D simulation model has been developed using Java™ Software, in which the user can analyze the behavior of the people escaping and the dynamics of the fire exploded and, consequently, assess the effectiveness of all the emergency procedures and infrastructures. In particular, regarding the state variables related to the human behavior, the model takes into account the main aspects of PECS (Physical Emotional Cognitive Social) reference models, in which physical, emotional, cognitive and social factors have to be studied. The model presented in this work is in fact quite similar to the one described by (Schmidt, 2000), called “Adam’s World” [1] where Adam, a primitive man, lives in an environment having food sources where he can replenish his energy level, but also traps and danger points to be avoided in order not to consume his energy faster. The aim of the two models is the same: first of all preserve life and health, but the great difference between Schmidt’s model and the authors’ one is that in Adam’s World the social aspect is missing (Adam live alone in his world), while in the evacuation model social aspects can significantly affect the individual’s decisions. Upstream of the evacuation model, a weighted analysis needs to be considered, in fact the individual has to operate different choices considering several aspects, like health or goods preservation, familiar aspects, panic and so on. For this reason a suitable methodology has been detected: the Analytic Hierarchic Process (AHP), implemented by the American mathematician Thomas Saaty, which introduced this technique for Multi-Criteria Analysis. After the considerations on the individuals behavior based on the results of the analysis, the evacuation model and its results are described and analyzed in the following sections and, in the final part of the paper, a description of a 3-D tunnel model devoted to study in particular smoke dynamics is provided, thus it is possible to evaluate the impact of the smoke on the flow of the people escaping from the tunnel.

Keywords: Emergency Procedures, Simulation, PECS Models, AHP, Human Behavior

Title of the Paper:  Shunt Active Power Filter Design using Genetic Algorithm Method


Authors: K.-L. Areerak, T. Narongrit

Abstract: This paper deals with the active power filter design controlled by using hysteresis technique. The genetic algorithm is used to design the controllers to minimize the %THD of the source current. The results are compared with that designed from Ingram and Round approach. The simulation results confirm that the genetic algorithm can provide the minimum %THD of the source current compared with the Ingram and Round method. The %THD also follows the IEEE std.519-1992.The design of the active power filter based on the genetic algorithm is flexible and can improve the performance of the filter.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, hysteresis control, harmonic elimination, active power filter

Title of the Paper:  Contribution of the Delay Differential Equations to the Complex Economic Macrodynamics


Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract: In some cases of the economic macrodynamics, delay differential equations (DDEs) may be more suitable to a wide range of economic models. The dynamics of the Kalecki’s business cycle model is represented by a linear first-order DDE with constant coefficients, in the capital stock. Such a DDE, with constant or flexible lags, also occurs in the continuous time Solow’s vintage capital growth model. This is due to the heterogeneity of goods and assets. DDEs with constant lags may be preferably solved by using Laplace transforms. Numerous techniques are also proposed for the solution of DDEs, like the inverse scattering method, the Jacobian elliptic function method, numerical techniques, the differential transform method, etc. This study retains the Zhou’s differential transform method for solving nonlinear DDEs with backward-foreward delays and flexible coefficients. This study also uses a block diagram approach with application to reference economic models, with help of the software MATHEMATICA 7.0.1 and its specialized packages for signal processing, such as ”Control System Professional” and ”SchematicSolver”.

Keywords: Delay differential equation, Method of steps algorithm, Differential transform method, Laplace transform solution, (x,k)-root plateau

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Bimatrix Games with Single and Multiple Objective: Introduction to the Computational Techniques


Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract: This paper introduces to the computational techniques of non-cooperative bimatrix games in an uncertain environment. Both single and multiple objective fuzzy-valued bimatrix games are considered theoretically with one numerical example. The presentation is centered on the Nishizaki and Sakawa models. These models are based on the maxmin and minmax principles of the classical matrix game theory. Equivalent nonlinear (possibly quadratic) programming problems are giving optimal solutions. The equilibrium solutions correspond to players maximizing a degree of attainment of the fuzzy goals. Besides the Nash equilibrium, the concept of -Nash equilibrium supposes Nature be the third Player. The aggregation of all the fuzzy sets in the multiobjective models use the fuzzy decision rule by Bellman and Zadeh. This ‘aggregation by a minimum component’ consists in the intersection of the fuzzy sets, the fuzzy expected payoffs and the fuzzy goals. Numerical examples of two-players nonzero sum games are solved using the MATHEMATICA 7.0.1 software. The numerical solutions are possibly local by using iterative methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy bimatrix game, Single-objective, Multiobjective, Degree of attainment of a fuzzy goal, Quadratic programming

Title of the Paper:  Robust Analysis of Uncertain Dynamic Systems: Combination of the Centre Manifold and Polynomial Chaos theories


Authors: L. Nechak, S. Berger, E. Aubry

Abstract: A new methodology for a robust analysis of uncertain nonlinear dynamic systems is presented in this paper. The originality of the method proposed lies in the combination of the centre manifold theory with the polynomial chaos approach. The first one is known to be a powerful tool for model reduction of nonlinear dynamic systems in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation point while the polynomial chaos approach is an efficient tool for uncertainty propagation. Therefore, to couple the two methods can help to overcome computational difficulties due to both the complexity of nonlinear dynamic systems and the cost of the uncertainty propagation with the prohibitive Monte Carlo method. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed methodology is investigated. So, a two degree of freedom model describing a drum brake system subject to uncertain initial conditions is considered.

Keywords: Nonlinear dynamic System, Model Reduction, Centre Manifold, Robust Analysis, Uncertainty Propagation, Polynomial chaos, Non-intrusive methods

Title of the Paper:  Simulation Models for Back-Office & Retail Store Management Integration in ERP


Authors: Francesco De Maria, Chiara Briano, Matteo Brandolini, Enrico Briano, Roberto Revetria

Abstract: The paper describes shortly the architecture of a complex system for managing back office activities and store management including MRP, Demand forecasting, stock evaluation system from the logistics and financial point of view, integrated in a company ERP. Simulation was the way to properly define the most suitable algorithm for demand forecasting among the many complex combinations proposed by default in the ERP Central Component plus the ones proposed by key users. This architecture was applied in a complex retail chain involving different classes/clusters of point of sales and selling many different sorts of goods (grocery, food, clothing, electronics, home goods etc.)

Keywords: ERP Enterprise Resource Management, ECC (ERP Central Component), SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) Modelling, customer behaviour, forecasting revenues, Key Performance Indexes

Title of the Paper:  Design a Moodle Synchronous Learning Activity


Authors: Lung-Hsing Kuo, Te-Hsiung Tseng, Hung-Jen Yang, Hsieh-Hua Yang

Abstract: Moodle is a famous open source Course Management System, but this system could only provide limit synchronous communication service through keyboard chatting. So the purpose of this study was to development a Moodle synchronous learning activity module to establish adobe video conference meeting. Based upon the Moodle developer guide and Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro server guide, this study designed a Moodle & Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro bridge unit and defined the correspondence between Moodle roles to Adobe Acrobat Connect Pro principals. Based on the proposed Module, Moodle really will use for full online classes as well as supplementing “face-to-face” learning and help students to improve their learning progress.

Keywords: Moodle, Course Management System, Rich Internet applications, XML

Title of the Paper:  Water Desalination Plants Performance Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making


Authors: Mohammed A. Hajeeh

Abstract: Countries which do not have adequate supply of freshwater sources like Kuwait resort to using desalination plants to meet their demand. Kuwait had used Multi-flash desalination (MSF) plants sine the 50’s of the last century to satisfy its ever increasing demand. Many new and more efficient and cost effective desalination technologies are currently available. Kuwait is in the process of building new desalination plants, and has to seize this opportunity to consider using other desalination technologies instead of MSF plants. In this work, an attempt to make to bring to the attention to the decision maker the performance and suitability of the different technologies using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making technique. The preference is based on six criteria (factors) for comparing three commercially available desalination technologies, i.e., Multi-stage flash (MSF), Multi-effect desalination (MED), and Reverse osmosis (RO). The study found that the amount of energy used in these plants should be most important selection criteria followed by the amount of pre-treatment required. The most preferred technology is RO according to this study.

Keywords: Freshwater, Decision maker, Preference, Reverse osmosis, Multi-stage flash, Multi-effect desalination

Title of the Paper:  Knowledge-Intensive Services: New Leader of Production Stages?


Authors: Zuzana Tuckova, Jiri Strouhal

Abstract: At the end of the previous century we were introduced to the notion of mass customization - an approach to manufacturing that synchronizes the benefits of mass production to the benefits of tailoring each product to an individual’s requirements. The underlying “technologies” that support mass customization are a combination of modular design approaches and information technology. Modular design allows us to create a very large number of varieties of a particular product with varying characteristics. Tailoring products to individual requirements means having detailed information about individual customer requirements and the knowledge. This allows us to identify how to satisfy them.

Keywords: Services, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Intensive Services, Czech Republic, Service Management, Accounting Profession

Title of the Paper:  Effects of Humidity and Fog Conductivity on the Leakage Current Waveforms of Ceramics for Outdoor Insulators


Authors: Suwarno, J. Parhusip

Abstract: Since long time ago, ceramic insulators are widely being used in power systems. The performances of the insulators such as surface resistance and flash over voltages greatly affected by environmental conditions such as pollution and humidity. The pollution may arise in the form of fogs. A large leakage current (LC) may flow on the surface and degradation may take place. In long term the degradation may lead to the flash over of the insulators. This paper reports the experimental results on the effects of humidity and fog conductivity on leakage current characteristics of ceramics. The samples used are blocks of ceramics with dimension of 250 x 50 x 20 mm3. The samples were made from same materials for outdoor ceramic insulators. The samples were put in a test chamber with controlled humidity and artificial pollution conditions. AC voltage with frequency of 50 Hz was applied. The magnitudes as well as harmonic content of the LC were analyzed. The experimental results indicated that under clean fog, LC magnitude almost linearly increased with applied voltage at low and medium RH. At high RH, LC magnitude drastically increased compared to those of low RH. At low RH the dominant harmonics number are 5th , 3 rd and 7th with relatively large amplitude while at medium and high RH the dominant harmonic components of the LC waveforms are 5th and 3rd with smaller amplitude compared to it fundamentals resulting in smaller THD. Under fog condition, LC magnitude increase with fog conductivity. Compared to the LC magnitude under clean fog, the LC magnitude under salt fog was much higher than those from clean fog. At high fog conductivity the oscillation behaviour of LC magnitude dependence on applied voltage was observed due to the wetting effect of sample surface by the fog and drying effect caused by the higher LC. The THD of leakage current under salt fog increased with the applied voltage. LC amplitude increases with applied voltage and RH. LC waveforms distortion significantly decreased with the salt fog conductivity resulting in smaller THD. At given applied voltage the harmonic components decrease with the increase of fog conductivity.

