WSEAS CONFERENCES. WSEAS, Unifying the Science

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 Volume 10, 2011
Print ISSN: 1109-2777
E-ISSN: 2224-2678








Issue 1, Volume 10, January 2011

Title of the Paper:  New Method for Designing 2-D (Two-Dimensional) IIR Comb Filters


Authors: Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: An elegant method for designing 2-D (Two-Dimensional) Comb Filters is provided. The method is based on an appropriate variable transformation. Practical examples illustrate the validity and the efficiency of the method are also included in this brief.

Keywords: Comb Filters, 2-D Comb Filters, Multidimensional Systems, Multidimensional Filters, Filter Design

Title of the Paper:  Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Bone Fracture Detection


Authors: Hum Yan Chai, Lai Khin Wee, Tan Tian Swee, Sheikh Hussain

Abstract: Fractures of bone are a common affliction in orthopedic wards at any given time. Trained radiologists generally identify abnormal pathologies including fractures with a relatively high level of accuracy. However studies examining reader accuracy have shown that in some cases the miss rate can be as high when reading x-rays containing multiple abnormalities. Accurate diagnosis of fractures is vital to the effective management of patient injuries. As a result, detection of long-bone fractures is an important orthopedics and radiologic problem, and it is proposed that a novel computer aided detection system could help lowering the miss rate. This paper examines the development of such a system, for the detection of long-bone fractures. This project fully employed MATLAB 7.8.0 (.r2009a) as the programming tool for loading image, image processing and user interface development. Results obtained demonstrate the performance of the femur?s long bone fracture detection system with some limitations.

Keywords: Texture analysis, bone fracture, classification, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, image processing

Title of the Paper:  Heart Beat Classification Using Wavelet Feature Based on Neural Network


Authors: Wisnu Jatmiko, Nulad W. P., Elly Matul I., I Made Agus Setiawan, P. Mursanto

Abstract: Arrhytmia is one of the most crucial problem in cardiology. It can be diagnosed by a standard electrocardiogram (ECG). So far, many methode have been develop for arrhytmia detection, recognition and classification But many methode for arrhytmia beat classification have been yet able to solve unknown category data. This paper will discusses about how to determine the type of arrhythmia in computerize way through classification process that able to solve unkown categorical beat. We use FLVQ to solve the weakness of the other methode of calssification such as to classified unknown category beat. This process is divided into three steps: data preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. Data preprocessing related to how the initial data prepared, in this case, we will reduce the baseline noise with cubic spline, then we cut the signal beat by beat using pivot R peak, while for the feature extraction and selection, we using wavelet algorithm. ECG signal will be classified into four classes: PVC, LBBB, NOR, RBBB and one unknown category beat; using two following algorithms Back-Propagation and Fuzzy Neuro Learning Vector Quantization (FLVQ). The classification will be devided on two phase, at ones phase we will find best fitur for out system. At this phase we use known category beat, the best fiture for out study is 50 fitur, it is from wavelet decompotition level 3. Second phase is added unkown category beat on data test, the unknown category beat is not included on data train. Accuracy of FLVQ in our study is 95.5% for data without unknown category beat at testing step and 87.6% for data with unknown category beat.

Keywords: ECG, Electrocardiogram, Arrhythmia, FLVQ, back-propagation, wavelet transforms, physionet, MIT-BIH.

Issue 2, Volume 10, February 2011

Title of the Paper:  Thermal Effect of the Slanted Surface around the Central Hole of a Miniature Delta Wing on the Leading-edge Vortices


Authors: Chin-Tsan Wang, Tzong-Shyng Leu

Abstract: The main feature of a delta wing is in the generation of vortices on the leading edge of its wings to provide additional stable lift at high angle of attack. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of lee side central holes under thermal condition to the development of vortex flow field at the tip of a miniature delta wing and find the region with the most significant changes in the velocity and pressure gradient to serve as the thermal control location of a future delta wing. The study chooses near wing surface heat flux of Q=100W/m2 and 10W/m2, representing the high and the low heat flux, at Reynolds number, Re=2.64?103 and 8.84?103, to perform flow field analysis. The study finds: the temperature effect under the high heat flux produces a significant impact on the angle of attack (AOA) and the angle of sideslip (AOS) of the delta wing and can easily cause the occurrence of asymmetric flow field of vortices at the downstream tip of the delta wing. Additionally, because a significant velocity and pressure gradient exist around the corner on the bottom slanted surface of the lee side central hole in the delta wing, the temperature impact on the change of AOA is most pronounced and it is also the region of which the development of vortex flow field is most affected. These findings could provide information on realizing the thermal effect on the leading-edge vortices over the miniature delta wing for future optimal flow control.