Keywords: Ceramic insulator, clean fog, salt fog, humidity, leakage current, waveform, harmonics

Issue 5, Volume 9, May 2010

Title of the Paper:  Optimal Design for a Hydraulic Regeneration Propel System of the Hydraulic Hybrid Bus


Authors: Liu Guo-Qing, Chen Jie, Xu Fang-Fang

Abstract: Hydraulic regeneration propel system (HRPS) has been proven to be able to enhance the fuel economy and reduce the emission by regenerating the braking energy when it is installed in the existing conventional bus. The rebuilt bus is normally termed as the Hydraulic Hybrid Bus (HHB). This paper aims at exploiting full potential of the HRPS, so that the HHB is able to acquire minimum fuel consumption and maximum dynamic performance with minimum cost. The ideal point and weight square sum method is used to construct the evaluate function so as to consider the tradeoff among the objectives. The generation algorithm (GA) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization. The results of the optimization show that the improving of the dynamic performance combined with reduced cost and equivalent fuel-saving is possible. The optimal designing approach presented by this paper provides the theoretical directions for the design of HRPS for a HHB.

Keywords: Regeneration, HRPS, HHB, Fuel economy, Multi-objective optimization, GA

Title of the Paper:  Intelligent Guidance and Control Laws for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle


Authors: Tain-Sou Tsay

Abstract: In this paper, intelligent guidance and control laws are developed for an autonomous underwater vehicle to engage underwater targets. The engagement of underwater targets is suffered from uncertainties of the complicated underwater environment, short detecting range of the sonar seeker, the low speed ratio between vehicle and target, and longtime operations but no accurate positioning technique. Uncertainties of underwater environment includes temperature-dependent sound propagation path, sound shadow zone, current flowing direction, current flowing noise and self-noise of the vehicle. The first object is to find the target. The second object is to track the target and to re-track the target after the target lost. Seven guidance laws are developed and switched by an intelligent selecting logic for target engaging. Six control modes for yawing and pitching channel are developed. Mode selections are dependent on the guidance laws selected. Those seven guidance laws and six control laws are well tested by digital simulation verifications of four scenarios. Simulation results give the proposed method can cope with the complicated underwater environment to engage the target.

Keywords: Guidance and control laws, autonomous underwater vehicle, underwater target

Title of the Paper:  A Contact De-bounce Technique for an AC Permanent Magnet Contactor


Authors: Chih-Yu Hung, Chieh-Tsung Chi

Abstract: This paper presents a new low-cost electronic control circuit actuator based on a microcontroller is proposed for minimizing the bouncing duration of an AC permanent magnet (PM) contactor after two mechanical contacts closing. The proposed new actuator overcomes the past bouncing problem of an uncontrollable restrictions imposed by previously conventional AC electromagnetic (EM) contactor. Systematically choosing an optimal closing phase angle of the coil voltage, the bouncing problems produced on EM contactor during the closing process are improved. Therefore, the using life of contactor contacts is then prolonged and their operating reliability is strengthened as well. To validate the feasibility of the proposed method, some simulation and experimental procedures were performed on a prototype of the proposed AC PM contactor in the laboratory. Testing results actually showed that bouncing duration of contactor’s contacts after collision was reduced.

Keywords: AC permanent magnet contactor, AC electromagnetic contactor, contact bounce, closing phase angle, using life, microcontroller

Title of the Paper:  Recommendation System for Apparel Online Shopping


Authors: Teruji Sekozawa

Abstract: Clients who visit an apparel marketing website but have little previous knowledge of fashions tend to have difficulties selecting clothes that suit their tastes. Faced with an immense number of products on display, they can become quite confused and even hesitate to make any selections at all. This study proposes a system that supports online purchases of garments with functions to select and recommend garments on the basis of the customer’s tastes. The system has three basic capabilities: (1) It analyzes the customer’s tastes using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and selects and suggests clothes. (2) It designates a priority for suggesting the garments using correlations found by clustering. (3) It suggests second purchases of items that have been chosen by previous customers with similar tastes who bought a garment that the current online customer has just decided to buy. The second purchases are selected using market basket analysis. Two databases are essential to this process: one for the attributes of garments and one for simultaneous purchases of garments.

Keywords: Analytical hierarchy process, Online shopping, One-to-one, Recommendation system, Coordination, Market basket analysis

Title of the Paper:  Load Identification of Non-intrusive Load-monitoring System in Smart Home


Authors: Hsueh-Hsien Chang

Abstract: In response to the governmental policy of saving energy sources and reducing CO2, and carry out the resident quality of local; this paper proposes a new method for a non-intrusive load-monitoring (NILM) system in smart home to implement the load identification of electric equipments and establish the electric demand management. Non-intrusive load-monitoring techniques were often based on power signatures in the past, these techniques are necessary to be improved for the results of reliability and accuracy of recognition. By using neural network (NN) in combination with genetic programming (GP) and turn-on transient energy analysis, this study attempts to identify load demands and improve recognition accuracy of non-intrusive load-monitoring results. The turn-on transient energy signature can improve the efficiency of load identification and computational time under multiple operations.

Keywords: Load identification, artificial neural networks, non-intrusive load monitoring, turn-on transient energy analysis, smart home

Title of the Paper:  Interline Power Flow Controller Application for Low Frequency Oscillations Damping


Authors: Alivelu M. Parimi, Irraivan Elamvazuthi, Nordin Saad

Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of the power system installed with the Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC), the latest proposed Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controller. The IPFC is modeled in d-q axis form, and the dynamic model of a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) power system installed with IPFC is developed. Further, the linearized Phillips-Heffron model of the power system is established to study the oscillation stability. The damping controllers considering the various control signals are designed based on the linearized model. The power oscillation stability is investigated with the use of eigenvalue analysis and by nonlinear simulation of the dynamic model of the power system. Studies reveal that the most effective input signal of IPFC utilized for damping the low frequency oscillations is found to be the input signal , providing robust performance under different operating conditions.

Keywords: FACTS, Interline power flow controller, Modelling, Phillips Heffron model, Power oscillation stability

Title of the Paper:  Research on Maintenance and Safety-Ensuring Information Platform in Refining and Chemical Enterprises Based on SOA


Authors: Liu Wenbin, Gao Jinji, Yang Jianfeng, Wang Qingfeng, Zhong Xin

Abstract: Dynamic monitoring and risk-based management of close-loop are both proposed in this paper for equipments in refining and chemical enterprises. Research on the optimal inspection and maintenance mode on the basis of Dynamic Risk-Based Inspection (DRBI) and Dynamic Reliability-Centered Maintenance (DRCM) is carried out. Maintenance and Safety-ensuring Information Platform (MSI) is developed based on SOA, through which the Dynamic Data Platform of the Running Status is established and businesses of heterogeneous system are integrated, thus eradicating Information Island formed among condition monitoring system, fault diagnosis system, risk analysis system and engineering asset management (EAM) system. Meanwhile, combined with ERP, MSI can provide long-term technological support for the stable and economical operations of equipments, and it has been gaining increasing popularity in process industry.

Keywords: Safety-Ensuring, Systematic Diagnosis, Information System, Risk-Based Inspection, Reliability-Centered Maintenance, Service-Oriented Architecture

Title of the Paper:  Dynamic Voltage Regulator based on PWM AC Chopper Converter: Topology and Control


Authors: Jin Nan, Tang Hou-Jun, Lan Jian-Yu, Yao Chen, Chen Wei-Wei, An Xiao-Yu

Abstract: This article presents a novel topology of dynamic voltage regulator using transformer and PWM AC chopper. The proposed voltage regulator employs an ac chopper converter to generate compensation voltage and uses the transformer to isolate the power converter from the load. When input voltage sags and swells occur, the output voltage can be regulated by changing the duty ratio of the PWM control signals. The transformer is connected in series with the load. Thus, the load voltage can be kept stable when input voltage fluctuations occur. For this purpose, a feedforward feedback digital controller has been designed to perform the lose-loop control. The proposed converter and control strategy present the advantages of fast dynamic response and effective compensation to the voltage fluctuations. Simulations are made to investigate the performances of the proposed converter. The simulation results show that the designed voltage regulator has fast transient response, and can suppress the load voltage fluctuations effectively. The prototype is also setup. The simulation results have been validated by the experiment.