Keywords: Delta wing, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, thermal control, heat flux, vortex flow, thermal effect

Title of the Paper:  Environmental Affection Based RFID Potential Bio-Disease Tracking/Tracing System


Authors: Chau-Chen Wu, Ming-Shen Jian, Ta Yuan Chou

Abstract: In this paper, an Environmental Affection Based RFID Potential Bio-Disease Tracking/Tracing System (RFID-BDT) is proposed. Bio-information of cultivation and disease prevention are important for the agriculture economy. The RFID system is used to record the information (cultivation history) and for identifying different objects. In addition, the location (before and current) of the objects and the transported route can be obtained. According to the proposed Disease Tracking Service, the possible disease infecting area, possible infected objects, and disease tracking can be computed and managed. Based on the proposed algorithm and system, by using network, the information between different providers or consignees can be exchanged. The RFID-BDT will be useful for different providers, consignees, and transporter to upload the parameters and information to the internet based platform. Therefore, the information of crop current location, the probability and percentage of disease infection can be shared and evaluated.

Keywords: RFID, Information Service, Location, Bio-information, Tracking system, Environment Affection

Title of the Paper:  A Feedback Linearization Based Control Strategy for VSC-HVDC Transmission Converters


Authors: Li Shuang, Wang Zhixin, Wang Guoqiang

Abstract: In this paper, a global stability and robust nonlinear controller for VSC-HVDC transmission Converters applying input-output linearization (IOL) techniques is proposed. The feedback linearization based nonlinear differential-geometric techniques is used to cancel nonlinearities and decouple the input control variables. Global tracking capability with zero steady-state error of the voltage loop has been achieved by zero-dynamic control. Also, there is no derivative calculation required and measurement of load current is not needed. The proposed controller is of many advantages compared with the traditional control strategies, such as global stability, fast dc-bus voltage response, robust against parameter uncertainties and decoupled dynamical d-q current loops. Comprehensive time-domain computer simulations within MATLAB/SIMULINK have been carried out to confirm the proposed control scheme.

Keywords: Voltage-Source Converters (VSC)-HVDC, Nonlinear Control, Feedback Linearization, Input-Output Linearization (IOL), Differential-Geometric

Issue 3, Volume 10, March 2011

Title of the Paper:  Comparison of Travel-time Statistics of Backscattered Pulses from Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Rough Surfaces


Authors: Gao Wei, She Huqing

Abstract: Travel-time statistics of backscattered pulses from Gaussian and non-Gaussian (Rayleigh and Exponential) surfaces are studied and compared in this paper. It is found that in both cases (the Gaussian and non-Gaussian surfaces), the probability distributions of the first and the second travel times are all only determined by a dimensionless parameter. Moreover, this study also found that the proportional relations between the dimensionless parameter and the median values of the first and the second travel times are remarkably different for Gaussian and non-Gaussian cases. Then the statistical parameters of the rough surface can be estimated from travel-time statistics of backscattered pulses above if the probability distributions of the surface elevation and slope (PDSES) are known in advance. However, PDSES are often unknown in most of practical applications, and little work has been applied to the problem of specifying the statistical characteristic of the rough surface in advance (Gaussian or non-Gaussian). To solve this problem, on the basis of the relations between the median values of travel times and the altitude of source, a new theoretical method is proposed to judge the rough surfaces with Gaussian, Rayleigh and Exponential distributions. It is believed that the method proposed in this paper will be helpful to improve the estimate accuracy the parameters of a rough surface.

Keywords: Probability distribution, travel time, backscatter, random surface

Title of the Paper:  Applications of Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP to Partial Discharge Classification and Pattern Recognition


Authors: Boonruang Marungsri, Suphachai Boonpoke

Abstract: Artificial intelligent techniques have been widely used in high voltage insulation technology application. In this paper, the effectiveness of artificial intelligent technique to apply for pattern recognition and classification of Partial Discharge (PD) is presented. Partial discharge signal was generated and measured by using an artificial partial discharge source. Characteristics of PD signal for pattern recognition and classification were determined by using statistical and fractal methods from relationship among the voltage phase angle, the discharge magnitude and the repeated existing of partial discharges. The simplified fuzzy ARTMAP (SFAM) was used as artificial intelligent technique for pattern recognition and classification. PDs characteristic quantities were used as input parameters for Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP to train pattern recognition and classification system. Pattern recognition and classification results were obtained. The results demonstrated the high effectiveness of the purpose technique applied for pattern recognition and classification of partial discharge.

Keywords: Partial discharges, PD Pattern recognition, PD Classification, Artificial intelligent, Simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP

Title of the Paper:  Incipient Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearing based on Wavelet Packet Transform and Energy Operator


Authors: Zhongqing Wei, Jinji Gao, Xin Zhong, Zhinong Jiang, Bo Ma

Abstract: This paper mainly deals with the issue of incipient fault diagnosis for rolling element bearing. Firstly, an envelope demodulation technique based on wavelet packet transform and energy operator is applied to extract the fault feature of vibration signal. Secondly, the relative spectral entropy of envelope spectrum and the gravity frequency are combined to construct two-dimensional features vector that characterizes each fault pattern. Furthermore, K-nearest neighbors (KNN) is used to perform faults identification automatically. The experimental results prove that the method could avoid inaccurate diagnosis which only depends on the recognition of characteristic frequency, while the effectiveness of the method in the automatic fault diagnosis of bearing has been proved.