Keywords: AC chopper, Voltage Regulator, Pulse Width Modulation, Feedforward and Feedback Control, Voltage Sags, Voltage Swells

Title of the Paper:  Prototype of a Mirror Bender for Siam Photon Laboratory


Authors: A. Oonsivilai, A. Suthummapiwat, P. Songsiritthigul, B. Marungsri, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract: This paper presents a design study of adjustable mirror bender system. This system is functioned to adjust beam size focusing on sample in synchrotron light beamline (BL3) at synchrotron light research institute, Thailand. The design utilizes COSMOS program to help in finite element method for simulating the relation of radius value of mirror in function of various action force applying on curvature mirror. Al Alloy(6061) and Zerodur size 40mm x 300mm x 15mm are used as study mirror. All of structures of mirror bender system are built by stainless steel. The simulation of system is to apply a forces to adjust the mirror radius in 50,000 – 60,000 mm range for using it in real circumstance in beamline system. The results of study show the forces in 100-150 N range for Al Alloy (6061) and 150-200 N range for Zerodur giving proper curvature radius values. In contrast, the apply force is more than 300 N calculating from 80% of stress value of mirror, that damages the system. Finally, a prototype of the system is designed and built by using Al Alloy(6061) as a bender mirror. The testing results of the prototype show that apply forces just in range of 50-100 N are suitable enough for the system. That means the apply force of the prototype is 50 N less than the simulation. Therefore, this mirror bender system is ready and suitable for installation in synchrotron light beamline.

Keywords: Synchrotron light beamline, mirror bender, Zerodur, COSMOS

Title of the Paper:  The Study of Recursive-Based Sliding Mode Adaptive Control of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


Authors: Zhang Yaou, Zhao Wansheng, Wei Hongyu

Abstract: The urgent needs in many occasions have stimulated the study of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The model of the PMSM system has multi-variable, highly nonlinear, strong coupling character and the control performance of the PMSM drive system is also influenced by the uncertainties of the plant composed of unpredictable plant parameter variations, external load disturbances, and unmodelled nonlinear dynamics. In order to design a controller to meet with the desired requirement, based on Lyapunov stability theorem, the combined multiple recursive based sliding mode adaptive controller has been proposed and the physical parameters learn algorithm has been derived. This combined controller integrates the virtues of these three kinds of controllers, and it provides a solution to the servo position control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with the parameters of uncertainty and external load disturbance and also a reference criterion for the controller parameters selection. Theory derivation and experiment simulation results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the controller. This method provides the foundation of the settlement of the servo position control of the permanent magnet synchronous motor.

Keywords: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM); sliding mode control; recursive-based control; adaptive control; Lyapunov stability theorem; nonlinear dynamics

Title of the Paper:  Implementation and Study of Grid-Connected Control for Distributed Generation System


Authors: Jianfei Zhao, Xingwu Yang, Jianguo Jiang

Abstract: An intelligent grid-connected control system for distributed generation system is proposed and studied. The proposed control system consists of reactive power compensation control strategy, dead-time compensation control strategy, voltage and current control strategy, anti-islanding control strategy, and so on. The interrelationships of the control strategies are also developed so as to form an intelligent and integrated protection system for the distributed generation system. A 10 kW power conditioner which consists of a dc-dc boost converter and a three-phase dc-ac voltage source inverter is established. Experimental results show that the power conditioner with the proposed control system can operate with high efficiency, high power factor and low current and voltage total harmonic distortion in a wide output range. Thus, it can be considered as a total solution of the control strategy for distributed generation system.

Keywords: Grid-Connected Control, Distributed Generation System, Anti-Islanding Detection, Total Harmonic Distortion, DC-DC Boost Converter, DC-AC Voltage Source Inverter

Issue 6, Volume 9, June 2010

Title of the Paper:  On Improvement in the Adaptive Sliding-Mode Speed Observer


Authors: Wirote Sangtungtong

Abstract: This paper describes the further development concerning an adaptive sliding-mode speed observer employed as the rotor speed and resistance estimators for a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor (IM). The novel observer is improved from the previous work by a way of on-line calculating the errors of rotor flux estimations and then feeding them to the PI adaptive laws. For that reason, these errors vanish in steady state. Moreover, stability of the proposed observer is guaranteed and verified via the Lyapunov function and its derivative. Finally, the performance between the novel and the previous observers is compared fairly.

Keywords: Adaptive sliding-mode observer, Error of rotor flux estimation, Induction motor, Lyapunov stability, PI adaptive law, Speed observer, State observer

Title of the Paper:  Emotion-Oriented eCommerce Systems


Authors: Simone Leon, Alexander Nikov

Abstract: During recent years, the use of intelligent systems in eCommerce has increased significantly, providing a new perspective on the overall online shopping experience. The rapid growth of eCommerce has motivated many studies on the relationship between website design, company reputation, and purchase intent. Understanding emotion is important in gaining insight on how to efficiently satisfy the needs of the eCommerce customer. Emotion recognition techniques based on modern mathematical models using computational intelligence are presented. Progression within this field of study is highlighted. The requirements for designing of intelligent emotion-oriented eCommerce systems are defined. A model for simulation of intelligent emotion-oriented eCommerce systems is proposed. It is an important tool supporting the experimental study and design of emotion-oriented eCommerce systems.

Keywords: eCommerce, Emotion Recognition, Computational Intelligence, Modelling, Affect

Title of the Paper:  Multiple Zones Surveillance System Using RFID


Authors: M. H. Noor Hazrin Hany, D. Hanita, Y. Noorhana, I. Mohd Amirul

Abstract: Monitoring and tracking the activities of individuals (or objects) in multiple zones or areas simultaneously is quite a challenging task. It is a very common practice to use observation cameras or to have security personnel to guard the specified areas. However, area surveillances using these common methods may become tedious when the activities to watch out for increases. More cameras as well as manpower are needed to cater for the increment of activities for each zone. On top of that, should anyone (or objects) vacates or trespasses the designated areas, it would take some time to identify them, hence resulting complexity in tracing their whereabouts. To overcome these challenges, we propose a surveillance system for multiple zones using RFID technology. Individuals or objects to be monitored are tagged using RFID tags that hold unique identification. Each zone is allocated with one RFID reader, which will transmit the information of activities of the respective zones to the host computer in the control room. The security personnel in the control room would be able to identify which individual or objects that are out of their designated zones or trespassing to another zone based on the tags that has been detected by the reader. Should the tags are removed without authorization, alarm will be generated. Every activity transactions are recorded in a database for future references or actions. A case study of inmate tracking system is conducted and demonstrated to prove the capability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), multiple zones surveillance, RFID reader, RFID tags

Title of the Paper:  Differential Evolution Application in Temperature Profile of Fermenting Process


Authors: Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract: It is regularly to optimization of temperature and feeding profiles in batch process for several objectives and constraints. A temperature profile is applied to drive the process so as to obey certain constraints during the beer fermentation. The design of this temperature profile is an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the operation time and optimize the quality of beer. In this paper, differential evolutionary computation is exploited to efficiency handle such problems. The proposed approach has been implemented and practical to design temperature profile for beer fermentation process. The results show that differential evolution is a proficient and at ease method to incorporate the prior knowledge of the user into the temperature profile optimization of batch processes.

Keywords: Optimization, Fermentation, Brewery, Differential Evolution, Temperature profile

Title of the Paper:  Response Surface Method Application in Gasifier System Identification for Biomass Power Plants


Authors: A. Oonsivilai, J. Satonsaowapak, T. Ratniyomchai, T. Kulworawanichpong, P. Pao-La-Or, B. Marungsri

Abstract: The use of renewable energy sources becomes more necessary and interestingly, wider application of renewable energy devices at domestic, commercial and industrial levels is not only resulted in greater awareness but also significantly installed capacities. In addition, biomass principally is in the form of woods and more than that used in form of energy by humans for a long time. Gasification is a process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion. Many gasifier models have various operating conditions thus the parameters were kept in each model are different. This study applied the experimental data which have three inputs that are biomass consumption, air flow rate and ash discharge rate and one output is gas flow rate. For this paper, response surface methods was used to identify the gasifier system equation that suitable for this experimental data in this paper and the method were used to identify gasifier system model were multiple linear regression, quadratic model and cubic model. In the result, cubic model was better way from three methods to get the answer.

Keywords: Gasifier System, Identification, Response Surface Method

Title of the Paper:  Implementation Roadmap using Voronoi Diagrams for Vision-based Robot Motion


Authors: Shahed Shojaeipour, Sallehuddin Mohamed Haris, Ali Shojaeipour

Abstract: In this paper, we present a method to navigate a mobile robot using a webcam. This method determines the shortest path for the robot to transverse to its target location, while avoiding obstacles along the way. The environment is first captured as an image using a webcam. Image processing methods are then performed to identify the existence of obstacles within the environment. Using the Voronoi Diagrams VD(s) method, locations with obstacles are identified and the corresponding Voronoi cells are eliminated. From the remaining Voronoi cells, the shortest path to the goal is identified. The program is written in MATLAB with the Image Processing toolbox. The proposed method does not make use of any other type of sensor other than the webcam.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Path planning, Voronoi Diagrams, Image processing, Visual servo

Title of the Paper:  Robust Audio Watermarking Using Multiwavelet Transform and Genetic Algorithm


Authors: Prayoth Kumsawat, Kitti Attakitmongcol, Arthit Srikaew

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new approach for optimization in digital audio watermarking using artificial intelligent technique. The watermarks are embedded into the low frequency coefficients in discrete multiwavelet transform domain. The embedding technique is based on quantization process which does not require the original audio signal in the watermark extraction. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithm to search for optimal quantization step in order to improve both quality of watermarked audio and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, normalized correlation and bit error rate. The experimental results show that our proposed method can improve the quality of the watermarked audio signal and give more robustness of the watermark as compared to previous works.

Keywords: Audio watermarking, Multiwavelet, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence, Optimization

Title of the Paper:  User Friendly System for the Visually Impaired in Learning Al-Quran


Authors: F. Razaly, N. H. Ajizan, S. Mad Saad, M. S. Yaacob, M. Z. Md Zain, M. Hussein, M. Y. Abdullah, A. R. Musa

Abstract: This study presents a method to enable the visually impaired Muslim to learn and read the Al-Quran using Braille Display with software help. The system reads the database which contains all verses of Al-Quran and user will need to select the verse and ayah to read. Besides that, this system can be used in a class to teach visually impaired students to learn Al-Quran. Every word or character typed by the instructor in the main Braille Panel will be transmitted to the sub Braille Panel that is connected to the main Braille Panel. The selected verse of Al-Quran and ayah will also generate an index before being transmitted to the Braille Panel. The index will be transmitted to the Braille Display for people to touch and read the display. A user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) will be used to fulfill the ergonomics for the visually impaired user’s physical capabilities. Several approaches are used to design and implement the interface for the visually impaired like speech or sound output and Braille display. The Braille codes can be displayed using the Braille panel. The design interface and structure of the system for the visually impaired users in learning Al-Quran is presented.