Keywords: Wavelet packet transform; energy operator; rolling element bearing; incipient fault; envelope spectrum; K-nearest neighbors

Issue 4, Volume 10, April 2011

Title of the Paper:  Modeling Identification and Simulation of Bank to Turn Unmanned Aerial Vehicle


Authors: Huan-Jung Lin, Tain-Sou Tsay

Abstract: This paper presents mathematical modeling, identification and design methods for a subsonic unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV). Small signal perturbed aerodynamic models are developed first and used for identification processes and autopilot designs. A simplified 6-DOF simulation model is developed second with trim conditions added back to small signal perturbed aerodynamic models. Simulation comparisons between the simplified and complete 6-DOF models are made with same bank to turn guidance laws. A Tomahawk-like cruise UAV example shows the simplified 6-DOF simulation model gives good approximations to the complete 6-DOF system for developing guidance and control laws. This paper gives better accurate simulation model for pitch angle and angle of attack than previous paper developed by the author.

Keywords: Aerodynamic identification, 6-DOF models, Simulation, Autopilot design, BTT guidance laws, UAV

Title of the Paper:  A Study of the Evaluation Model for Sustainable Community Industrial Development Using Dynamic Programming Method


Authors: Kuei-Yang Wu

Abstract: Nowadays, towns and villages usually try to get funds for community constructions by following empirical rules. It is not possible to predict the effectiveness. And in the previous researches related to community development, there is no decision support model built using mathematical planning for fund allocation. This study obtains index weights for community industrial development by applying FAHP and develops a supporting system through dynamic programming models and results from the interviews with experts, combining hierarchy structure of community industrial development. “The Golden Town” in Gongguan Township, Miaoli County is chosen for empirical analysis. The result of dynamic programming analysis shows that the best decision is to first create sense of community and develop proper local environmental and spatial characteristics. Then the structure of resources for community development should be constructed to further form the key value of community industrial development. After that, local natural environment, humanities resources, and industrial cultures should be integrated to concretely create sense of community and construct the concept of “life community”.

Keywords: FAHP, Dynamic programming, Community industrial development, Sustainable development

Title of the Paper:  Torque Control Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Fuzzy Logic


Authors: Zhang Yi, Liu Heping, Wang Huabin

Abstract: This paper presents a design method of a torque control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) by using fuzzy logic. Taking the driver command, the state of charge (SOC) of the battery, and the motor/generator speed as inputs, a fuzzy controller and relevant fuzzy rules have been developed to effectively determine the torque distribution between electric motor (EM) and internal combustion engine (ICE). The underlying theme of this strategy is to optimize the operational efficiency of all components, considered as one system. The simulation results reveal that, compared with the conventional logic torque control strategy (LTCS) which uses precise threshold parameters, the proposed fuzzy torque control strategy (FTCS) improves fuel economy and maintains battery SOC within its operation range more effectively.

Keywords: Parallel hybrid electric vehicle; Hybrid powertrain; Control strategy; Fuzzy control; Torque distribution

Issue 5, Volume 10, May 2011

Title of the Paper:  A  Geometrical Approach For Fuzzy DEA Frontiers Using Different T Norms


Authors: Luiz Biondi Neto, Joao Carlos Correia Baptista Soares De Mello, Lidia Angulo Meza, Eliane Goncalves Gomes, Nissia Carvalho Rosa Bergiante

Abstract: Interval DEA frontiers are here used in situations where one input or output is subject to uncertainty in its measurement and is presented as an interval data. We built an efficient frontier without any assumption about the probability distribution function of the imprecise variable. We take into account only the minimum and the maximum values of each imprecise variable. Two frontiers are constructed: the optimistic and the pessimistic ones. We use fuzzy relationships to introduce a new efficiency index based on a set of some Fuzzy T Norms. We will explore only the case where only one single variable presents a certain degree of uncertainty.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; Fuzzy Sets; Interval Data; T Norms; optimistic evaluation; pessimistic evaluation

Title of the Paper:  Intelligent Control Network Design Based on CAN-bus for Audio Equipment


Authors: Xiuli Zhang, Zhong Wan, Deyang Yang, Weidong Chen

Abstract: In order to solve the problem of inconvenience in network construction, short transmission distance of RS232 and non-intelligence audio device with different interface for network, this paper presented a design of the audio intelligent control network based on CAN(Controller Area Network)-Bus. The topology of audio control network, structured models of ICANNet and hardware are firstly discussed. Then the protocol of transport layer and application layer and software of intelligent control network is studied. Finally the test results were given to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the design.