Keywords: Graphical User Interface (GUI), Screen Reader, Visually Impaired People

Title of the Paper:  Information Security Investment Decision-making based on Fuzzy Economics


Authors: J. N. Sheen

Abstract: Fuzzy economic models to evaluate the economic feasibility of information security investment for decision-makers is derived in this study. The Net Present Value and discounted Return on Investment models are proposed for the execution of cost-benefit analysis. Fuzzy mathematics is based on the extended principles which ensured that the resultant fuzzy number continuously maintained its fuzzy properties during the arithmetic operating procedure. Since fuzzy results are in the form of a complex nonlinear representation, and do not always provide a totally ordered set in the same way that crisp numbers do, the current paper approximates the resulting fuzzy profitability indexes by a triangular fuzzy number initially, and then uses the Mellin Transform to obtain the means and variances of the triangle fuzzy numbers in order to determine their relative ranking in a decision-making process. The performances of the proposed models are verified by considering their application to a practical illustration, which were used in a previous literature. These investigations not only confirm that the results of the fuzzy economic models are consistent with those of the conventional crisp models, but also demonstrate that the proposed models represent readily implemented possibility analysis tools for use in the arena of uncertain financial decision-making. The developed models represent readily implemented feasibility analysis tools for use in the arena of uncertain economic decision-making.

Keywords: Fuzzy economics, fuzzy mathematics, information security investment, benefit-cost analysis, decision-making, possibility analysis, Mellin transform

Title of the Paper:  Generalized Optimization Methodology for System Design


Authors: Alexander Zemliak, Ricardo Pena, Eduardo Rios

Abstract: The new general methodology for the analog system optimization was elaborated by means of the optimum control theory formulation in order to improve the characteristics of the system design process. A special control vector is defined to redistribute the compute expensive between a network analysis and a parametric optimization. This approach generalizes the design process and generates a set of the different optimization strategies that serves as the structural basis to the optimal design strategy construction. The principal difference between this new methodology and before elaborated theory is the more general approach on the definition of the system parameters and more broadened structural basis. The main equations for the system optimization process were elaborated. These equations include the special control functions that generalize the total system optimization process. Numerical results that include as passive and active nonlinear networks demonstrate the efficiency and perspective of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Time-optimal design algorithm, control theory formulation, general methodology

Title of the Paper:  Control of Periodically Time-Varying Systems with Delay: An Algebraic Approach vs. Modified Smith Predictors


Authors: Radek Matusu, Roman Prokop

Abstract: The paper deals with comparison of different continuous-time strategies applied to control of singleinput single-output (SISO) periodically time-varying systems with delay. The first method is based on the fractional representation in the ring of proper and stable rational functions (RPS), general solutions of Diophantine equations and conditions of divisibility while the other two methods use the modified Smith predictor structures in combination with standard forms for minimum of integral squared time error (ISTE) or design by Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM). The capabilities of all techniques are demonstrated on simulative examples for first and second order periodically time-varying time-delay systems. Moreover, various modifications and improvements, such as control structure with more degrees of freedom or utilization of disturbance controller are also included in the research.

Keywords: Time-Varying Systems, Time-Delay, Algebraic Synthesis, Modified Smith Predictor, PI-PD Control, Coefficient Diagram Method

Issue 7, Volume 9, July 2010

Title of the Paper:  Analysis of the Modernized System for Monitoring Environmental Parameters in Workings with Hazard of Explosive Atmospheres


Authors: Burian Sorin, Aurel Selejan, Emilian Ghicioi, Jeana Ionescu, Marius Darie, Lucian Moldovan, Tiberiu Csaszar

Abstract: Actual firedamp monitoring systems, placed in firedamp mines from Romania, interrogate the detection heads (transducers) at a 4 minutes period, in order to monitor methane concentration. In site, in this time, methane accumulations can occur and could result even explosions. This paper presents a new system that monitors the methane concentration by interrogating the transducers at a period of 4 seconds. Concurrently, with the help of this system, even other environmental parameters are monitored, and the number of detection heads can be increased from 40 to 64 or more, as necessary.

Keywords: Acquisition system, measurement and control, central computing unit, computerized recorder, intrinsic safety, explosive atmosphere

Title of the Paper:  Modern Prediction Methods in the Monitoring Process of Security Parameters


Authors: Marius Darie, Sorin Burian, Jeana Ionescu, Tiberiu Csaszar, Lucian Moldovan, Adriana Andris

Abstract: The lack in exploiting the data resulted from the security parameters monitoring process represents a state of fact equivalent with economical losses. In this paper, the authors recommend that some indirect parameters obtained by calculus to be taken into account. These parameters give us additional important clues regarding the forecast of monitored parameters. Thus, two theoretical models have been proposed and the algorithms were conceived. The implemented calculation program has been tested using an artificial set of values for the monitored parameter.

Keywords: Monitored parameters, prediction, theoretical model, parameters dynamic, system status, regression filter, polynomial regression

Title of the Paper:  Non-Linear Filtering in the Estimation of a Term Structure Model of Interest Rates


Authors: Shu Wu

Abstract: The methods of the class of Kalman filters have recently been used in the estimation of the term structure of interest rates. These methods can employ both time-series and cross-sectional aspects of term structure models. This paper compares the performance of two kinds of non-linear Kalman filter algorithms - Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Square-Root Unscented Kalman Filter (SRUKF) in estimating one popular exponential-affine term structure model. Simulation results show that SRUKF is of higher approximation accuracy and stronger numerical stability than EKF is.

Keywords: Non-linear filtering, Square-Root Unscented Kalman Filter, Extended Kalman Filter, Term structure of interest rates, Exponential-affine term structure model, One-factor Vasicek model

Title of the Paper:  Approximation of Force and Energy in Vehicle Crash Using LPV Type Description


Authors: Istvan A. Harmati, Andras Rovid, Peter Varlaki

Abstract: In accident analysis, vehicle crash mechanics and vehicle safety research modeling of the deformational force and absorbed energy plays a crucial role. The usually applied FEM based methods give good approximations, but they have extremely large computational complexity and require a detailed knowledge about the parameteres of the crash and the vehicle. There are simpler models, but they not give satisfactory approximation. In this paper using the LPV-HOSVD paradigm we introduce a model for vehicle deformation process, which well approximates the deformation force and the absorbed energy, moreover it has acceptable computational complexity.

Keywords: Vehicle crash, force model, LPV model, tensor product transformation, higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD)

Title of the Paper:  Some Optimal Approximate Methods with Application to Thin Film Flow


Authors: Vasile Marinca, Nicolae Herisanu, Dumitru Bala

Abstract: In this work a totally analytic solution for this film flow of a fourth grade fluid down a vertical cylinder are obtained using some approximate optimal methods. These approaches do not depend upon any small or large parameters in comparison with other perturbation methods. The solutions obtained using our procedures are in good agreement with the exact solution, which show the applicability of the methods.

Keywords: Optimal variational iteration method (OVIM), Optimal parametric iteration method (OPIM), thin film flow, approximate analytic solution

Title of the Paper:  Comparative Study Regarding the Optimization and Analysis of Automatic Systems using PID, LQR and PI-MIMO


Authors: Paul Ciprian Patic, Luminita Duta

Abstract: Automatic modeling system using Matlab-Simulink software package applies the Cohen-Coon method for determining the closed loop PID parameters and plotting the system response clue. Implementing the same system in closed loop PID adjustment using LabVIEW software package, requires, at first, an additional procedure, namely, the use of transfer functions in Z domain, that means the use of sampling signal. The study from this paper intends to determine the parameters of a PID regulator using two software packages - MATLAB-Simulink and LabVIEW. As a mathematical pattern a DC machine has been used. To exemplify regulators PID, LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) and PI-MIMO (PI – Multiple Input Multiple Output) were used. The application is easy to be implemented, the inverted pendulum being used to emphasize the results. The closed loop system and its evolution over time are easily implemented. This software package offers an easy user interface, which means that is convenient to introduce the program functions.

Keywords: Inverted pendulum, PID regulator, LQR regulator, PI-MIMO regulator

Title of the Paper:  Dynamic Compensation of Hard-Disk R/W Head and Head-Stack


Authors: Nuapett Sarasiri, Arthit Srikaew, Sarawut Sujitjorn

Abstract: R/W heads of HDDs are inherently unstable or highly underdamped. Compensations are always necessary for the heads and actuators to function properly under motion control. This article provides the control models of the single-head and the head-stack. Comparison studies of various compensation structures are presented. Resonance issue has been addressed with the corresponding mitigation technique. The design optimization to improve the R/W head performance and stability has been achieved via adaptive tabu search.

Keywords: Hard disk R/W head, head-stack, dynamic compensation, resonance, adaptive tabu search

Title of the Paper:  Dynamical Model of a Power Plant Superheater


Authors: Pavel Nevriva, Stepan Ozana, Martin Pies, Ladislav Vilimec

Abstract: The paper deals with simulation of both dynamics and control of power plant superheaters. Superheaters are heat exchangers that transfer energy from flue gas to superheated steam. A composition of superheater, its input and output pipelines, and fittings is called a superheater assembly. Inertias of superheater assembly are often decisive for design of a steam temperature control system. Mathematical model of a superheater assemble is described by sets of nonlinear partial differential equations. The accuracy of the mathematical model is the center of the problem of simulation. Dominant role plays the accuracy of the mathematical model of the superheater. To discuss the accuracy of the mathematical model, the model was applied to the output superheater assemble of the 200 MW generating block of the actual operating power plant. To analyze the accuracy of the mathematical model, the system was agitated by test signals. Experiments carried out at the power plant were simulated mathematically. Then, data obtained by the measurement were compared with simulation results. Comparison leads to the verification of both the accuracy and the serviceability of the mathematical model discussed.