Keywords: Intelligent Control Network; CAN-bus; Audio Equipment

Title of the Paper:  Adaptive Control for a Five-Fingered Prosthetic Hand with Unknown Mass and Inertia


Authors: Cheng-Hung Chen, D. Subbaram Naidu, Marco P. Schoen

Abstract: An adaptive control strategy for the 14 degrees of freedom (DOFs), five-fingered smart prosthetic hand with unknown mass and inertia of all the fingers is developed in this work. In modeling, the various links used for the five fingers of the prosthetic hand are shown. A cubic polynomial for the trajectory planning is used. In particular, using a desired orientation for three-link fingers, the forward and inverse kinematics of the prosthetic hand system regarding the analytical solutions between the angular positions of joints and the positions and orientations of the end-effectors (fingertips) have been obtained. The simulations of the resulting adaptive controller with five-fingered prosthetic hand show enhanced performance.

Keywords: Adaptive control, prosthetic hand, hard control, five finger hand, feedback linearization, trajectory planning

Issue 6, Volume 10, June 2011

Title of the Paper:  Study of Magnetic Field Shielding Roof of Cabin Electricity Authority Resulting in Operators Working


Authors: P. Pao-La-Or

Abstract: Monitoring, maintenance and repairing works of electric power transmission systems are main functions of power engineers in their daily schedule. Provincial Electric Authority of Thailand (PEA), state own organization in which regional power transmission systems and rural electric power distribution systems are its major services. For economic purposes, two or more circuits are normally hung on the same towers. Typically, a circuit of higher voltage is on the top of the tower. A practice of this configuration is a combination of a 115-kV power transmission line and a 22-kV distribution feeder. Safety of operators working in this circumstance depends on carefulness of all possible risks. Even when one circuit is disconnected from the supply source, magnetic induction becomes a serious issue where two or more circuits are located close enough to each other. This paper proposes a set of mathematical model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of electric power transmission systems by using a set of second-order partial differential equations. Computer-based simulation utilizing the three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing magnetic fields distribution around a power transmission line. In addition, magnetic shielding devices are investigated in order to reduce the magnetic induction on the nearby circuit. The configurations of a crane’s cabin roof is studied and reported. Moreover, comparison of magnetic field distributions with and without the shielding roof is illustrated.

Keywords: Shielding, Cabin Roof, Transmission Line, Magnetic Fields, 3-D Finite Element Method

Title of the Paper:  Design of On-line Clock Jitter Fault Detection Circuit for Time-Error-Tolerant System


Authors: Yu Changhong

Abstract: One of the major obstacles encountered in design of a system on chip (SoC) arises from the high fault rate of clock distribution network in embedded intellectual property (IP) cores. With technology scaling, the geometries of devices approach its physical limits of operation, SoCs will be susceptible to various noise sources such as crosstalk, coupling noise, process variations, etc. Designing such a system under uncertainty becomes a challenge, as it is difficult to predict the time behavior of the system. Conservative design methodologies that consider all possible faults due to the noise sources, targeting safe system operation under all conditions will cause poor system performance. By contraries, aggressive design approach that can provide resilience against such timing faults without much additional hardware, is toughly required for maximizing system performance. In this paper we present an aggressive method to on-line detect the jitter faults on the clock signal that are due to defects caused by noise for high speed SoCs. Only fourteen MOS transistors and two minor capacitors are used for the circuit. The technique of time-to-voltage conversion is employed for transforming the time jitter error to variable voltage, which is more convenient in contrast with the conservative clock fault tolerance structure methodology. The circuit proposed can detect the jitter error of the digital clock signal faults with different applications. We have formally evaluated the meta-stability of our technique, which shows that our technique reliably meets the timing requirements. The simulation-based results show that the proposed circuit can be integrated into the nano-electronic SoCs applications to achieve the on-line clock jitter fault detection, and its maximal frequency can reach 800MHz. Furthermore, fault injection experiments show that our technique can tolerate all single faults on clock sources that lead to permanent stuck-at fault and masks almost 49 percents of intermittent faults.

Keywords: Clock fault, On-line detection, Time-to-voltage conversion

Title of the Paper:  Green Supply Implementation based on Fuzzy QFD: An Application in GPLM System


Authors: Chih-Hung Hsu, An-Yuan Chang, Hui-Ming Kuo

Abstract: Quality function deployment (QFD) has been widely used in many fields; it is one of the structured approaches that are used to translate customer needs into specific quality development. However, in the traditional QFD approach, each element’s interdependence and customer requirements (CRs) for green supply are not usually treated systematically. The important function of green product lifecycle management (GPLM) is to develop an attractive system which ensures customer satisfaction for green supply. Therefore, one of the important topics in the development of the GPLM system is to take into green consideration. This study presents an integrative approach by incorporating GPLM with fuzzy analysis into the matrix of QFD and obtaining the priority ranking of engineering characteristics (ECs). To illustrate these findings, we have incorporated an example which suggests that the proposed approach can contribute to the creation of attractive GPLM attributes and GPLM innovation. Several ECs and CRs are identified and analyzed. The results of this study can provide an effective procedure for improving a product’s design characteristics under GPLM, enhancing customer satisfaction, and launching a green product in the marketplace.

Keywords: GPLM, Fuzzy QFD, Green supply, Engineering characteristics, Customer requirements, Rank

Issue 7, Volume 10, July 2011

Title of the Paper:  A Domain-Specific Architectural Foundation for Engineering of Numerical Software Systems


Authors: Arbi Ghazarian

Abstract: Numerical computations have found vast applications in numerous areas of science and engineering. Many scientific and engineering advances rely on the capability to build computational models in the form of numerical software systems. A review of the numerical computation literature of the past few decades reveals that research and practice in this area have been largely focused on designing efficient numerical algorithms to carry out numerical computations, but less attention has been paid to the architectural design of large-scale numerical software systems. On the other hand, the field of software engineering has made tremendous advances in the past few decades in various areas of software development including programming languages, development methodologies, and design techniques. Given the current mature status of the algorithmic design aspects of numerical computations, a change in research direction from lower-level algorithm design of numerical computations to higher-level architectural design of numerical software systems can yield fruitful results. In line with this objective, this paper aims to address the architectural level issues of numerical systems by taking advantage of the latest advances in software engineering and adapting them for the domain of numerical systems. This paper presents the design of a domain-specific architecture, which can serve as an architectural foundation for developing a large family of numerical software systems. A number of design strategies are presented and the rationale behind each strategy is explained. Using the Java programming language, we demonstrate how each of the strategies can be implemented in an object-oriented language. We further demonstrate that a set of basic design principles underlie a variety of design techniques.

Keywords: Numerical Software, Software Engineering, Software Architecture, Architectural Patterns, Design Patterns, Design Principles

Title of the Paper:  Novel Mechanisms for Quality of Service Improvements in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks


Authors: Mohammad S. Saraireh, Nidal A. Al-Dmour

Abstract: This paper proposes two mechanisms for improving the IEEE 802.11 DCF protocol performance and for enhancing QoS in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. These are Ratio based and Collision Rate Variation (CRV) schemes. The Ratio based scheme uses the collision rate value of the current and the past history of the network conditions to adaptively adjust the Contention Window (CW) size for each individual station. The CRV scheme also employs the collision rate and collision rate variation values to adjust the CW value locally for each individual station based on the current and previous network conditions. The aim of developing these approaches is to reduce the probability of collisions among the contending stations in a heavily loaded network in an attempt to improve QoS in IEEE 802.11 DCF protocol. The proposed schemes are evaluated and compared with the conventional IEEE 802.11 DCF and the Exponential Increase Exponential Decrease (EIED) schemes. The evaluation is carried out for different scenarios (i.e. different traffic load and different network size) using the ns-2 simulator. The metrics used in the evaluation are delay, jitter, throughput, packet loss, protocol efficiency, and collision rate. The results indicate that the best performance is achieved by using the proposed schemes with superiority for the CRV scheme in most cases.

Keywords: Quality of Service (QoS), IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, Network Simulator, Contention Window (CW), Distributed Coordination Function (DCF), and Wireless Networks

Title of the Paper:  Investigation Life Time Model of 22 kV XLPE Cable for Distribution System Applications in Thailand


Authors: Boonruang Marungsri, Anucha Rawangpai, Nimit Chomnawang

Abstract: Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) high voltage cables have been widely used in power transmission and distribution systems. Ageing deterioration of XLPE insulating material can not be avoidable due to its made of polymeric material. This paper mentions to the experimental results on artificial ageing test of 22 kV XLPE cable for distribution system application in Thailand. XLPE insulating material of 22 kV cable was sliced to 60-70 ìm in thick and subjected to ac high voltage stress at 23?C, 60?C, 75?C and 90?C. The specimens were tested under different electrical stress levels varying from 50kV/mm to 130kV/mm. Testing voltage was constantly applied to the specimen until breakdown. Five specimens were tested at each temperature level and each voltage stress level. Breakdown voltage and average time to breakdown were used to evaluate life time of insulating material. Furthermore, the physical model by J. P. Crine for predicts life time of XLPE insulating material was adopted as life time model and was determined in order to compare the experimental results. Acceptable life time results were obtained from Crine’s model comparing with the experimental result. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for physical analysis were conducted on tested specimens.

Keywords: Artificial accelerated ageing test, XLPE cable, distribution system, insulating material, life time, life time model

Issue 8, Volume 10, August 2011

Title of the Paper:  Dynamic Characteristics and Graphic Monitoring Design of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System


Authors: Kuo-Hua Liu

Abstract: This study explored the dynamic characteristics and monitoring design of the photovoltaic energy conversion system, which is a system model of an independent power supply. This study first established the non-linear differential equation of the system model, linearized the model, and analyzed the eigenvalues and dynamic response of the system using the MATLAB program. The dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic energy conversion system were obtained from systematic analysis. In addition, this study used the main controller in industrial automation, programmable logic controller (PLC), to monitor the overall system and the electric energy of solar cells. It employed the man-machine interface application program to construct a PLC monitoring system of network graphic monitoring. The personal computer (PC) was connected to the PLC through the RS232 port, and the changes in voltage and current were monitored on the PC display. Finally, the accuracy of the model was verified by the operating points, eigenvalues, and dynamic response.