Keywords: Simulation, Measurement, Superheaters, Partial differential equations, Model verification

Title of the Paper:  Bifurcation and Chaos Phenomena Appearing in Induction Motor under Variation of PI Controller Parameters


Authors: N. Jabli, H. Khammari, M. F. Mimouni, R. Dhifaoui

Abstract: Bifurcation theory deals with the change of qualitative behavior in a parameter space of dynamical systems. This paper provides a numerical approach to better understand the dynamic behavior of an indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of a current-fed induction motor. The focus is on bifurcation analysis of the IFOC motor model parameters, with a particular emphasis on the change that affects the dynamics and stability under small variations of Proportional Integral controller (PI) parameters. In fact, the dynamical properties of this electrical machine exhibit a rich behavior. Indeed equilibrium point and complex oscillatory phenomena such as limit cycle and chaos are observed. Since a perturbation of PI control gains led to the existence of regular behavior and region where chaotic phenomena may occur. Properties of both parametric and phase plane singularities are carried out by using numerical simulations. Furthermore, bifurcation diagrams for the equilibrium points and the 2-parametric bifurcation curves are computed based on continuation methods for solving differential equations. This paper also attempts to discuss various types of the transition to chaos in the induction motor model. The analysis of the obtained bifurcation simulations gives useful guidelines for adjusting both motor model and PI controller parameters.

Keywords: Induction motor, PI Controller gains, Qualitative behavior, Bifurcation, Chaos

Title of the Paper:  Design of an Adaptive Faults Tolerant Control: Case of Sensor Faults


Authors: Atef Khedher, Kamel Ben Othman, Didier Maquin, Mohamed Benrejeb

Abstract: This paper presents a method of design of a sensor faults tolerant control. The method is presented for the case of linear systems and then for the case of non linear systems described by Takagi- Sugeno models. The faults are initially estimated using a proportional integral observer. A mathematical transformation is used to conceive an augmented system in which the sensor fault appear as an unknown inputs. The synthesized control depends on the estimated faults and the error between the state of a reference reference and the faulty system state. The fault tolearnt control is conceived using the augmented state. The conditions of the observer convergence and of the control existence are formulated in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). The formulation in LMI shows that the synthesis of the control and the observer can be independently made. For both cases (linear and non linear) The theoretical results are validated by their application to a noisy system affected by sensor faults.

Keywords: Multiple model, estimation, proportional integral observer, sensor faults, faults tolerant control

Title of the Paper:  Observer Design for Nonlinear Systems Represented by Takagi-Sugeno Models


Authors: Wafa Jamel, Nasreddine Bouguila, Atef Khedher, Kamel Ben Othman

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of synthesis of a multiple observer for a class of uncertain nonlinear system represented by a Takagi-Sugeno multiple model is studied. The measure’s uncertainties are considered as unknown outputs. To conceive the observer a mathematical transformation is considered to conceive an augmented system in which the unknown output appear as an unknown input. Convergence conditions are established in order to guarantee the convergence of the state estimation error. These conditions are expressed in Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulation. An example of simulation is given to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords: Takagi-Sugeno models, multiple observer, state estimation, unknown inputs, unknown outputs, measures uncertainties

Issue 8, Volume 9, August 2010

Title of the Paper:  A High Speed Reconfigurable USART IP Core with Support for Multi-Drop Networks


Authors: Ali H. El-Mousa, Nasser Anssari, Ashraf Al-Suyyagh, Hamzah Al-Zubi

Abstract: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) are increasingly becoming the mainstay of embedded systems due to their flexibility, speed, ease of use and reusability. At the same time, networking and data communications between the different parts of an embedded system and between different embedded systems, is becoming a necessity due to large complex projects. This paper presents the design, implementation, and testing results of a flexible and user reconfigurable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receive Transmit (USART) IP core suitable for use in embedded systems and Systems on Chip (SoC). The design scheme employed, allows the USART to be used in various modes of operation such as standalone and 9-bit addressable mode for multi-drop network of serial devices. It also supports high speed data rates of up to 3 Mb/s. The design utilizes Hardware Description Language (HDL) to describe the operation, ease implementation and allow cross platform utilization. The paper shows through a comprehensive testing methodology that the proposed design functions properly while consuming minimum resources from the target FPGA.

Keywords: Embedded systems, addressable USART, IP core, FPGA, multi-drop networks, HDL

Title of the Paper:  Performance Analysis of Limited Bandwidth Active Suspension with Preview Based on a Discrete Time Model


Authors: Zhang Xin, Zhang Jianwu

Abstract: A car suspension system is the mechanism that physically separates the car body from the wheels of the car. Active suspensions differ from the conventional passive suspensions in their ability to inject energy into the system, which can improve the trade-off between the ride comfort and road handling. A discrete optimal control algorithm is proposed in this paper for a limited bandwidth active suspension, in which both look-ahead and wheelbase preview information are utilized. The preview optimal algorithm is implemented in Matlab/Simulink software environment based on a half-vehicle model. The effect of preview time on system performance is investigated. In order to reduce the energy consumption, the effect of various bandwidth of actuator is particularly examined. Simulation results show that the preview time can influence overall system performance remarkably, and 0.2 s look-ahead preview time is preferable. Theoretical deviation of the optimal control gain is given to explain the fact that only look-ahead preview benefits the front wheel’s motion while wheelbase preview benefits the rear wheel’s motion much more. The pitch motion performance deterioration compared with passive case brought by preview can be eliminated to some extent. With preview information, suspension working space requirement can be restrained to a prominent low degree. 6 Hz system is the most suitable one to achieve the trade-off between performance potential and energy consumption in the range 3~15 Hz for limited bandwidth active suspension.

Keywords: Active Suspension, Preview, Control Algorithm, Half-vehicle Model, Limited Bandwidth

Title of the Paper:  Automated Trisomy 21 Assessment Based on Maternal Serum Markers Using Trivariate Lognormal Distribution


Authors: Lai Khin Wee, Lim Miin, Eko Supriyanto

Abstract: Trisomy 21 is the most frequent types of chromosomal abnormalities. Generally, current methods for trisomy risk assessment are divided into two techniques, which are invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive methods are including amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), or percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), but its drawbacks are expensive, time consuming and having risk of miscarriage, where else non-invasive methods are counting on ultrasound marker and maternal serum markers screening. Nevertheless, single evaluations on ultrasound markers itself are always not enough for risk assessment in terms of its accuracy, reliability and consistency. So, we proposed a new mathematical algorithm which combines three maternal serum markers using trivariate lognormal distribution to calculate automatically the probability or likelihood that a woman has an affected pregnancy or not. The developed algorithm was implemented into graphical user interface to act as computer aided e-diagnostic system. We have compared the results with published finding and found it is almost equally accurate.

Keywords: Trisomy 21, maternal serum marker, maternal health data, trivariate distribution, bivariate distribution, chromosomal abnormalities, multivariate distribution

Title of the Paper:  Study of the Deforming Regime Introduced in the Power Supply Grid by the Electric Locomotives Equipped with DC Motors


Authors: Corina Daniela Cuntan, Ioan Baciu, Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Anca Iordan

Abstract: In this work is presenting the study of the electric current’s parameters and characteristics, obtained by means of an electric power’s quality analyzer. Also, are analyzed the various possibilities of compensating the effects produced by the consumers, e.g. by the locomotives equipped with DC motors, in order to reduce the reactive power, the current harmonics or the voltage harmonics, respectively the reactive power and harmonics simmultaneously. The measurements were made into an AC railway electric traction substation of 27 kV, during more hours, being registered momentary and average values. The data acquired with the electric power’s quality analyzer were registered into a computing system, for their further analysis. In order to achieve the adaption between the analyzer’s input measures and the traction line’s values, the measurements were made in the secondary of the voltage and current transformers existent in the traction substation.

Keywords: Electric power’s quality, active power, reactive power, apparent power, harmonic distorsion factor, power factor, electric power’s quality analyzer

Title of the Paper:  Analysis of Traffic Noise in a Road Intersection Configuration


Authors: Claudio Guarnaccia

Abstract: Acoustical noise produced by vehicular traffic depends on many parameters, including the geometry and the general features of the road. The presence of a conflicting point, i.e. an intersection, strongly affects and modifies the simulation strategy of noise in urban environments, that is usually performed with statistical models tuned on experimental data related to standard condition (free flow traffic, intermediate vehicular volumes, etc.). In this paper, the author presents the analysis of an intersection case study in proximity of Salerno University, performed by means of experimental measurements and software simulations. The chosen area presents interesting features because of the priority rights on the principal road and because of the relevant amount of vehicles and buses, mainly due to the University students and personnel that transit in the intersection, especially during rush hours. The aid of a predictive software is highlighted, together with the shortcomings of a simulation strategy that does not take into account traffic dynamics. The analogy between electrical current and vehicular flow is sketched and used in the roads vehicles volume definition.

Keywords: Acoustical Noise Control, Traffic Noise, Road Intersections, Modelling

Title of the Paper:  A Fuzzy Systems Framework for Solving Real World Problems


Authors: Michael Gr. Voskoglou

Abstract: Mathematical modelling and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) are the two principal methods used for the solution of real world problems. In the present paper we attempt a mathematical description of the above processes by using principles of fuzzy logic and of uncertainty theory. Examples are also presented to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, fuzzy models, uncertainty, possibility theory, mathematical modelling, Case-Based Reasoning

Title of the Paper:  A Fuzzy Prediction Based Trajectory Estimation


Authors: Hakan Tozan, Mustafa Yagimli

Abstract: Image processing, object tracking and trajectory estimation are the integral topics of computer vision which are rapidly gaining importance due to their non-ignorable relation with defense, security and also health sectors. In this paper; by use of image processing techniques, real time images containing tracked object from the camera are transferred to a Visual Basic based software; tracked object in images is discerned from the background and using segmentation process transferred into matrix form via which object centre point coordinates are determined. After determination of centre point coordinates, the trajectory the moving object is estimated with an adaptive fuzzy time series forecasting model using the determined coordinate values.