Keywords: Dynamic Characteristics, Programmable Logic Controller, Monitoring System, Photovoltaic, Solar Cell, Eigenvalue

Title of the Paper:  Design of Capacity Regulation System for Reciprocating Compressor Based on Programmable Logic Controller


Authors: Dacheng Li, Zhinong Jiang, Lihua Cui

Abstract: The reciprocating compressor used in the industry consumes copious amounts of energy. Unnecessary energy consumption can be reduced by regulating the compressor capacity and by better satisfying its energy efficiency and environmental and production requirements. In this paper, a programmable logic controller (PLC)-based capacity-regulating system is successfully designed and put forward for the first time after an analysis of the time control technology of pressing-off the inlet valve plate during partial stroke. The actuator, which works on the principle of electromagnetism, is designed to press off the valve plate to control the opening and closing of the inlet valve. The control system, mainly composed of the PLC, controls the on-off time of the coil to implement the application and revocation of the open force acting on the valve plate. The control system also measures actual crankshaft speed to optimize the regulation result. The design process and experimental application of the system shows that the technology can realize continuously stepless capacity regulation for the compressor within the 0%–100% range. The entire system is cheap to manufacture, consumes low power during operation, and has high economic efficiency. The regulating system is safe, reliable, easy to operate, and can be applied in most working conditions.

Keywords: Programmable Logic Controller; Reciprocating compressor; Capacity regulation; Electromagnet; Actuator; Inlet valve

Title of the Paper:  Fuzzy Embedded Mobile Robot Systems Design through the Evolutionary PSO Learning Algorithm


Authors: Hua-Ching Chen, Dong-Hui Guo

Abstract: The evolutionary learning algorithm called particle swarm optimization (PSO) is developed in this paper. The image model of the embedded mobile robot is automatically generated with the omni-directional image concept to approach toward the behavior of the embedded mobile robot. The circumvolutory environment is dynamically captured from the head of the mobile robot, which will directly be transformed into the Cartesian coordinate system. The required parameters of fuzzy rules are automatically extracted with the guide of the flexible fitness function, which is efficiently approach toward the multiple objectives of avoiding obstacles, selecting favorable fuzzy rules to drive the desired targets at the same time. Three illustrated examples with various initial positions for the discussed environment map containing different blocks size and locations are illustrated the efficiency of the PSO leaning algorithm. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed mobile robot with the selected fuzzy rules can avoid the obstacles and achieve the targets as soon as possible.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization; Fuzzy systems; Mobile robots, Evolutionary learning, Omni-directional image

Issue 9, Volume 10, September 2011

Title of the Paper:  Some Mathematical Descriptions of Multi-Connected System of Fuzzy State Space Model via Number Theory Approach


Authors: Taufiq Khairi Ahmad Khairuddin

Abstract: Some mathematical structures of multi-connected systems of Fuzzy State Space Model (FSSM) are proposed in this study by adapting some analogies in Number Theory. Some characteristics of the defined structures are also stated to easily identify these structures in some systems which are normally complex and made up by the combination of several structures. Multi-connected systems of FSSM are also divided into two parts to further describe each subsystem of the systems with their input and output parameters. In addition, these suggested structures are also applied to describe a real physical system which is a boiler’s system of a combined cycle power plant. Some associations and relations between subsystems of the boiler’s system can be understood deeper from the result which helps to increase the knowledge about the total system. In short, this study provides an alternative method to handsomely interpret connections of systems of FSSM in some interesting manner.

Keywords: Feeder, Receiver, Multi-Connected System, Boiler

Title of the Paper:  A Novel Approach for Meeting the Challenges of the Integrated Security Systems


Authors: Moein Kasem, Nadim Chahin

Abstract: This study aims to build a general mathematical model in integrated security systems to overcome the remaining challenges in this domain, due to the heterogeneity, the uncertainty, the bad quality, and the conflict resulting from the information provided by the information sources (i.e. sensors) by taking account of the constraints, the scalability, and the architecture of the security system. The proposed model is fundamentally based on the proportional conflict redistribution fusion rule developed by Arnaud Martin under the framework of Dezert-Smarandache model. This combination permits to extend the utility of Dempster-Shafer model, and assures the generality of the proposed system.

Keywords: Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST), Proportional Conflict Redistribution (sixth version) PCR6, Integral Security System Challenges

Title of the Paper:  Generalized State Equation for Petri Nets


Authors: Cem Baskocagil, Salman Kurtulan

Abstract: Petri nets (PN) are becoming more common as a tool for analysis and design of industrial automation systems (IAS). As an important advantage, PN is able to represent the systems both mathematically and graphically. We can utilize mathematical features of PN to carry out modeling, simulation, testing and verification phases of IAS. Thus, the entire analysis and design process of large-scale systems is greatly simplified and system modeling can be performed accurately and efficiently. However, there is no state equation available defined for PN in the literature, when dealing with the inhibitor and enabling arcs. In addition, although resetting mechanism is frequently used for IAS, there is no arc type directly representing such a mechanism in the literature. In this study, the state equation of PN is revisited and novel mathematical descriptions of both inhibitor and enabling arcs are introduced. Additionally, a new type of arc, called “nullifier arc”, and its corresponding modified state equation are proposed for modeling of the resetting mechanism. The state equation of all three arc types are combined and expressed as “generalized state equation”. New software is developed and utilized to demonstrate the application of generalized state equation on an IAS. Finally, it is revealed that this novel generalized state equation is capable of representing the special arcs, which facilitates analysis of large scale systems.

Keywords: Discrete event systems, modeling, analysis, simulation, petri nets, incidence matrix, state equation, inhibitor arc, enabling arc, nullifier arc

Title of the Paper:  Guaranteed Cost Control of Uncertain T-S Fuzzy Systems via Output Feedback Approach


Authors: Jun Wei, Yali Dong, Yongfeng Su

Abstract: This paper focuses on the problem of Guaranteed cost control of uncertain T-S fuzzy systems. Based on observer design, the guaranteed cost output feedback control law which guarantees that the closed-loop uncertain T-S fuzzy system is robustly asymptotically stable is proposed. By utilizing the Lyapunov function together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and free weighting matrix method, some sufficient conditions are obtained, which guarantee the asymptotic stability of uncertain T-S fuzzy systems. A numerical example is included to show the proposed method is effective and can provide less conservative results.

Keywords: Guaranteed cost control; Robustly asymptotically stable; Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system; Linear matrix inequality (LMI); Uncertain system

Issue 10, Volume 10, October 2011

Title of the Paper:  Regression Models of Process Parameters Interdependence in Turning S12Mn2Si Metallized Coatings


Authors: Mihaiela Iliescu

Abstract: Statistical methods, such as experiments design and regression analysis, performed with special software, do represent successful means to be used in studying important aspects of real machining processes. This article points out the most relevant aspects of research carried out in order to determine new models of process functions specific to exterior cylindrical turning process parameters. The material studied was thermal sprayed S12Mn2Si, a Romanian produced one, with wide application in industry. “Steps” developed in this research could be considered “guidance lines”, whenever process parameters relationships are worth to be determined.

Keywords: Regression model, turning process, cutting tool durability, surface roughness, metallized coating

Title of the Paper:  Structure Design and Performance Analysis for Locomotion System of the Field Exploration Robot


Authors: Shang Weiyan, Qiu Faju Yang, Chaozhen Zhengshuhua

Abstract: In order to perform the exploration task in the field successfully, a new wheel-tracked locomotion system has been designed. Then the front track wheel system, the rear wheel system and the suspension system has been designed in detail. Basing on the structure design, a 3-D model for simulation has been established, and the kinematic performance of wheel-tracked exploration robot has been simulated by the software Recurdyn. Finally, a physical prototype has been manufactured and some kinematic performance of the locomotion system has been examined. The results provide practical evidence for the application of wheel-tracked exploration robot.

Keywords: Exploration robot, locomotion system, structure design, simulation, kinematic performance

Title of the Paper:  Soft Computing Algorithms in Price of Taiwan Real Estates


Authors: Hong-Yu Lin, Kuentai Chen

Abstract: The prediction of real estate price is important because it concerns both individuals and government. Other than traditional statistic methods, Neural networks and Support Vector Regression have demonstrated their advantages in previous research, and thus are applied and compared in this study. Variables are first summarized and concluded from earlier research and than selected by stepwise procedure and trial-and-error methods. It is found that SVR with trial-and-error method performed the best with MAPE=4.466% and R2=0.8540. In addition, Rediscount rate, Money supply, and Price of last month are the three common variables for both BPNN and SVR. The economic explanation and relations to the housing price for selected variables are also provided.

Keywords: Forecasting, Real estate, Back propagation neural network, Data mining, Support Vector Regression

Title of the Paper:  Mathematical Models of Force and Torque in Machining 10TiMoNiCr175 Stainless Steel Holes


Authors: Mihaiela Iliescu, Bogdan Vlase, Ovidiu Blajina

Abstract: For scientific research and / or industrial application it is important to determine mathematical models of force and torque, when machining. Thus, it would be possible to know optimum process parameters values or, even better, to predict force and torque values, once process parameters values set. Machining holes, more specifically drilling and widening, in stainless steel parts is required in many cases but, unfortunately, the existing data published on this topic are very poor and, rather, qualitative ones. So, a study on 10TiMoNiCr175 stainless steel material has been done and the results presented by this paper, mainly considering the wide industrial application of this material in Romanian industry.