Keywords: Object tracking, Trajectory estimation, Adaptive estimation, Fuzzy time series

Title of the Paper:  Predicting the Mechanical Behavior of Steel Frames Exposed to Elevated Temperatures using Artificial Neural Networks


Authors: Moudar H. Zgoul

Abstract: The structural behavior fire-resistant steel is essential; fire-resistant steel is proven to have higher strength at elevated temperature than that of conventional steel. Also, the requirement of fire protection in the fire-resisting steel can be relaxed as compared with conventional steel structures. However, the design criteria for the application of the fire-resisting steel in steel columns are still limited. Experimental approach into the analysis of fire-resistant steel frames is costly and expensive. Such analyses aim at evaluating the variations of the ultimate strength of steel frames due to the reduction effects on strength resulting in the increasing temperature. An alternative approach to model the mechanical behaviour of steel frames when exposed to fire at high temperatures is presented in this work. The concept is based on a series of stress-strain curves obtained experimentally at various temperature levels. An artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to predict the stress-strain curve under such condition. The numerical results obtained from ANNs of stress levels for the material were compared with the experimental data. A New model for reduction factor is introduced and compared with other models. Using ANN was found to be an efficient tool for modelling the material properties of steel frames for high temperature applications.

Keywords: Material models, artificial neural networks, fire-resistant steel, fire load, stress strain curves, strength of materials, elevated temperature

Title of the Paper:  Automatic Valuation of Jordanian Estates Using A Genetically-Optimised Artificial Neural Network Approach


Authors: Mousa Al-Akhras, Maha Saadeh

Abstract: Estate appraisal can be defined as valuing a land or property as of a given date using common data utilising standardised methods and statistical testing. Estate appraisal has several applications such as asset valuation for lenders, property tax estimation, insurance estimation, and estate planning, grant new mortgages to new home buyers, and purchase mortgage packages, which can contain thousands of mortgages, as investments. It is also used to guide potential buyers and sellers with making purchasing decisions. The drawbacks of on-site manual property valuation include: it is time-consuming, costy, based on subjective judgments and sometimes it is based on validation using a negotiated price rather than estimating the true market value of a property. In this paper, the authors build an Artificial Neural Network model for the purpose of automatic appraisal of Jordanian estates to avoid the drawbacks of manual appraisal. The proposed Artificial Neural Network model is built in two stages: In the first stage, a Genetic Algorithm optimiser is used to determine the best topology for the Artificial Neural Network. In the second stage, the optimised Artificial Neural Network topology is trained for the best values for the weights. In evaluating the property price, several factors are taken into consideration such as area size, location, lot area, establishment year, price for building a square meter, and type of building (commercial or agricultural) and others. Records from Jordanian Department of Lands & Survey are used for training the Artificial Neural Network model and for testing its performance to find the best model that represents the underlying relation between a land/property and its characterising features. Statistical tests were performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Genetic algorithm, Estate appraisal, Automatic valuation model, Computerassisted mass appraisal, Cost approach, Sales comparison approach, Income approach

Issue 9, Volume 9, September 2010

Title of the Paper:  Robust Stabilization of Interval Plants using Kronecker Summation Method


Authors: Radek Matusu, Roman Prokop, Katarina Matejickova, Monika Bakosova

Abstract: This paper deals with design of continuous-time robustly stabilizing Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers for interval systems using the combination of Kronecker summation method, sixteen plant theorem and an algebraic approach to controller tuning. The effectiveness and practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated in both simulation and real experiments including control of a third order nonlinear electronic plant.

Keywords: Robust Stabilization, PI Controllers, Interval Systems, Kronecker Summation Method, Algebraic Synthesis, Electronic Model

Title of the Paper:  The Virtual Prototype of a Mechatronic Suspension System with Active Force Control


Authors: Catalin Alexandru, Petre Alexandru

Abstract: The paper presents the virtual prototype of an automotive suspension system with force generator actuator. The active suspensions use sensors to measure the accelerations of sprung mass and unsprung mass, the analog signals from the sensors being transmitted to the controller, which communicates with the force actuator. In this way, the passenger comfort and car stability are simultaneously improved. The study is developed for a quarter-car model, which contains the guiding & suspension system of a front wheel. The virtual prototype of the active suspension is a control loop composed by the multi-body mechanical model connected with the dynamic model of the actuator and with the controller model. The digital platform used in the study integrates MBS (Multi-Body Systems) and DFC (Design for Control) software solutions. The numeric simulations have been performed considering a step input signal, the control strategy aiming to decrease the overshoot, without adversely affecting other performance indexes.

Keywords: Suspension, Active force control, Mechatronic system, Virtual prototype

Title of the Paper:  Two Methodologies to Support Gas Turbine Power Plant Availabilty Estimation: Design of Experiment and Montecarlo Simulation


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Pietro Giribone, Roberto Revetria

Abstract: Maintenance is an important aspect in order to guarantee the efficiency of industrial facilities. For power plants the high availability ratios can be obtained only with preventive maintenance but the result costs increases rapidly. In order to reduce the cost level of the maintenance activity, on-condition maintenance is carried out on an increasing subset of components. Only using appropriate reliability models can identify the optimal mix between preventive and on-condition maintenance. Some time the data required by such models are inadequate or missing and the performances of the implemented system can fall quite rapidly. The authors propose an innovative approach based on a hierarchical Montecarlo simulator able to estimate properly the power plant reliability and, at the same time, improve its performances by a fine-tuning of its parameters. A real life case study is than presented and discussed, even with economical consideration.

Keywords: Reliability, Fuzzy Logic, Model Estimation, Montecarlo Simulation, Design of Experiment

Title of the Paper:  Guidelines and Perspectives to Enhance Italian Port Competitiveness


Authors: Enrico Briano, Claudia Caballini, Roberto Mosca, Roberto Revetria, Alessandro Testa

Abstract: Ports, as well as other important transportation infrastructures like railways, motorways and airports, play a great role in the economy of a nation, because, if properly managed, they can strongly affect the Country competitiveness and its economic development; this is true especially for Italy, which can take great advantage from its geographic position of peninsula. In fact Italy can heavily exploit seas using the so-called “Seas Highways” system – a series of alternative links between Northern and Southern Italy, and also Mediterranean Countries – devoted to lighten vehicular traffic on the most important Italian motorways (like the Milan-Naples or the Adriatic Motorway, just to quote two of the busiest), but also to reduce atmospheric pollution and to guarantee a cheaper way of transportation, especially for goods which are not perishable. Although also European Union is strongly recommending this solution, even inserting Seas Highways inside the Pan European Corridors (as “Corridor 21”), the Italian ports have many difficulties to face the international competition, especially with Northern Europe ports, despite their privileged position on the routes coming from the Far East, because of different reasons, first of all the inadequacy of the infrastructures internal and external to the ports (especially railroads, exploited a little respect to other European Countries), the high fragmentation of the Italian port realities (every Port has in Italy its own Port Authority), that causes fund dispersion and organizational problems, and a regulation out to date. All this problems are also amplified by the actual international economical crisis, which contributes to increase competition among the ports. For these reasons the authors are presenting a project proposal, in cooperation with the Italian University and Scientific Research Ministry, devoted to analyze the current situation of Italian ports and logistic facilities, underlining points of strength, points of weakness, opportunities and criticalities and analyzing the common factors of behavior of the ports considered. This is a prerequisite to define a simulation model implemented using the System Dynamics methodology, which is suitable for the study of high uncertain scenarios, as the Italian port reality is, allowing the formulation of so-called “What if” analysis. The aim of this model is to simulate the effects of the infrastructural, organizational and normative changes on the Italian port system, acting as a powerful Decision Support System (DSS) for all the stakeholders involved in the system, in order to identify a common solution devoted to improve Italian ports competitiveness. Moreover, the authors provided a deep literature review on works concerning port competitiveness worldwide, analyzing what has been done in the Far East, in India and in Europe, in order to find interesting starting points for the research proposed.

Keywords: System Dynamics, Simulation, Italian Ports, What if analysis, Logistics

Title of the Paper:  Map Fusion in an Independent Multi-Robot Approach


Authors: Monica Ballesta, Arturo Gil, Oscar Reinoso, Luis Paya, Luis M. Jimenez

Abstract: This paper concentrates on the study on the map fusion problem in the context of a multi-robot map building approach. Concretely it is seen as one of the steps towards the independent multi-robot map building. In the situation proposed a set of several robots performs map building tasks without the notion of other robots’ existence. Each robot builds its own local map using its observations and estimates its path independently. As a result, there will be a set of local maps that can be fused into a global one. This is the case when the map fusion takes importance. Particularly, we focus our experiments on landmark-based maps constructed using visual information and by means of a particle filter. When fusing two maps, we consider the uncertainty of the landmarks integrated by each different robot to its map.

Keywords: SLAM, map fusion, visual landmarks, particle filter, map alignment

Title of the Paper:  Failure of Measurement System? Some Lesson from Fall of Enron Corp


Authors: Jiri Strouhal, Carmen Bonaci, Dumitru Matis, Razvan Mustata

Abstract: The current financial crisis makes us all remember both previous economic crisis that have marked our history and large bankruptcies, that were intensely debated through trade literature, all having similar elements with what we are nowadays experiencing. We trying to prove that we learn nothing from history would be pointless since we have repeatedly watched history repeating itself over and over again. This is even more obvious where capital markets are concerned, their tendency of relearning the same lesson seeming to be one of their most intriguing characteristics. We believe a short incursion into the past might help us look into the present with different eyes. This paper develops an analysis into the past, focusing on similarities with the current financial crisis and still believing in lessons that could and should be learnt.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, Accounting Scandals, Fair Value, Enron, Bankruptcy, Financial Instruments

Title of the Paper:  Comparative Study for EAF's Reactive Energy Compensation Methods and Power Factor Improvement


Authors: Deaconu Sorin Ioan, Popa Gabriel Nicolae, Tihomir Latinovic

Abstract: In this paper is analyzing the current operating conditions of one electric arc furnace (EAF) in order to evaluate the best option to solve the energy consumption problem. Experimental results show that EAFs represent a substantial source of electric disturbances, such as voltage fluctuations, flicker, harmonics, and unbalance between phases. Improvement of the energetic performances of an EAF imposes a careful technical and economical analysis. The possible compensation solutions include passive filter, SVC (static var compensator) and STATCOM (static synchronous compensator).Finally, the guideline for compensator selection and performance estimation is obtained.

Keywords: Electric Arc Furnace, Flicker, Power Factor, Harmonic Analysis, Reactive Compensator, Improvement

Title of the Paper:  Theory of the Simple Genetic Algorithm with α-Selection, Uniform Crossover and Bitwise Mutation


Authors: Andre Neubauer

Abstract: Genetic algorithms (GA) are instances of random heuristic search (RHS) which mimic biological evolution and molecular genetics in simplified form. These random heuristic search algorithms can be theoretically described by an infinite population model with the help of a deterministic dynamical system model by which the stochastic trajectory of a population can be characterized using a deterministic heuristic function and its fixed points. For practical problem sizes the determination of the fixed points is unfeasible even for the simple genetic algorithm (SGA) with fitness-proportional selection, crossover and bitwise mutation. The recently introduced simple genetic algorithm with -selection allows the analytical calculation of the unique fixed point of the corresponding intrinsic system model. In this paper, an overview of the theoretical results for the simple genetic algorithm with -selection and its intrinsic system model is given. The unique fixed point of the intrinsic system model is derived and its compatibility with the equivalence relation imposed by schemata is shown. In addition to the theoretical analysis experimental results for the simple genetic algorithm with -selection, uniform crossover and bitwise mutation are presented showing a close agreement to the theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Simple genetic algorithm, -selection, random heuristic search, dynamical system model, infinite population model, intrinsic system model, schemata

Title of the Paper:  Locally Optimal Fuzzy Control of a Heat Exchanger


Authors: Anna Vasickaninova, Monika Bakosova

Abstract: The paper presents a fuzzy control based on parallel distributed fuzzy controllers for a heat exchanger. Each subcontroller is LQR designed and provides local optimal solutions. First, a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model is employed to represent a system. The stability of the system with the proposed fuzzy controllers is discussed. The simulation results are compared with classical PID control and illustrate the validity and applicability of the presented approach.

Keywords: Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model, Lyapunov function, LMI problem, shell heat exchanger, Takagi-Sugeno parallel distributed fuzzy LQR, PID control

Issue 10, Volume 9, October 2010

Title of the Paper:  Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Shock in a Water Pumping System Protected by Air


Authors: Anca Constantin, Claudiu Stefan Nitescu

Abstract: Air may be efficiently used in water pumping system protection from hydraulic shock, due to its elasticity. The paper presents the results regarding the extreme pressures in the discharge duct of a pumping installation, obtained by numerical simulation of the water hammer phenomenon in two cases of protection with air: using air chamber and using free air dispersed throughout the pumped water. The air chamber increases the pipe wall elasticity in the particular section where the chamber is mounted. The air bubbles transform single-phase water into a biphasic fluid with greater compressibility. Specific parameters are related to these methods, in order to establish criteria for best protection solution choice in water supply engineering design.

Keywords: Hydraulic Shock, Pumping Installation, Air Chamber, Biphasic Flow, Dissolution

Title of the Paper:  Noisy Fractional Oscillator: Temporal Behavior of the Autocorrelation Function


Authors: Ako Sauga, Romi Mankin, Ain Ainsaar

Abstract: The influence of external and internal noises on the output signal of a fractional Langevin equation with the friction kernel of a viscoelastic type is considered. The interaction with fluctuations of environmental parameters is modeled by a multiplicative white noise and by an additive noise with a zero mean. In the case of an external harmonic driving force it is shown that additive external and internal noises cause qualitatively different behaviors of the autocorrelation function for the output signal. Particularly, in the case of external noise it is established that at a sufficiently strong memory of the friction kernel the output signal corresponds to trapped dynamics in an effective potential well even if the system is subdiffusive in the case of internal noise.

Keywords: Fractional Langevin equation, fractional oscillator, energetic stability, internal noise, external noise, viscoelastic friction

Title of the Paper:  Systematic Hydraulic Study for the Preliminary Sizing of the Surge Tanks Mounted Close to the Pumping Station


Authors: Claudiu Stefan Nitescu, Anca Constantin

Abstract: The surge tanks, assumed to have no hydraulic loss at the bottom connection to the main discharge duct, are the simplest and safest protective device. An important number of pumping stations, part of the Romanian irrigation systems, were conceived with a surge tank mounted by the pump, on the discharge duct, in order to protect the installation from hydraulic shock. In practice, the sizing of such protection device usually implies a large volume of hydraulic calculation. Special charts (function of the hydraulic characteristics: discharge, geodetic head, diameter and length of the discharge duct) were conceived on the basis of the mathematical model of the hydraulic shock. They make the sizing more efficient and significantly reduce the time for the surge tank dimensioning.

Keywords: Surge tank, Air chamber, Pumping station, Geodetic head, Head loss

Title of the Paper:  Two Step, PID and Model Predictive Control using Artificial Neural Network Applied on Semi-Batch Reactor


Authors: Lubomir Macku, David Samek

Abstract: The article deals with the control of the semi-batch reactor that is used in chromium waste recycling process based on the enzymatic hydrolysis. The chromium waste comes from the chromium salt tanning while processing the natural leather. The recycling technique separates chrome in the form of chromium filter cake from protein. All products of this procedure are utilisable thus it is a waste free technology. The reactor deals with a problem of chromium sludge (chromium filter cake) reusing. However, the control of the semi-batch reactor is highly complex because the chemical reaction in the reactor is strongly exothermic and the in-reactor temperature is rising very fast depending on the reaction component dosing. To simulate the real process a mathematical model including reaction kinetics was used. The parameters of the achieved model were obtained and verified by experiments. Three different approaches are applied to the temperature control problem: two step control without and with penalization, PID control and model predictive control. The system control is generally difficult because of its nonlinear behaviour.

Keywords: Predictive control, PID control, two step control, chemical semi-batch reactor, process modelling

Title of the Paper:  Adaptive Multi Sensor Based Nonlinear Identification of Skeletal Muscle Force


Authors: Parmod Kumar, Chandrasekhar Potluri, Anish Sebastian, Steve Chiu, Alex Urfer, D. Subbaram Naidu, Marco P. Schoen

Abstract: Skeletal muscle force and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals are closely related. Hence, the later can be used for the force estimation. Usually, the location for the sEMG sensors is near the respective muscle motor unit points. EMG signals generated by skeletal muscles are temporal and spatially distributed which results in cross talk that is recorded by different sEMG sensors. This research focuses on modeling muscle dynamics in terms of sEMG signals and the generated muscle force. Here, an array of three sEMG sensors is used to capture the information of the muscle dynamics in terms of sEMG signals and generated muscle force. Optimized nonlinear Half-Gaussian Bayesian filters and a Chebyshev type-II filter are used for the filtration of the sEMG signals and the muscle force signal, respectively. A Genetic Algorithm is used for the optimization of the filter parameters. sEMG and skeletal muscle force is modeled using multi nonlinear Auto Regressive eXogenous (ARX) and Wiener-Hammerstein models with different nonlinearity estimators/classes using System Identification (SI) for three sets of sensor data. An adaptive probabilistic Kullback Information Criterion (KIC) for model selection is applied to obtain the fusion based skeletal muscle force for each sensor first and then for the final outputs from each sensor. The approach yields good skeletal muscle force estimates.

Keywords: sEMG, ARX, Weiner-Hammerstein, Prosthetic hand, KIC, System Identification

Title of the Paper:  A Case Study of An Analogical Distance Relay for the 110kV Electric Power Lines


Authors: Gabriel Nicolae Popa, Sorin Deaconu, Corina Maria Dinis, Angela Iagar

Abstract: This article presents the basic principles of the analogical protections used for protecting the high-voltage electric lines (110 kV). A study for implementation of an analogical distance protection RD 110, for a high-voltage line is performed (a practical example). For the analogical relay the protection adjustment for an electric grid of 110 kV is presented. The distance relay is operating in association with the current-disconnecting delayed directional homopolar protection, with the automatic rapid reclosing protection and with the synchronism relay. An analysis is achieved upon these types of analogue protections for protecting the high-voltage grids, because they are still used in practice.

Keywords: Electric lines, High-voltage, Analogical protections, Distance protections

Title of the Paper:  Constructing Evaluation Model for Sustainable Development in Community Health and Welfare


Authors: Kuei-Yang Wu

Abstract: In the recent years, an important issue in the process for sustainable development in Taiwan village communities has emerged as that our villages has been aging and the young people and men in their prime have been moving out into the cities for job reason, which results in the improper care for community elders and children physically and mentally. Our government has thus actively promoted various health welfare measures to improve community living environment and raise the living quality of community residents. We can see from these that community health and welfare have become issues needed immediate solutions in Taiwan’s communities. This study applied Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to examine these issues and selected three communities in Miaoli County, Taiwan for real case survey, analysis and evaluation in order to propose the best guidelines for the future references in community self diagnosis, enhancing improvement and strategies planning. Our results indicated that, to create community health, it needed particularly to strengthen: community organizational operation flexibility, spontaneous sense of community, local self-sufficiency and link with the government to form excellent communities mutually helped by industries, government, school and citizen, and to realize their advantages and improve their disadvantages thru these guidelines.