Keywords: Mathematical model, regression, drilling, widening, force, torque, stainless steel

Issue 11, Volume 10, November 2011

Title of the Paper:  A Particle Filter and SVM Integration Framework for Fault-Proneness Prediction in Robot Dead Reckoning System


Authors: Lingli Yu, Min Wu, Zixing Cai, Yu Cao

Abstract: This paper proposes an integrated framework for fault prediction in the robot dead reckoning system. The integrated framework is built by particle filter and support vector machine (SVM). On the basis, the weighted fault probability parameters can be extracted to train the prediction model. Different from the traditional particle filter fault prediction model, the proposed framework can overcome difficulties of the empirical threshold setting for decision-making. On the other hand, particle filter can not only estimate the system state values, but also obtain the residual errors that are yielded by comparing with the actual measured values. The average relative error is calculated to reduce its computing complexity in fault prediction process. Furthermore, an improved particle filter combined with support vector machine (PF-SVM) integration framework for fault-proneness prediction was devised in robot dead reckoning system. This framework estimates the particle filter process according to system state values and observed parameters to train SVM model. Finally the simulation experiments demonstrate that the PF-SVM integration framework can increase computing efficiency for fault-proneness prediction, and keep relatively high prediction accuracy at the same time. Besides that, the corresponding time step of malfunction can be precisely predicted.

Keywords: Particle filter, support vector machine, fault prediction, weighted fault probability, integration framework, dead reckoning system

Title of the Paper:  Design and Realization of Short Range Defence Radar Target Tracking System Based on DSP/FPGA


Authors: Pan-Long Wu, Bao-Bao Wang, Cun-Hui Ji

Abstract: This paper presents the hardware design of a real time tracking system based on DSP/FPGA regarding the research and development of a certain type of short range defence radar. In this tracking system, the FPGA is used as a floating point co-processor of the fixed point DSP, and the large amount of calculation of the debiased converted measurement Kalman Filter (DCMKF) algorithm is realized in FPGA. DSP is in charge of the scheduling of the total tracking algorithm and the control of the data stream, which resolves the problem of the concurrency and real time in the realization of the single DSP scheme. The designed tracking system ensures the accuracy of the data processing as well. The experiment results show that the designed scheme meets the requirement of the high precision and real time of the tracking system.

Keywords: Target tracking, DCMKF, Co-processor, FPGA, DSP, Floating point arithmetic, Time division multiplexing

Title of the Paper:  The Mathematical Structure of a Bias-Minimized Assessment Algorithm


Authors: Zhuhan Jiang, Jiansheng Huang

Abstract: We propose an assessor reallocation algorithm that aims to objectively reduce the marking biases of the individual markers based on their earlier marking statistics. The underlying mathematical structure along with a number of pertinent statistical properties and relationships has been analyzed for the model to assure the validity of the proposed methodology. Experiments on simulated data and on the real cases have also been conducted to illustrate the effectiveness on the reduction of the accumulated marking biases over multiple assessment items involving multiple assessors.

Keywords: algorithm, modeling marking biases, mathematical structure, multiple assessments and assessors

Issue 12, Volume 10, December 2011

Title of the Paper:  Modeling, Analysis and Neural MPPT Control Design of a PV-Generator Powered DC Motor-Pump System


Authors: Ahmed M. Kassem

Abstract: This paper presents the optimization of a photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system using maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT). The optimization is suspended to reference optimal power. This optimization technique is developed to assure the optimum chopping ratio of buck-boost converter. The presented MPPT technique is used in photovoltaic water pumping system in order to optimize its efficiency. An adaptive controller with emphasis on Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average (NARMA) based on artificial neural networks approach is applied in order to optimize the duty ratio for PV maximum power at any irradiation level. In this application, an indirect data-based technique is taken, where a model of the plant is identified on the basis of input-output data and then used in the model-based design of a neural network controller. The proposed controller has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. The PV generator DC motor pump system with the proposed controller has been tested through a step change in irradiation level. Simulation results show that accurate MPPT tracking performance of the proposed system has been achieved. Further, the performance of the proposed artificial neural network (ANN) controller is compared with a PID controller through simulation studies. Obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach.

Keywords: photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking, drive systems, artificial neural network controller

Title of the Paper:  Reliability Analysis of a Deteriorating System with Delayed Vacation of Repairman


Authors: Danhong Liu, Genqi Xu, Nikos E. Mastorakis

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss a deteriorating system with one repairman. In this system, it is assumed that the component cannot be repaired ”as good as new” after failures and the repairman takes a delayed vacation, the repair time is taken into account. Under these assumptions, we derive a model of partial differential equations by using the geometric process and supplementary variable technique. We get some reliability indices by the Laplace transform method. The working probability of the repairman, the delayed rate and the rate of occurrence of failures of the steady state of the system are explicitly given. In particular, the rate of occurrence of failures in the steady state satisfies m_f =/ 0.

Keywords: deteriorating system, delayed vacation, Laplace transform, partial differential equation model, reliability

Title of the Paper:  Stability Analysis of BAM Neural Networks with Inertial Term and Time Delay


Authors: Yunquan Ke, Chunfang Miao

Abstract: In this paper, the global exponential stability of BAM neural networks with inertial term and time delay are investigated. By chosen proper variable substitution the system is transformed to first order differential equation. Then some new sufficient conditions, which can ensure the globally exponential stability of the system are obtained by constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, using Halanay inequality and the fundamental solution matrix of coefficient matrix. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

Keywords: BAM neural networks, inertial term, Halanay inequality, Lyapunov functional, exponential stability



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