Keywords: Community health and welfare, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), Sustainable development

Title of the Paper:  Work Directions and New Results in Electronic Travel Aids for Blind and Visually Impaired People


Authors: Virgil Tiponut, Daniel Ianchis, Zoltan Haraszy, Mihai-Emanuel Basch, Ivan Bogdanov

Abstract: Many efforts have been invested in the last years, based on sensor technology and signal processing, to develop electronic travel aids (ETA) capable to improve the mobility of blind users in unknown or dynamically changing environment. In spite of these efforts, the already proposed ETAs do not meet the requirements of the blind community and the traditional tools (white cane and guiding dogs) are still the only used by visually impaired. In this paper, research efforts to improve the main two components of an ETA tool: the Obstacles Detection System (ODS) and the Man-machine Interface (MMI) are presented. Now, for the first time, the ODS under development is bioinspired from the visual system of insects, particularly from the locust and from the fly. Some original results of the author’s team, related to the new concept of Acoustical Virtual Reality (AVR) used as a MMI is then discussed in more detail. Some conclusions and the further developments in this area are also presented.

Keywords: Visually impaired persons, electronic travel aids, obstacles detection system, man-machine interface, acoustical virtual reality

Title of the Paper:  Modern Lighting Sources and Controls for Energy Efficient Lighting and a Smart Control Algorithm Application


Authors: Safak Saglam, Bulent Oral

Abstract: Energy is an important measure of prosperity of a nation. Energy has been the life-blood for continual progress of human civilization. Since the beginning of industrial revolution around two centuries ago, the global energy consumption has increased by leaps and bounds to accelerate the human living standard, particularly in the industrialized nations of the world. In order to assess the energy ef?ciency of an indoor lighting installation, a criterion for the installed electrical power is proposed which is broadly applicable and easy to use. Introducing target values for lamps and gear and taking into account some basic lighting comfort requirements, the maximum electrical power to be installed can be predicted for any kind of application. Herewith, one or more task areas with appropriate target illuminance values may be de?ned. The key parameter of the criterion is the analytical expression for the target utilance as a function of common lighting design parameters. Improved system is provided automatically controlling a light level of an interior space. The system includes a light sensor, motion sensors, electronic control cards, and a PC for fuzzy controller. Fuzzy Controller is determined turning on or turning off lamp groups according to information of light level and motion sensors.

Keywords: Modern Lighting, Energy Efficiency, Energy Saving, Smart Controls, Fuzzy Logic, Sensors

Issue 11, Volume 9, November 2010

Title of the Paper:  Control of HVDC-Light Transmission for Offshore Wind Farms Based on Input-Output Feedback Linearization and PSO


Authors: Wang Guo-Qiang, Wang Zhi-Xin

Abstract: HVDC-Light has the advantages of flexible operating ways and reliability, especially in the transmission problem of offshore wind power. But it needs many PI controllers in the two converters (wind farm side, grid side). So there are many parameters need to be set which is difficult. This paper adopted the control mode that the outside loop controlled the voltage and the inside loop controlled the current. The inside loop made use of input-output feedback linearization method to make the nonlinear coupled converter mathematical model be linearization and decoupled. And it can substitute pole placement for PI parameters setting. Namely that it changed the problem of adjusting PI parameters to the one of pole placement. The control objective is to track the given values of active and reactive current from outside loops. The outside loop PI parameters are optimized with cooperation random particle swarm optimization(CRPSO) algorithm. Simulation results of Matlab/Simulink were compared with the conventional PI controller which show that the control method of this paper is effective.

Keywords: VSC-HVDC, Nonlinear control, Feedback linearization, Wind farm, PSO

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Position Control of PMSM Based on Active Disturbance Rejection


Authors: Xing-Hua Yang, Xi-Jun Yang, Jian-Guo Jiang

Abstract: Considering the unavoidable and unmeasured disturbances, parameter variations and position measure error of real motion control applications, a novel controller is developed for the motion control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). First, an active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) based on extended state observer (ESO) is employed to ensure the high performance of the entire control system. The ESO estimate both the states and the disturbances so that the ADRC has a corresponding part to compensate for the disturbances. And then, the inertia of system is identified online to improve the performance. At last, considering the case of position measure error, which is commonly in the applications that an encoder is used for position detection, an asynchronous sampling method (ASM) is used. The ASM detects the position at the moment of actual encoder pulse input, thus eliminating encoder positioning error. Simulation and Experimental results are shown to verify the method.

Keywords: Permanent-magnet synchronous motors, Active disturbance rejection controller, Extended state observer, Asynchronous sampling method, Inertia identification

Title of the Paper:  Design and Implementation of Efficient Intelligent Robotic Gripper


Authors: A. M. Zaki, O. A. Mahgoub, A.M. El-Shafei, A. M. Soliman

Abstract: The gripper is a critical component of the industrial robot. It is greatly useful in industrial environments for object grasping during handling process. In this paper, a gripper is designed and implemented to grasp unknown objects with different masses, dimensions, and coefficients of friction. The design and control of the gripper system takes into consideration simplicity in the mechanical system, large variety of grasped objects and low cost. The proposed grasping process during object lifting and handling is mainly based on the slip reflex principle, as applying insufficient force leads to object slipping, and dropping may occur. On the other hand, applying extra force during grasping may lead to object crushing. A new system controller using fuzzy logic based on empirical investigation of the human hand skills is proposed. The target is to control the applied force on the object to avoid object crushing or dropping. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system ANFIS is used to model the assigned robotic gripper based on input/output variables measurements. The performance of the gripper system and the control algorithm was tested first by simulation. Reduction of the distance of the slippage and process time was confirmed experimentally. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Intelligent Robotic Gripper, ANFIS Modeling, Fuzzy Control, Tactile Sensors

Issue 12, Volume 9, December 2010

Title of the Paper:  On Fault-Tolerant Embedding of Meshes and Tori in a Flexible Hypercube with Unbounded Expansion


Authors: Jen-Chih Lin

Abstract: The Flexible Hypercubes are superior to hypercube in terms of embedding a mesh and torus under faults. Therefore, this paper presented techniques to enhance the novel algorithm for fault-tolerant meshes and tori embedded in Flexible Hypercubes with node failures. The paper demonstrates that O(n2-?log2m ? 2) faults can be tolerated and the algorithm is optimized mainly for balancing the processor and communication link loads. Also, the methodology is proven and an algorithm is presented to solve them. These existent parallel algorithms on mesh or torus architectures to be easily transformed to or implemented on the Flexible Hypercube architectures with load 1, congestion 1, dilation 3, and unbounded expansion. The useful properties revealed and the algorithm proposed in this paper can find their way when the system designers evaluate a candidate network’s competence and suitability, balancing regularity and other performance criteria, in choosing an interconnection network. Therefore, we can easily port the parallel or distributed algorithms developed for these structuring of mesh and torus to the Flexible Hypercube.

Keywords: Flexible Hypercube, hypercube, mesh, torus, fault-tolerance, embedding

Title of the Paper:  An Optimized Neural Network for Predicting Settlements during Tunneling Excavation


Authors: George J. Tsekouras, John Koukoulis, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: Several empirical and analytical relations exist between different tunnel characteristics and surface and subsurface deformation, while numerical analyses (mainly using finite difference programs) have also been applied with satisfactory results. In the last years, the solution of some soil mechanics problems has been derived using the approach of the applied computational intelligence methods, especially the artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective of this paper is to describe an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) method in order to estimate the settlements of roof, face and walls during tunneling excavation. The ANN method uses as input variables the overload factor, the placement of the temporary lining ring behind the face, the thickness of the shotcrete, the modulus of elasticity for the surrounding rock-mass and the position where the measurement of the settlement takes place referring to the tunnel axis. The respective settlements are being calculated using different ANN’s. For each ANN an optimization process is conducted regarding the values of crucial parameters such as the number of neurons, the time parameter and the initial value of the learning rate, etc. using the respective values of a pre-chosen evaluation set. The success of each ANN in predicting the respective settlements is measured by the correlation index between the experimental and predicted values for the evaluation set. Finally, the ANN with the closest to 1 correlation index is specified. A sensitivity analysis for different parameters (the input variables, the population of input vectors, etc.) is also presented showing the reliability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, tunneling excavation, face settlement, roof settlement, walls settlement, parameters optimization, settlement prediction

Title of the Paper:  Safety Requirements for Service of Pistol and its Ammunition


Authors: Robert Jankovych

Abstract: Pistol and its ammunition life cycle are initiated by the process of setting needs and requirements. Pistol and its ammunition belong to dangerous products that exploit explosives for their functioning. The pistol shooting could result in pistol failures with serious consequences, such as shooter’s injury or even shooter’s killing. That is why we consider the safety requirements for pistol and its ammunition to be one of their most important characteristics. The requirements for pistol and its ammunition safety are divided by the author into two groups – requirements for design safety and requirements for safety risk level. Requirements for design safety mean the application of weapons and ammunition construction principles that have been proved and confirmed in practice. These requirements are sufficiently elaborated on and described in current professional literature. On the other hand, the requirements for safety risks level of small arms and their ammunition have neither been published nor elaborated on. The method introduced by the author identifies in an original way both the area of acceptable safety risk for pistol and the area of acceptable safety risk for ammunition. A shooting experiment with the purpose to verify the fulfilling of the pistol safety risk requirements was conducted. Its goal was to achieve dangerous pistol failures, i.e. such failure categories which threaten shooter’s health. The results of the experiment were used to determine maximal guaranteed lifetime of the given pistol of calibre 9.00 mm Luger.

Keywords: Categories of Pistol Failures, Categories of Ammunition Failures, Acceptable Pistol Safety Risk, Acceptable Ammunition Safety Risk, Pistol Lifetime



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